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Multiculturalism the problem today

In turn toing the essay inquiry Is Multiculturalism the job now ; I will be reasoning that it is a job now by giving sensible and valid justifications. I will be besides examine the single constructs and definitions of multiculturalism every bit good as touching somewhat on urban civilization, and show how these constructs are represented in today ‘s society with negatively.

Harmonizing to Giddens ( 2001 ) civilization is defined as “the values, ceremonials and ways of life feature of a given group” .

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These values and norms can change and are slightly dependent on societal and cultural influences experienced by a peculiar group. One such peculiar group or civilization I will be looking at are Muslims and the decisions that Tariq Modood drew when measuring the after mat of the bombardments of 7/7.

Other such groups or influences can in bend create the outgrowth of farther subcultures within mainstream civilization that can be identified and segmented by elements such as ethnicity, gender and faith, and in bend become subcultures which is defined as “meaning systems, manners of look or life styles developed by groups in low-level structural places in response to dominant significance systems, and which reflect their effort to work out structural contradictions originating from the wider social context” ( Brake: 1985: p8 ) .

Subcultures harmonizing to Blake ( 1985 ) are different from one another because they each consist of three typical basicss they are

“Image – visual aspect composed of costume, accoutrements such as hair – manner, jewelry and artifacts. Demeanour – made up of look, pace and position, for illustration what they were and how they wear it. Argot – a particular vocabulary and how it is delivered to work out structural contradictions originating from the wider social context” . ( Brake: 1985: p8 ) .

Most theorist including Thornton ( 1995 ) have the same decision when specifying subcultures ;

“Subcultural political orientations are a agencies by which youth imagine their ain and other societal groups assert their typical character and affirm that they are non anon. members of an uniform mass” . ( Thornton: 1995: p185 ) .

When looking at subculture, Hebdige ( 1979 ) acknowledge

“That familiar objects warrant analysis as marks and depositories of organized significances, as much linguistic or ‘pure ‘ ocular signal. Under the conceptual umbrella of subculture, he brings together art, literature, music, manner, and even attitude, and places these on the same analytical plane. ( McRobbie: 1994: p14-15 ) .

Multiculturalism is normally defined as the acknowledgment of diverse cultural brotherhoods that applies to the demographic make-up of different topographic points or intuitions. The thoughts of multiculturalism are the interaction of diverse cultural civilizations that need to be respected and valued in mundane life. Pakulsk ( 1997 ) believes that multiculturalism can besides be translated as cultural citizenship, which is a combination of civil, political and societal rights. Cultural citizenship involves others admiting and accepting the demands and differences when set uping equal rights to suit these differences. ( Fulcher & A ; Scott: 2007 ) , which besides includes an person to show one ‘s ain individuality, instead than an individuality be forced onto them as society deem tantrum.

Harmonizing to the Parekh study ( 2000 ) multiculturalism covers five single facets, which as follow:

  • All persons have the right to be treated every bit, irrespective of gender, coloring material, ethnicity, faith and age.
  • As Britain is a broad and multicultural society it needs to take into history the demands of other spiritual and cultural communities.
  • Persons all have different demands which can non be ignored a unvarying signifier of intervention can non be applied has this will take to favoritism and equality.
  • Each society needs to consistent and respectful of diverseness and alteration.
  • That equal chances and self – development should be for all.

The Parekh study ( 2000 ) besides goes on to province that adjust to coherence, equality and diverseness by using three different theoretical accounts the first being the Nationalist theoretical account which is when the province promotes a “single national culture” ( The Parekh Report: 2000 ) .Whereas the existent theoretical account is based on the fact that Britain is a homogenous society, which it is non because of its many at odds traditions. The 2nd theoretical account is that of the Liberal theoretical account which requires a “common political culture” ( The Parekh Report: 2000 ) . A difference of both the populace and private domains needs to be acknowledged within different communities, and non merely for the dominant civilization. Where as the dominant civilization is shown through linguistic communication, faith, values and ethical motives, which minorities do non experience that they can take part in as they are made to experience inferior. The last theoretical account is that of the pluralist theoretical account which focuses on “cultural diverseness is accommodated in the public realm” ( The Parekh Report: 2000 ) . In the theoretical account alteration and integrating is recognized and non merely tolerated.

When specifying urban civilizations we are uniting a mixture of different metropoliss all over the Earth, that have certain behaviors and cultural basicss that are different from persons populating in rural countries. Urban civilization is

“The metaphor for corporate life and the new infinite for researching both individuality and difference ( Jenks: 1993: p189 ) .

The word urban is used in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada to exemplify hip hop civilization or a sub vision of black civilization. Caribbean civilization has

“A distant societal and geographical footing and is the merchandise of a alone historical experience ( The Parekh Report: 2000: p29 ) .

But Caribbean civilization has besides been diluted by other cultural influences such as “East Indian, British, Spanish, Gallic, Dutch, Portuguese and Chinese. It can non be traced back to one set of roots” ( The Parekh Report: 2000: p29 ) .

In decision, modern-day Youth civilization chiefly relies on selling and consumerism, without assorted media formats i.e. the cyberspace, magazines, and record labels, wireless Stationss and music telecastings young persons would happen it difficult to emulate persons or follow manner tendencies and remain abreast with the latest technological promotion such as the development of societal networking sites viz. Facebook and Twitter. When the mainstream media is picturing youth civilization, multiculturalism and urban civilization, more frequently than non they are negatively reproduced or sensationalised to derive maximal impact in order to derive readers attending, therefore the positive facets of youth civilization is frequently ignored in favour sensationalisation.

One such media mercantile establishment which is rather expert at this negative reproduction is the South London Press which preponderantly highlights violent offenses ( allegedly ) committed by black urban young persons in the South London locality. Then there is the Eastern Eye which is a publication that is circulated in the Asiatic communities of Hounslow and Southall in West London that focuses on ( allegedly ) offense that is committed by urban Asians young persons. This phenomenon could be attributed to market cleavage as publishing houses attempt to aim a specific section of a crowded market place with dwindling readership Numberss in order to derive limited market portion, in my position this effort by print media to derive market portion and increase circulation have resulted in them concentrating chiefly on negative sensationalised headlines and either intentionally or negligently take to disregard positive facets of youth civilization and in peculiar urban civilization.


Blake, M ( 1985 ) Comparative young person civilizations – The sociology of young person civilizations and young person subcultures in America, Britain and Canada, USA, Routledge and Kegan Paul Inc

Fulcher, J & A ; Scott, J ( 2007 ) Sociology, Oxford University Press

Giddens, A ( 2001 ) Sociology Fourth edition, Cambridge, Polity Press

Haralambos, A ( 1983 ) Sociology a new attack, Polity Press

Jenks, C ( 1993 ) Culture – Second Edition, Routledge

Kidd, W, Kirby, M, Koubel, F, Barter, J Hope, T Kirton, A, Madry, N, Manning, P, and Triggs, K ( 1998 ) Reading sociology, Oxford, Heinemann educational publishing houses

Longhurst, B ( 1995 ) Popular music and society, Cambridge, Polity imperativeness

McRobbie, A ( 1994 ) Postmodernism and popular civilization, London, Routledge

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Representations and Youth, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mediaed.org.uk/posted_documents/repsyouth.html

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Thornton, S ( 1997 ) The societal logic of subcultural capital { 1995 } .In K.Gelder and S Thornton Eds. , The subcultural reader. London, Routledge