Kingdom Fungi

Category: Fungi
Last Updated: 20 Jun 2022
Pages: 2 Views: 582

Chapter 21 Notes: Kingdom Fungi! Name_________________________ 21-1: The Kingdom Fungi A. What Are Fungi? Fungi include MANY DIFFERENT types of organisms From tiny yeast cells To the one of the largest organisms in the world! Fungi are: Multicellular (except for yeasts) Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Decomposers: decompose dead and decaying material -Recyclers! -Secrete enzymes OUTSIDE bodies - Absorb digested nutrients Hyphae: long, slender, root-like filament Septa: cross-walls across hyphae (not in all hyphae) Mycelium: mat of interwoven hyphae o Large surface area = max food absorption

Fruiting body: reproductive structures, like mushrooms o Many can develop from same mycelium o “fairy rings” Entire mycelium is haploid! o (1 set of chromosomes) B. Structure & Function of Fungi Fungi cells have cell walls -Contain carbohydrate “chitin” also found in exoskeletons Unlike plants: -Fungi DON’T have chlorophyll -Fungi have chitin in cell walls (plants have cellulose) C. Reproduction in Fungi Most fungi reproduce BOTH asexually and sexually Asexual Reproduction: Sporangia at the tip of sporangiophores produce haploid spores Fragmentation (breaking off) of hyphae can also produce new mycelia Sexual reproduction

Fungi form hyphae of opposite “Sex” o Called “+” & “-“ The + & - hyphae fuse and form gametangia: o Makes gametes o Form a diploid zygote o Zygote undergoes meiosis: haploid once again! D. How Fungi Spread Fungal spores travel VERY easily in the air All they need is a good “landing place” with moisture & food Some fungi have special adaptations for spreading spores 21-2: Classification of Fungi A. 4 Phyla of Fungi: Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota Named for their reproductive structures! B. Phylum Zygomycota “Common molds” o On bread, cheese, etc. Black bread mold: Rhizopus stolonifer

Order custom essay Kingdom Fungi with free plagiarism report

feat icon 450+ experts on 30 subjects feat icon Starting from 3 hours delivery
Get Essay Help

Reproduce asexually (spores) & sexually (zygospores) C. Phylum Ascomycota “Sac Fungi” o Conidia form spores asexually o The ascus contains diploid spores in sexual reproduction Examples: yeast, cup fungi D. Phylum Basidiomycota “Club Fungi” 16,000 species: mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, morels Club-shaped reproductive structure Spores form in basidia: o On the “gills” underneath mushroom cap Many wild mushrooms are poisonous! E. Phylum Deuteromycota “Imperfect Fungi” Fungi with NO KNOWN sexual stage Reproduction only asexually Ex: Penicillium; also pathogens like ringworm, athlete’s foot 1-3: Ecology of Fungi A. Fungi as Heterotrophs Most fungi are decomposers or saprobes Others are parasites (live on/in a living host) And others are symbionts: live in symbiosis with other organisms Pleurotus ostreatus is actually a carnivore captures & eats roundworms ALL fungi, though, are heterotrophs! B. Fungi as Decomposers External digestion: Fungi decompose matter by secreting enzymes o break it down into simple organic molecules Fungus then absorb those molecules C. Fungi as Parasites Plants and animals (humans) are subject to fungal diseases Plants: o Corn smut o Mildew o Wheat rust

Humans & animals: o Athlete’s foot o Yeast infections (Candida albicans) o Ring worm o Cordyceps (kills grasshoppers) D. Symbiosis Symbiosis is a “mutualistic” relationship in which BOTH partners benefit Lichens = algae (or cyanobacteria) + fungus o On rocks, dry environments Mycorrhizae = plant roots + fungus o -80% of plants might have these o Fungi help the plants get water & minerals o Plants provide fungi w/ energy E. Fungi & Food! Many foods are made using fungi! Yeast (Saccharomyces) is used to make bread, beer, wine Cheeses (Brie, Blue, Roquefort) are made using mold (Penicillium)

Cite this Page

Kingdom Fungi. (2017, Apr 02). Retrieved from

Don't let plagiarism ruin your grade

Run a free check or have your essay done for you

plagiarism ruin image

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Save time and let our verified experts help you.

Hire writer