Research Methodology

Last Updated: 13 Oct 2022
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Master of Business Administration - Semester 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology - 4 Credits ASSIGNMENT- Set 1 Q1. Define Research. What are the features and types of Research? Ans:-- Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Features 1. It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. 2.

It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. 3. It adopts scientific method. 4. It is objective and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. 5. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. 6. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. 7. It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. 8. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism.

Types of Research - Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: A. Pure Research - It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e. g. , Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness.

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It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. B. Applied Research - It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and ctiondirected. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e. g. , marketing research carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. C.

Exploratory Research - It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study.

Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables. ” D. Descriptive Study - It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study.

It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. E. Diagnostic Study - It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about.

It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. F. Evaluation Studies - It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the ffectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time. G. Action Research - It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation.

It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and post experimental evaluation. Q2. How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Ans:-- The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria, which may be grouped into: A. Internal Source 1.

Researcher’s interest:- The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. Without interest and curiosity, he may not develop sustained perseverance. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher’s educational background, experience, outlook and sensitivity. Researcher’s competence:- A mere interest in a problem will not do. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. e must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter, relevant methodology and statistical procedures. 3. Researcher’s own resource:- In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won, consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. If it is beyond his means, he will not be able to complete the work, unless he gets some external financial support. Time resource is more important than finance. Research is a time-consuming process; hence it should be properly utilized. 2. B. External Source – 1. Research-ability of the problem:- The problem should be researchable, i. e. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. 2. Importance and urgency:-Problems requiring investigation are unlimited, but available research efforts are very much limited. Therefore, in selecting problems for research, their relative importance and significance should be considered. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. 3. Novelty of the problem:- The problem must have novelty.

There is no use of wasting one’s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. This does not mean that replication is always needless. In social sciences in some cases, it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. 4. Feasibility:-A problem may be a new one and also important, but if research on it is not feasible, it cannot be selected. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration 5. Facilities:- Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility, suitable and competent guidance, data analysis facility, etc.

Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. 6. Usefulness and social relevance:-Above all, the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. It should be socially relevant. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. 7. Research personnel:- Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers.

But in India and other developing countries, research has not yet become a prospective profession. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are: Review of literature • Academic experience • Daily experience • Exposure to field situations • Consultations • Brain storming • Research • Intuition Q3. What are the types of Observations?

What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? Ans:-- Observations may be classified in different ways. With reference to investigator’s role, it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) nonparticipant observation. In terms of mode of observation, it may be classified into (c) direct observation. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled observation Participant Observation - In this observation, the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant.

For example, a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose. Then only their behaviour will be ‘natural’. The concealment of research objective and researcher’s identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group’s culture which are not revealed to outsiders. Advantages: -The advantages of participant observation are: 1. The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group, and get a deeper insight of their experiences. . The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behaviour and heard statements. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits. 1. The participant observer narrows his range of observation. For example, if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study, he comes to occupy one position within in, and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. 2. To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally, the objectivity is lost. 3. Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer.

Recording can interfere with participation, and participation can interfere with observation. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording Non-participant observations -In this method, the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. Naturally, there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. Direct observation -This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place.

This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. He is also free to shift places, change the focus of the observation. A limitation of this method is that the observer’s perception circuit may not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly, resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. Indirect observation -This does not involve the physical presence of the observer, and the recording is done by mechanical, photographic or electronic devices, e. g. ecording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. This method is less flexible than direct observations, but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. Controlled observation - This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations.

Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what, how and when to observe. Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. It is primary used for descriptive research. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. :-life style, customs, and manner, interpersonal relations, group dynamics, crowd ehaviour, leadership styles, managerial style, other behaviours and actions; (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds, animals etc. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores, factories, residences etc. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. Q4. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? Ans:-- The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are interrelated.

Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. The plan is the overall scheme or program of research.

A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting observations. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. ” The different types of Research Designs are:-There are a number of crucial research choices, various writers advance different classification schemes, some of which are: 1.

