Research Methodology on Hospitality and Tourism
The main purpose of the research is to evaluate or create exiting understanding, review and investigate existing situation or problems, find out the appropriate solutions to the problems as well explain new idea and generate scope of further research.Research on the issues on tourism sector is to focus on problems of the specified sector and find out appropriate solution of research.
Tourism is now a global industry connecting hundred millions of people worldwide; which been recognised as a fastest rising sectors.These industries make it as a key column of economic development of any destination country.
World travel and tourism council (WTTC) find out by their latest research in 2011 that from Travel & Tourism industry’s direct input to global GDP growing by 3.3%, to US$1,770 billion at the year 2010.
Running 2011, this upgrading is forecast to reinforce extra– by 4.5% to US$1,850 billion; where 3 million industry jobs will be created. As per research forecast by WTTC based on Bangladesh; where shows countries GDP is expected to be BDT184.4bn (2.3% of total GDP) in 2011, increasing 6.3% pa to BDT339.2bn (2.3%) in 2021 from the direct contribution of Travel &Tourism .
Royal Danish Embassy (2008) explain Bangladesh as a tourist destination of South Asian region, where the smallest number of tourist arrivals and most minuscule income earned from its travel and tourism sector. As well they identified tourism is one of the rapidly growing for Bangladesh, which can make significant contributions on its economy.
Bangladesh has some significant tourist attraction such as world largest unbroken sea beach Cox’s Bazar, leading world 7 wonder nominated mangrove forest Sundarban etc; but its fails to attract world tourist due to inadequate promotional actions which can bring brand country image on tourism.
(Hossain &Nazmin, 2006) explain that, Bangladesh holding enormous recourses to attract international tourists with affluent traditions, sunny beaches, archaeological attractions, cultural heritages, hills, mangrove forest, wild lives, tribal culture and architecture, colourful festivals etc.
The international media most often focused on countries ongoing political instability, which made huge negative country image as a tourist destination. Instead of political valances Bangladesh has incredible prospects on its tourism sector.
Due to political incidents tourism industry is seriously hampered. Master plan on future tourism in Bangladesh are not maintaining strictly. When the countries tourism got tourism friendly steady environment; the sector flourishes and at the same time increase arrivals.
There are major problems on tourism in Bangladesh and huge opportunities to ensure continued tourism. In this research, I am going to examine how tourism of Bangladesh will thrive in spite of identified problems.
Importance of the Research Topic:
Many countries in the world are dependents on tourism sector for earning of foreign currency. Where, every destination is trying to establish their country image to get more gain by rising tourism sector; Bangladesh is very slow to reach this goal.
In this research, we are going to examine the problems and significant prospects of tourism sector in Bangladesh. As a citizen of the said country; It is an opportunity for me to find out the key barriers of the development of tourism in Bangladesh. It is very important for my country to identify the reasons for downturn of our tourism sector; where neighbor countries tourism growth is highly appreciable.
(Akther , 2001) explain that, Bangladesh is beautiful and wealthy by its own natural attractiveness. Unluckily, the country are not steady to provide tourist friendly atmosphere. Lack of effectual initiatives, appropriate management plan; where countries political volatility is the main key barriers.
Bangladesh has incredible prospects on its tourism sector to make a positive destination image in international tourism. But, at present scenario of tourism in Bangladesh is facing a lot of major problems; where political unrest is the vital issue to make its poor image in international tourism. Lack of socio-political commitments the country still suffering after four decades of independences. Bangladesh has awesome tourism attractions to establish a branding country image in the international tourism industry; regrettably, countries political unrest badly affects its growth on tourism.
Unpleasant security and political disturbances within Bangladesh decrease both domestic and international tourists to explore the country. World tourists are feared to make their visit to a destination with political anxiety. Matter of regret that, even local tourist does not feel free to explore Bangladesh due to political uncertainty; where they found it much safe and secured to make an outbound trip to travel.
The prospects of tourism in Bangladesh are gravely troubled by a number of problems. In this study we are mostly focus on the key barriers of tourism sector in Bangladesh and examine which is the significant way to recover its beauty.
Here, the research findings will drastically expand the range of information on the topic of research and it would be the supplementary literature with the breathing academic literature. The finding of the research would be supportive to any of researcher to consider the more areas; which is not covered in this research.
