Role and Functions of Stock Exchange in India
A PRESENTATION REPORT ON ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF STOCK EXCHANGE INTRODUCTION A stock exchange is a form of exchange which provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. Securities traded on a stock exchange include shares issued by companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds.
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To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, it must be listed there. Usually, there is a central location at least for record keeping, but trade is increasingly less linked to such a physical place, as modern markets are electronic networks, which gives them advantages of increased speed and reduced cost of transactions. Trade on an exchange is by members only. The initial offering of stocks and bonds to investors is by definition done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market.
A stock exchange is often the most important component of a stock market. Supply and demand in stock markets are driven by various factors that, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks (see stock valuation). There is usually no compulsion to issue stock via the stock exchange itself, nor must stock be subsequently traded on the exchange. Such trading is said to be off exchange or over-the-counter. This is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Increasingly, stock exchanges are part of a global market for securities
STOCK EXCHANGE DEFINITION According to Husband and Dockerary “Stock exchanges are privately organized markets which are used to facilitate trading in securities. * According to securities contract ( regulation ) act of 1956 “An association, organization or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, established for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling business in buying, selling and dealing in securities. ” Features of Stock Exchange 1. Market for securities : Stock exchange is a market, where securities of corporate bodies, government and semi-government bodies are bought and sold. . Deals in second hand securities : It deals with shares, debentures bonds and such securities already issued by the companies. In short it deals with existing or second hand securities and hence it is called secondary market. 3. Regulates trade in securities : Stock exchange does not buy or sell any securities on its own account. It merely provides the necessary infrastructure and facilities for trade in securities to its members and brokers who trade in securities. It regulates the trade activities so as to ensure free and fair trade 4.
Allows dealings only in listed securities : In fact, stock exchanges maintain an official list of securities that could be purchased and sold on its floor. Securities which do not figure in the official list of stock exchange are called unlisted securities. Such unlisted securities cannot be traded in the stock exchange. 5. Transactions effected only through members : All the transactions in securities at the stock exchange are effected only through its authorised brokers and members. Outsiders or direct investors are not allowed to enter in the trading circles of the stock exchange.
Investors have to buy or sell the securities at the stock exchange through the authorised brokers only. 6. Association of persons : A stock exchange is an association of persons or body of individuals which may be registered or unregistered. 7. Recognition from Central Government : Stock exchange is an organised market. It requires recognition from the Central Government. 8. Working as per rules : Buying and selling transactions in securities at the stock exchange are governed by the rules and regulations of stock exchange as well as SEBI Guidelines.
No deviation from the rules and guidelines is allowed in any case. 9. Specific location : Stock exchange is a particular market place where authorised brokers come together daily (i. e. on working days) on the floor of market called trading circles and conduct trading activities. The prices of different securities traded are shown on electronic boards. After the working hours market is closed. All the working of stock exchanges is conducted and controlled through computers and electronic system. 10. Financial Barometers : Stock exchanges are the financial barometers and evelopment indicators of national economy of the country. Industrial growth and stability is reflected in the index of stock exchange. EXISTING STRUTURE OF STOCK EXCHANGE IN INDIA STOCK EXCHANGE OTHERS NSE BSE BOMBAY STOCK EXCHANGE The Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest exchange in Asia. It traces its history to the 1850s, when four Gujarati and one Parsi stockbroker would gather under banyan trees in front of Mumbai’s Town Hall. The location of these meetings changed many times, as the number of brokers constantly increased.
The group eventually moved to Dalal Street in 1874 and in 1875 became an official organization known as ‘The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association’. In 1956, the BSE became the first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act. The Bombay Stock Exchange developed the BSE SENSEX in 1986, giving the BSE a means to measure overall performance of the exchange. In 2000 the BSE used this index to open its derivatives market, trading SENSEX futures contracts.