Experimental, historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). Exploratory, descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch and Cook). Experimental, and expost fact (Kerlinger) Historical method, and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) Sample surveys, field studies, experiments in field settings, and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 6. Exploratory, descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. Exploratory, descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. Experimental, „quasi-experimental designs? (Nachmias and Nachmias) 9.

True experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). 10. Experimental, pre-experimental, quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). These different categorizations exist, because „research design? is a complex concept. In fact, there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. They are: a. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) b. The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) c. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey, laboratory experiment) d.

The time dimension(one-time or longitudinal) e. The mode of data collection (observational or survey) f. The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) g. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) 2. 3. 4. 5. Q5. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling. Ans:-- Decision process of sampling is complicated one. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1.

Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population, then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. 2. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. Probability samples only allow such computation.

Hence, where the research objective requires statistical inference, the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method, depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. 3. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise, or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired, probability sampling should be used. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. g. marketing surveys, readership surveys etc) any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. 4. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available, it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study, appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. 5.

The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied, is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population, even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. If the population is heterogeneous, stratified random sampling is appropriate. 6. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large, multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. But if the area and the size of the population are small, single stage probability sampling methods could be used. . Financial resources: If the available finance is limited, it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. However, if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget, there is no alternative than to give up the proposed survey. Where the finance is not a constraint, a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. 8.

Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. Then, as a compromise, it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size; multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements. Of course, the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. 9. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost.

A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low. The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. That is, it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types: • Probability or Random Sampling

Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is also known as random sampling. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. It is used when generalization is the objective of study, and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs. The following are the types of probability sampling: I. Simple Random Sampling: This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected.

An equal chance means equal probability of selection. An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population. a. Preparation of a List of all elements, giving them numbers in serial order 1, 2, B, and so on, and b. Drawing sample numbers by using (i) lottery method, (ii) a table of random numbers or (iii) a computer.

Suitability: This type of sampling is suited for a small homogeneous population. Advantages: The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods, all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected, simple to understand, does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. Disadvantages: It is often impractical because of non-availability of population list or of difficulty in enumerating the population, does not ensure proportionate representation and it may be expensive in time and money.

The amount of sampling error associated with any sample drawn can easily be computed. But it is greater than that in other probability samples of the same size, because it is less precise than other methods. II. Stratified Random Sampling: This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. In this method, the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata, and from each stratum, random sample is drawn. E. g. , university students may be divided on the basis of discipline, and each discipline group may again be divided into juniors and seniors.

Stratification is necessary for increasing a sample’s statistical efficiency, providing adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying different methods to different strata. The stratified random sampling is appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. Stratification process involves three major decisions. They are stratification base or bases, number of strata and strata sample sizes. Stratified random sampling may be classified into: a) Proportionate stratified sampling: This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population.

It gives proper representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally higher. This method is therefore very popular. E. g. , if the Management Faculty of a University consists of the following specialization groups: Specialization stream No. of students Proportion of each stream Production Finance Marketing Rural development 40 20 30 10 100 0. 4 0. 2 0. 3 0. 1 1. 0 The research wants to draw an overall sample of 30. Then the strata sample sizes would be: Strata Production Finance Marketing Rural development Sample size x 0. 4 12 x 0. 2 6 x 0. 3 9 x 0. 3 30 Advantages: Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample, gives higher statistical efficiency, easy to carry out, and gives a self-weighing sample. Disadvantages: A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the distribution of the population, it is very expensive in time and money and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors. b) Disproportionate stratified random sampling: This method does not give proportionate representation to strata. It necessarily involves giving overrepresentation to some strata and under-representation to others.

The desirability of disproportionate sampling is usually determined by three factors, viz, (a) the sizes of strata, (b) internal variances among strata, and (c) sampling costs. Suitability: This method is used when the population contains some small but important subgroups, when certain groups are quite heterogeneous, while others are homogeneous and when it is expected that there will be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in the population. Advantages: The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates giving appropriate weighing to particular groups which are small but more important.

Disadvantages: The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate representation, requires prior knowledge of composition of the population, is subject to classification errors and its practical feasibility is doubtful. iii) Systematic Random Sampling: This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection. It consists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k. It is also known as fixed interval method. E. g. , 1st, 11th, 21st ……… Strictly speaking, this method of sampling is not a probability sampling. It possesses characteristics of randomness and some non-probability traits.