‘’Tourism: A Community Approach’’; A publications by Murphy’s (1985) which directly focused the basic requirements for the destinations communities to make a bridge between the development of tourism relating to local demands. Afterward many studies developed on the diverse associations amid tourism destinations and its communities (Richards & Hall-2000).
Tourism can be seen financially viable action which produces a variety of positive as well negative impacts. This is identified by his earlier study on tourism Swarbrooke (1999). In order to develop a sustainable plan on tourism and its socio-economic, environmental as well socio-cultural aspects of tourism should be well tacit. The well planed balance among financial profit and social and ecological expenditure; these are key factor of sustainable tourism development.
The development of tourism depended on first-rate sustainable atmosphere. The future trends of tourism marketing should be emphasised on ecological reliability of socio-economic structure, natural resources and cultural heritages. Sustainable tourism will make a huge financial input to the destination and world economy Hassan (2000).
Sustainability is one of the vital concepts of tourism development. Richards & Hall (2000) identify the significance relations between the destinations community and sustainability.Local communities are the crucial motivation for tourists to travel by experiencing the different thought of life.
The development of tourist destinations widely depends on its social responsibilities, political stability and well planned tourism future goal. These things can bring huge socio-cultural reimbursement; upgrade living standards of communities and economic growth come from its superb tourism distribution. An alternative promising approach to avert those expansions is to encourage and spend in sustainable tourism. This is a concept of tourism that can defend socio-cultural and environment of tourist destination; which is called eco-tourism, Shaw & Williams (2004).
Safety and security reasons have changed the world travel & tourism environment. The terrorist attack at September 11, 2001 in USA makes devastating impacts on world tourism industry. Now days the management of destinations closely think and should make their future tourism plan including such solemn issues destination recovery, risk and crisis management.
As per crisis guideline of WTO for the tourism industry aware the tourist destinations that be organized before the emergency, minimise smash up during the disaster and recovering destination image and traveller confidence after the crisis. (WTO, 2003a)
The development of tourism industries depends on destinations calm tourist friendly environment. Beirman (2003) identified a few core reasons that makes destination crisis. 1. Countries long-standing internal political violence. 2. International war or clash. 3. Terrorist attack on tourist and destinations. 4. Major criminal act. 5. Natural disasters such as Strom or Volcano, Flood, Earthwork. 6. Health issues affecting tourist attractions
Lepp and Gibson (2003) find out four key risk factor is seriously harmful for the destination tourism growth. These are Political violence, crime, health concerns and terrorism. International Society of Hospitality Consultants (ISHC) identified global issues and challenges where upward worldwide uncertainty for safety and security got priority.
Tourism industry of any countries would be suffered due to crisis and especially political instability. Tourist never wants to travel certain place where several crisis going on. Country loosing economic growth from tourism as well creates a time long negative impact as a tourist destination. Ankomah and Crompton (1990) state that, any crisis or domestic turmoil makes the country as an unsafe tourist destination where the tourist not to visit that country.
While constraints on tourist movement the politics plays a vital role in the world tourism industry. Destinations positive political stability makes encouraging and involving nations. Political turmoil makes the destination unsafe and as a result imposing travel limits by others nations in that country.
The unintentional expansion of tourism’s has spoilt many of tourist destinations normal nature and socio cultural environment. Unwanted side-effects have lead to the rising alarm for the natural wealth, human interests and extended time economic feasibility of the destinations communities (Akis- Peristianis and Warner, 1996).
Bangladesh is a beautiful tourist destination and it holding potential prospects on tourism sector. The country has significant attraction to catch the attention of world tourism. But in term of world tourism the present condition of this country is not enough for tourism distributions; where the political violence’s is the core issue which seriously affects its tourism Islam and Islam (2006).
Pearson (2002) noted that without well planned risk or crisis management any tourist destination institute cannot escape from crisis. Organisation should take serious effort for its risk management. The way for the tourist destination to decrease crisis smash up to make effective preparation. Country should be taken towering concern for each business concerned in tourism industry.
Bangladesh has got the top ten ranked as the Best Value Destination in the world for 2011by world’s leading travel guidebooks’’ Lonely Planet’’; which is owned by BBC worldwide. Lonely Planet mentioned that if any world tourists choose Bangladesh will be rewarded most and get the maximum “value for his money”.