The development of SENSEX options along with equity derivatives followed in 2001 and 2002, expanding the BSE’s trading platform. Historically an open outcry floor trading exchange, the Bombay Stock Exchange switched to an electronic trading system in 1995. It took the exchange only fifty days to make this transition. This automated, screen-based trading platform called BSE On-line trading (BOLT) currently has a capacity of 8 million orders per day. The BSE has also introduced the world’s first centralized exchange-based internet trading system, BSEWEBx. o. in to enable investors anywhere in the world to trade on the BSE platform. The BSE is currently housed in Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers at Dalal Street, Fort area. NATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGE The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is stock exchange located at Mumbai, India. It is in the top 20 largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and largest in India by daily turnover and number of trades, for both equities and derivative trading. NSE has a market capitalization of around US$1 trillion and over 1,652 listings as of July 2012.
Though a number of other exchanges exist, NSE and the Bombay Stock Exchange are the two most significant stock exchanges in India, and between them are responsible for the vast majority of share transactions. The NSE’s key index is the S&P CNX Nifty, known as the NSE NIFTY (National Stock Exchange Fifty), an index of fifty major stocks weighted by market capitalization. NSE is mutually owned by a set of leading financial institutions, banks, insurance companies and other financial intermediaries in India but its ownership and management operate as separate entities.
There are at least 2 foreign investors NYSE Euro next and Goldman Sachs who have taken a stake in the NSE. As of 2006, the NSE VSAT terminals, 2799 in total, cover more than 1500 cities across India. In 2011, NSE was the third largest stock exchange in the world in terms of the number of contracts (1221 million) traded in equity derivatives. It is the second fastest growing stock exchange in the world with a recorded growth of 16. 6%. ROLE OF STOCK EXCHANGE * Effective Mobilisation Of Savings Stock exchanges provide organised market for an individual as well as institutional investors.
They regulate the trading transactions with proper rules and regulations in order to ensure investor’s protection. This helps to consolidate the confidence of investors and small savers. Thus, stock exchanges attract small savings especially of large number of investors in the capital market. * Promoting Capital formation The funds mobilised through capital market are provided to the industries engaged in the production of various goods and services useful for the society. This leads to capital formation and development of national assets. The savings mobilised are channelised into appropriate avenues of investment. Wider Avenues of investment Stock exchanges provide a wider avenue for the investment to the people and organisations with investible surplus. Companies from diverse industries like Information Technology, Steel, Chemicals, Fuels and Petroleum, Cement, Fertilizers, etc. offer various kinds of equity and debt securities to the investors. Online trading facility has brought the stock exchange at the doorsteps of investors through computer network. Diverse type of securities is made available in the stock exchanges to suit the varying objectives and notions of different classes of investor.
Necessary information from stock exchanges available from different sources guides the investors in the effective management of their investment portfolios. * Liquidity of investment Stock exchanges provide liquidity of investment to the investors. Investors can sell out any of their investments in securities at any time during trading days and trading hours on stock exchanges. Thus, stock exchanges provide liquidity of investment. The on-line trading and online settlement of demat securities facilitates the investors to sellout their investments and realise the proceeds within a day or two.
Even investors can switch over their investment from one security to another according to the changing scenario of capital market. * Investment priorities Stock exchanges facilitate the investors to decide his investment priorities by providing him the basket of different kinds of securities of different industries and companies. He can sell stock of one company and buy a stock of another company through stock exchange whenever he wants. He can manage his investment portfolio to maximise his wealth. * Investment safety
Stock exchanges through their by-laws, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) guidelines, transparent procedures try to provide safety to the investment in industrial securities. Government has established the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Over The Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI) for investors’ safety. Exchange authorities try to curb speculative practices and minimise the risk for common investor to preserve his confidence. * Financial resources for public and private sectors Stock Exchanges make available the financial resources available to the industries in public and private sector through various kinds of securities.
Due to the assurance of liquidity, marketing support, investment safety assured through stock exchanges, the public issues of securities by these industries receive strong public response (resulting in oversubscription of issue). * Funds for Development Purpose Stock exchanges enable the government to mobilise the funds for public utilities and public undertakings which take up the developmental activities like power projects, shipping, railways, telecommunication, dams & roads constructions, etc.