Suitability: Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as students in a class, houses in a street, telephone directory etc. 30 30 30 30 Advantages: The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling, easy to use, easy to instruct, requires less time, it’s cheaper, easier to check, sample is spread evenly over the population, and it is statistically more efficient. Disadvantages: The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth elements selected, each element does not have equal chance of being selected, and this method sometimes gives a biased sample.

Cluster Sampling It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements. Then from each selected sampling unit, a sample of population elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified random selection. Where the elements is not readily available, the use of simple or stratified random sampling method would be too expensive and time-consuming. In such cases cluster sampling is usually adopted. The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters, examine the nature of clusters, and determine the number of stages.

Suitability: The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management surveys, socio-economic surveys, rural credit surveys, demographic studies, ecological studies, public opinion polls, and large scale surveys of political and social behaviour, attitude surveys and so on. Advantages: The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient, cost of this is much less, promotes the convenience of field work as it could be done in compact places, it does not require more time, units of study can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible.

Disadvantages: The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of the resulting sample. The sampling error in this method of sampling is greater and the adjacent units of study tend to have more similar characteristics than do units distantly apart. • Area sampling This is an important form of cluster sampling. In larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts, talluks, villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. As the geographical areas are selected as sampling units in such cases, their sampling is called area sampling.

It is not a separate method of sampling, but forms part of cluster sampling. • Multi-stage and sub-sampling In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn.

The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. It is appropriate where the populatiosurvey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. In a multi-stage sampling, the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. Subsampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. . , cost and sampling errors. • Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely used. If one primary cluster has twice as large a population as another, it is give twice the chance of being selected. If the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected clusters, the overall probability of any person will be the same. Thus PPS is a better method for securing a representative sample of population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling.

Advantages: The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate representation, PPS leads to greater precision than would a simple random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction at the second stage, equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster are convenient for field work. Disadvantages: PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are not known. • Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection.

When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection, it is then, called multiphase sampling. This is also known as sequential sampling, as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. Instead, information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified, single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. It is practical. The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors.

But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. • Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity, convenience and low cost. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. The selection probability is unknown.

It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-availability of a list of population, when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population, when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large, when probability sampling required more time, but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. It may be classified into: • Convenience or Accidental Sampling It means selecting sample units in a just ‘hit and miss’ fashion E. . , interviewing people whom we happen to meet. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available, e. g. , a teacher may select students in his class. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample. Suitability: Though this type of sampling has no status, it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest.

Advantage: It is the cheapest and simplest, it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher’s subjectivity, it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized. • Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some predetermined criteria. This is also known as judgment sampling. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study.

It is based on the judgement of the researcher or some expert. It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher. Suitability: This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population. Advantage: It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample.

Disadvantage: It is less efficient for generalizing, does not ensure the representativeness, requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. • Quota sampling This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex, age, social class, etc. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness.

Suitability: It is used in studies like marketing surveys, opinion polls, and readership surveys which do not aim at precision, but to get quickly some crude results. Advantage: It is less costly, takes less time, non need for a list of population, and field work can easily be organized. Disadvantage: It is impossible to estimate sampling error, strict control if field work is difficult, and subject to a higher degree of classification. • Snow-ball sampling This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants.

This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies. Suitability: It is very useful in studying social groups, informal groups in a formal organization, and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. Advantage: It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. It is difficult to apply when the population is large. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list. Q6. What is a Research Report?

What are the contents of Research Report? Ans:-- Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results. It narrates the problem studied, methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study. Contents of the Research Report The outline of a research report is given below: I. Prefatory Items • • • • • • • Title page Declaration Certificates Preface/acknowledgements Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/charts • Abstract or synopsis II.

Body of the Report • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • III. • Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary, conclusions and recommendations Reference Material Bibliography • • • • Appendix Copies of data collection instruments Technical details on sampling plan Complex tables Glossary of new terms used.

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