In the literature review, the distinguish authors has been well descried that the crisis or problems, how it affects countries tourism industry. Where, the following variables are extremely essential to improve tourism sector of the destinations: Safety and security, political instability, branding destination image and way of sustainable tourism.
In this section, we will talk about the methods, which will be used for this study. Research issues such as research design, sample, population, procedure of sampling, questionnaires and numerical examination are presented.
Research is an essential part of academics, “research is the systematic study of materials and sources etc. in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions” (Oxford Concise Dictionary). The process by which a research is written or carried out is very important because it has a huge impact on the conclusions reached at the end of the research. There are two major research philosophies which underpin the research strategy and the method that will be used to carry out a research (Collis and Hussey, 2009). They are the positivism and interpretive research paradigm.
Positivism involves “working with an observable social reality and that the end product of such research can be law-like generalisations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientists”, the assumption is that “the researcher is independent of and neither affects nor is affected by the subject of the research” (Remeneyi et al, 1998:32). Interpretive is “a philosophical position which is concerned with understanding the way we as humans make sense of the world around us, the underlying assumption is that by placing people in their social context, there is greater opportunity to understand the perceptions they have of their own activities” (Hussey and Hussey, 1997).
In general, the methodology of research and term of research design are seems to signify the equal thing, but actually they are not same. Research design is “a plan or a blue print of how a researcher intends to conduct a study”. The actual significance of research design is to direct the way of data collection procedure and examine the data in order to response for recognized research problem(s); but, the research methodology is to illustrates how something would be done. Research methods are two forms quantitative and qualitative method. Use of countable data is Quantitative. On the other hand, use of non-countable data is qualitative.
In this research, we are using the combination of quantitative and qualitative data methods. Appropriate data collection for this research would be using a questionnaire which well structured open – ended questions. Data related to the previous exiting literature review of the research area were gathered from different secondary sources. Furthermore, Ghauri & Gronhaug (2005: p109) mention that, a quantitative research is more scientific than a qualitative research.
Below, the chart step shows the process of research.
Sampling methods and Size:
It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study.
Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and the researcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability.
The significance of sample is ’’ A portion, piece, or segment of population that is representative of a whole”. For the quantitative research it is highly essential representative sample; where reflects the population completely so that conclusion can be done.
To envoy the whole population sample should be big enough. A small size of will be enough to represent a homogenous population; but, representation of a heterogeneous population requiredlarge sample size. On the basis of population types we need to be more cautious to selecting the sample size.
The process of data collection is to collecting appropriate data about the research from particular population. There are various way of data collections method such as interviews, questionnaires, group interviews or conference and observation. Each of the individual’s methods has its own and sole features; some advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of questionnaire method is cost effectual, simple association and straightforward analysis predominantly in a quantitative research.
The objective of the qualitative research is to gain qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations of the issue in hand. The procedures of qualitative research are classified either as direct or indirect, based on whether the true purpose of the research is known to the respondents.
A direct approach is not disguised. The purpose of the project is disclosed to the respondents or is otherwise obvious to them from the questions asked. Focus groups and in-depth interviews are the main direct techniques. An indirect approach disguises the true purpose of the research. Projective techniques, the commonly used indirect techniques, consist of association, completion, construction and expressive techniques.
The quantitative primary data in descriptive research. Both these methods require some procedure for standardizing the data collection process so that the data obtained are internally consistent and can be analysed in a uniform and coherent manner. A standard questionnaire or form will ensure comparability of the data, increase speed and accuracy of recording and facilitate data processing. A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. Any questionnaire has three specific objectives. (1) Developing questions that respondents can and will answer and that will yield the desired information is difficult. This objective is challenging. (2) A questionnaire must uplift, motivate and encourage the respondent to become more involved, to co-operate, and to complete the questionnaire. In designing the questionnaire, the researcher should strive to minimise respondent fatigue, boredom and effort to minimise incompleteness and non-response. (3) A questionnaire should minimise response error. Response error is defined as the error that arises when respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are misreported or misanalyses.
Struwig & Stead (2001: p 89) stated that questions putted in questionnaires principally come through a review of literature on the area under discussion. On the other hand, Ghauri & Gronhaug (2005: p127) suggest that the questions and question design could be depends on researcher and that would be simplify for analysis purpose; such as open or closed ended, multiple choice, grading system or Likert scale format etc.
