Although people have worked in agriculture for more than 10,000 years, advance in technology assisted with maintaining and protecting land, crops, and animals. The demand to keep food affordable encourages those working in the agriculture industry to operate as efficiently as possible (Newman & Ruiz, pp. 33-47). Almost all people and companies in the industry have many acres of land they must maintain, and it is not always feasible for farmers to take frequent trips around the property to perform basic tasks such as watering soil in the absence of rain.
The number of people-hours required to water soil manually on several thousand acres of land might result in businesses spending thousands of dollars in labor and utility costs. If the irrigation process is automated, sensors detect how much rain has fallen recently, as well as whether the soil is in need of watering. The sensors then send this data to a computer that processes it and decides when and how much to water. In addition to keeping the soil moist and reducing maintenance costs, computer also can utilize sensor to analyze the condition of crops in the field and determine whether pests or diseases are affecting the crops.
If sensor detects pests and/or diseases, computers send a notification to the appropriate individual to take corrective action. In some cases, according to Brewster, the discovery of pests might trigger a pesticide to discharge in the affected area automatically (Agriculture: Expanding and Growing). Many farmers use technology in a daily basis to regulate soil moisture and to keep their crop pest free. With technology, farming can be much more convenient and efficient. Barton states the many automated home irrigation system also are programmable and use rain sensor (pp. 67-73)
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