Practice HSC Questions – Community and Family Studies
Examine the influence that socio-economic status can have on the parenting and caring relationship. (6 marks) An individual’s socio-economic status is influenced by the income they receive, the occupation of the person and the area in which they live. These influences affect the way people carry out their parenting and caring tasks, thus determining the quality of the relationship. Parents and carers with higher incomes may be more indulgent with toys, gifts and holidays, which can create a close relationship with their dependent as they feel valued and appreciated.
On the other hand, this could also indicate that they may not necessarily have a close bond, as their high income could require them to spend a lot of time away from their family and at work. Alternatively, a family with a low socio-economic status may invest in cheaper activities such as camping or fishing which can allow them to spend more time together and develop a closer relationship. Although, a lower income and education can hinder the quality of care provided to a dependent as the carer may not be able to afford the medication and services required, or have the skills to meet the needs of the dependent.
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Describe an ethical issue that needs to be considered when conducting research. (2 marks) Ethics are a set of principles determining what is good or bad. When conducting research it is important to consider the privacy and feelings of all involved. Researchers have to ensure the information remains confidential and that if preferred the people involved remain anonymous. Before carrying out primary research, or using equipment such as video recorders it is crucial that the researcher has got written or verbal permission.
The data and opinions collected should not be provided to anyone else, until the final product and lastly, all information should be stored securely and shredded before disposal. Explain the unique challenges that adopted children and their social parents may experience. (4 marks) Adoption is the process by which the legal responsibility of parenting of a child is given to someone who is not the biological parent. Therefore, the child and social parent may look different. This can present many challenges itself, as society will be aware of the difference in appearance which may influence the child to question heir differences. In this same sense, it can negatively impact on the parents and child’s self-esteem. The significant problem that social parents may face is the question of ‘how and when’ do they tell the child that they are adopted. Adoptive parents may have concerns of the child wanted to find their biological parents or that they will feel betrayed. Describe the difficulties experienced by the disabled in meeting the following needs: •housing •sense of identity. (6 marks) The disabled have a physical or intellectual disadvantage opposed to those who are not disabled.
A disability is a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in a way which is considered as ‘normal’. The degree and type of disability will determine the housing needs of a disabled person. Housing modifications, such as the installation of handrails and ramps or relocation may be necessary for the individual to maintain independence. Although, many disabled people are socio-economically disadvantaged and cannot afford appropriate housing that is nearby services or the funds to make their house safe and secure.
Therefore, many live with family or in group homes that can be accessed through the Department of Housing; although this decreases their independence and negatively impacts on their sense of identity. The factors that contribute to the difficulties of meeting housing needs, also relate to establishing a sense of identity. A person’s sense of identity comes from involvement in work, family life and activities. Some people with a disability need full-time care and have little sense of identity because they are interdependent and are unable to contribute to the larger community.
A person who has become disabled as an adult might find it difficult to establish a renewed sense of identity, opposed to a person who has been disabled their whole life. The larger society can have a perception of disabled people being incapable and don’t give them the opportunity to participate in activities. But, often the disabled gain a strong sense of identity thyough their involvement in charity and fundraising activities that benefit the group. Compare the housing needs of the aged with the housing needs of the socio-economically disadvantaged. 6 marks) The aged are those who have lived for 65 years or longer, they are often retired, have a contracting family and experience deteriorating health. Therefore, they need safe and secure housing that accommodates for their declining health and mobility (no steep stairs, low maintenance backyard). They may need to make modifications (install handrails, shower seats, non-slip bath mats) to their homes or require assistance from community nurses to complete duties around the house. As the aged generally rely on the pension and superannuation, it is important that the housing is affordable.
The aged may need to relocate to a smaller home or retirement village if they cannot independently meet their physical and emotional wellbeing. Socio-economically disadvantaged people are associated with low income and high unemployment. Similarly, to the aged they need cheap, safe housing (although they are less concerned with safety facilities such as handrails). They generally need rental housing, as they cannot afford to purchase a home, and may need support from the Department of Housing to locate low-cost housing. Explain how the age of dependents affects a parent’s management of resources. 6 marks) The age and maturity of the dependent will determine the level of care required. The age of a dependent, will therefore determine how much time, energy and finance will be required to care for them. For instance, a parent with a young child has to allocate time and energy for feeding, bathing and changing nappies. Alternatively, a parent of older children will have to provide the funds and time to take children to leisure and sporting activities. The age of a dependent will influence which resource is more greatly required, consequently affecting how the parent manages those resources to make them priorities.
For example, a mother with a newborn baby will have to take maternity leave to regain the energy lost in pregnancy and childbirth, and use the time to develop a close bond with the child. In this example, time and energy are the most important resources. Often parents with younger children and those who are facing economic problems will have a strict routine and budget to ensure that time, energy and money are all used effectively; as a young child can be very tiring and require routines.
Older children (adolescents) often take up less energy, but potentially more time and money. Parent’s may focus on earning more money to manage their funds effectively and afford the child’s expenses. Outline the role of support services in assisting foster parents. (4 marks) Foster carers are authorised volunteers who provide alternate living arrangements for children whose parents are temporarily unable to care for them. Support services can provide foster parents with the funding, skills and resources to meet the needs of the child and protect their own wellbeing.
The NSW Department of Community Services (DoCS) provides foster parents with ongoing advice and assistance to care for the dependent. DoCS initially ensures that people meet the requirements and would be suitable foster carers, and once a foster child is involved they provide the foster parent with funding. This funding covers the cost of necessities such as food, schooling essential and clothing whilst the child is in foster care. Explain the effects on family members when a parent changes employment. 6 marks) People change their employment for many reasons, including retrenchment, promotion, injury or a different working location. A change in employment can alter a parent’s income, working hours, travelling time and energy levels; which will ultimately affect all family members. Parents may have to adjust routines in order to meet their new demands, this could include making dinner later because they are required to work back later. Children may also have to take on additional responsibilities for the parent’s to cope with the change.
For instance, the eldest sibling might have to watch their younger siblings after school before their parents return home from work, or may have to give up leisure and sporting activities as the parent’s working hours may not accommodate for it. The other parent may be required to take on more roles too, such as cooking dinner or taking children to and from activities on certain days. Identify ONE workplace entitlement, and explain how it empowers employees. (4 marks) Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO) ensures that all individuals have equal access to employment.
EEO employers follow anti-discrimination laws and promote equality within the workforce. EEO empowers employees to try to advance within their career and have expectations of respect and equality within their place of employment. EEO attempts to allow all people regardless of gender, sexual preference, age, marital status, culture or religion to achieve the same or similar employment outcomes if they have the right skills and attributes necessary. It gives employees the right to report their employer if they feel as though they have been disadvantaged, treated unfairly or basically discriminated against.