Questionnaire Design Process:
Step 01: Specify the information needed; once the research problem is well defined and the objectives of the research are well set, the information needed to serve reaching the objectives have to be specified. A clear idea of the target population is also essential, since, more diversified the respondent group; the more difficult is to design a single questionnaire appropriate for entire group.
Step 02: Specify the type of interviewing method; how the questionnaire is going to be administered influences the questionnaire design. If the respondents see the questionnaire and interact face to face with the interviewer, then lengthy, complex and varied questions can be asked. In telephone interview, the questions have to he short and simple. If the questionnaires are mailed to the respondents, the questions must be simple and detailed instructions must be provided.
Step 03: Determine the content of individual questions; Questionnaire should contribute to the information needed. If there is no satisfactory use for the data resulting from a question, that question should be eliminated. Once the researcher decides that a question is necessary, he or she must decide whether this question alone could fetch the required information or double barrelled questions are required to achieve the needed information.
The research should be well organized to find out the appropriate data. In this research we have chosen the issues to tourist destinations tourism problems and prospects. Bangladesh tourism development and its barriers of the growth on tourism are our topics. On this study we will attempt to answer the following questions:
1.What are the major and key impacts of tourism in Bangladesh?
2. Which reasons behind the recognized problems?
3. To explore how tourism will thrive in spite of identified crisis.
Main objectives of the research:
Before doing a research it is highly masseur the excepted outcomes or objective of the research.The aim and objectives of the study are given below:
To examine the barriers of tourism growth in Bangladesh.
To investigate the possible ways of improvement of identified problems.
To find out the future development trends in Bangladesh tourism
The main objective of data analysis is to facts, identify patterns, build up explanations and test hypothesis. Various methods can be using for data analysis such as content analysis, thematic analysis, theoretical sampling, grounded theory etc. The aim of data analysis is to emphasize crucial information and advocate conclusions which help in result making processes.
Data analysis is a process that aims to describe facts, identify patterns, develop explanations and test hypothesis. All of these help to highlight vital information and recommend conclusions which help in decision making processes. Data can be analysed using various methods such as content analysis, theoretical sampling, thematic analysis, grounded theory etc. Bernard (1952) defined content analysis as “a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of manifest content of communications”. Thematic analysis is an approach to dealing with data that involves the creation and application of ‘codes’ to data, there is a link between this method and the grounded theory method. Grounded theory was discovered by Glaser and Strauss (1967) as a method of analyzing data, it is a systematic analysis of data that aims to develop a higher level of understanding or generate theories regarding a social phenomenon.
University students are expected to refer to the work of other authors to support the ideas. We need to mention whose work are using by citing it in the text of your assignment and also in a list at the end of your assignment.
References must be provided whenever someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, web sites, images, computers and any other sources. Harvard referencing style is now the most popular and standard for use in the University research. Reading lists in course handbooks should follow this style of referencing.
The Harvard system has increased in popularity over the years and has the advantage of being flexible, clear and easy to use without the need for footnotes and chapter references as used in other systems.
The importance of the referencing system is to acknowledge the work of other authors/writers. To exhibit the body of knowledge on which you have based your work and enable other readers to trace your sources and lead them on to further information.
During my research works, I need many references and it is essential that to record as much detail as possible and be sure the information is exact. This will save you time later when re-tracing references or when you need to incorporate a reference into the bibliography. Proper referencing will enable the reader to do their further study on different related issues.
This research study will draw attention to the core problems and investigate key reasons for downwards trends of tourism industry in Bangladesh. In spite of the recognized problems how tourism will flourish towards its development. In the literature review we have got a clear scenario of the problems of tourism sector in Bangladesh as well we focused a few noteworthy attractions prospects to utilize and develop the future trends of tourism. In this case work, we find how the political influences effect the destination tourism growths. Without calm and tourist friendly environment none of the tourist destination in the world can expand their tourism sectors. We can take learning from a few Asian tourists destinations that are enormously affected by their internal political chaos and how it destroyed their tourism prospects and as well how the destination recovered their destination image in the international tourism. The government of Bangladesh should take necessary initiative; where collaborations with the opposition political parties are highly required. To make an sustainable master plan to develop tourism sector of Bangladesh; where political stability is the main and key tools of its success. Bangladesh has holding a huge international attraction as well prospects on its tourism sector to contribute countries economy.
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