Stock exchanges provide liquidity, marketability, price continuity and constant evaluation of government securities. * Indicator of Industrial Development Stock exchanges are the symbolic indicators of industrial development of a nation. Productivity, efficiency, economic-status, prospects of each industry and every unit in an industry is reflected through the price fluctuation of industrial securities on stock exchanges. Stock exchange sensex and price fluctuations of securities of various companies tell the entire story of changes in industrial sector. Barometer of National Economy Stock exchange is taken as a Barometer of the economy of a country. Each economy is economically symbolized (indicators) by its most significant stock exchange. New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange are considered as barometers of U. S. A, United Kingdom, Japan and India respectively. At both national and international level these stock exchanges represent the progress and conditions of their economies. Functions FUNCTIONS OF STOCKEXCHANGE * Continuous and ready market for securities
Stock exchange provides a ready and continuous market for purchase and sale of securities. It provides ready outlet for buying and selling of securities. Stock exchange also acts as an outlet/counter for the sale of listed securities . * Facilitates evaluation of securities Stock exchange is useful for the evaluation of industrial securities. This enables investors to know the true worth of their holdings at any time. Comparison of companies in the same industry is possible through stock exchange quotations (i. e price list). * Encourages capital formation
Stock exchange accelerates the process of capital formation. It creates the habit of saving, investing and risk taking among the investing class and converts their savings into profitable investment. It acts as an instrument of capital formation. In addition, it also acts as a channel for right (safe and profitable) investment. * Provides safety and security in dealings Stock exchange provides safety, security and equity (justice) in dealings as transactions are conducted as per well defined rules and regulations. The managing body of the exchange keeps control on the members.
Fraudulent practices are also checked effectively. Due to various rules and regulations, stock exchange functions as the custodian of funds of genuine investors. * Regulates company management Listed companies have to comply with rules and regulations of concerned stock exchange and work under the vigilance (i. e supervision) of stock exchange authorities. * Facilitates public borrowing Stock exchange serves as a platform for marketing Government securities. It enables government to raise public debt easily and quickly. * Provides clearing house facility
Stock exchange provides a clearing house facility to members. It settles the transactions among the members quickly and with ease. The members have to pay or receive only the net dues (balance amounts) because of the clearing house facility. * Facilitates healthy speculation Healthy speculation, keeps the exchange active. Normal speculation is not dangerous but provides more business to the exchange. However, excessive speculation is undesirable as it is dangerous to investors & the growth of corporate sector. * Serves as Economic Barometer
Stock exchange indicates the state of health of companies and the national economy. It acts as a barometer of the economic situation / conditions. * Facilitates Bank Lending Banks easily know the prices of quoted securities. They offer loans to customers against corporate securities. This gives convenience to the owners of securities. List of Stock Exchanges In India » Bombay Stock Exchange » National Stock Exchange Regional Stock Exchanges » Ahmedabad » Bangalore » Bhubaneshwar » Calcutta » Cochin » Coimbatore » Delhi » Guwahati » Hyderabad » Jaipur » Ludhiana » Madhya Pradesh Madras » Magadh » Mangalore » Meerut » OTC Exchange Of India » Pune » Saurashtra » Kutch » UttarPradesh »Vadodara CONCLUSION Stock exchange is indispensible for the smooth and orderly functioning of corporate sector in a free market economy. A stock exchange need not be treated as a place for speculation or a gambling den. It should act as a place for safe and profitable investable. , for this effective control on the working of stock exchange is necessary. This will avoid misuse of this platform for excessive speculation, scams and other undesirable and anti social activities.
Thus, stock exchange serves the nation in several ways through its diversified economic services which include imparting liquidity to investments, providing marketability, enabling evaluation and ensuring price continuity of securities. Thus we can say that Stock exchange is the mirror of economy REFERENCES * Financial Management – I. M Pandey * Financial Management – Prasanna Chandra * Business studies – B. S Raman * Business studies – P. K Lasar * http://moneycontrol. com * http://investopedia. com * http://wikipedia. com * http://kalyan-city. blogspot. in