B. Assuming that Joseph’s heart stopped, all of the cellular processes and membrane functions are going to be affected. The loss of oxygen is going to affect everything, ultimately killing off all of the cells. Loss of oxygen and glucose will affect the mitochondria, making it unable to make ATP, the energy the body requires to function. Without any oxygen, the membrane will no longer be able to control its diffusion processes/pumps, allowing anything in and out of the cell and not properly getting rid of wastes.
Leaving all of the waste behind, unable to regulate itself, all of the cells will eventually die off. C. In a human cell, the golgi complex, nucleus(nuclear envelope), and entire cell(plasma membrane) have membranes. During his heart attack the lysosomal enzymes, formed from the golgi complex, began to digest the membranes and all of their organelles, thus affecting the heart because all of the cells are being destroyed and can no longer function homeostatically.
D. Inside the nucleus, the chromosomes house the instructions Joseph’s body needs to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease. E. Integral and peripheral proteins are involved in the homeostatic imbalances of Joseph’s heart because now, due to lack of oxygen and glucose, they are not performing their jobs correctly. Both proteins are now allowing anything in and out of the cell at its own will with no system to it. F. Reestablishing oxygen flow to Joseph’s body was so important because it got oxygen to the cells and the carbon dioxide out of the body. All of the process in the body would have ultimately stopped if oxygen flow has not been reestablished. H. Joseph’s heart failed because without oxygen or glucose the cells cannot make ATP. Without ATP the cells do not have the necessary energy to undergo any of their cellular processes. Eventually the cells will actually start digesting themselves, thus making the heart and all the other organs in the body fail.
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