Environment may be broadly understood to mean our surroundings. It can be divided into non-living and living components. The Environment provides resources which support life on the earth and which also help in the growth of a relationship of interchange between living organisms and the environment in which they live.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors.
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On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. The organization's logos in its two official languages, English and French, include the word ISO. The organization adopted ISO based on the Greek word isos , meaning equal. This, in itself, reflects the aim of the organization: to equalize and standardize across cultures.
ISO is the world largest standards developing organization. Founded on 23rd February, 1947, it has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Between 1947 and the present day, ISO has published more than 18 000 International Standards, ranging from standards for activities such as agriculture and construction, through mechanical engineering, to medical devices, to the newest information technology developments. ISO was born from the union of two organizations - the ISA (International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations).
Established in New York in 1926, and the UNSCC (United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee), established in 1944
WHO CAN JOIN ISO?
Membership of ISO is open to national standards institutes most representative of standardization in their country (one member in each country). ISO has three membership categories: Member Bodies: They are national bodies that are considered to be the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights. Subscriber members: They are countries with small economies.
They pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards. Participating members are called "P" members as opposed to observing members which are called "O" members. ? Correspondent members: They are countries that do not have their own standards organization. These members are informed about ISO's work, but do not participate in standards promulgation. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 159 countries, out of the 203 total countries in the world, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.
When products and services meet our expectations, we tend to take this for granted and be unaware of the role of standards. However, when standards are absent, we soon notice. We soon care when products turn out to be of poor quality, do not fit, are incompatible with equipment that we already have, are unreliable or dangerous. When products, systems, machinery and devices work well and safely, it is often because they meet standards. And the organization responsible for many thousands of the standards which benefit the world is ISO. When standards are absent, we soon notice.
What standards do? ISO standards ? make the development, manufacturing and supply of products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner ? facilitate trade between countries and make it fairer provide governments with a technical base for health, safety and environmental legislation, and conformity assessment share technological advances and good management practice ? disseminate innovation ? safeguard consumers, and users in general, of products and services ? make life simpler by providing solutions to common problems .Who standards benefit
ISO standards provide technological, economic and societal benefits. For businesses, the widespread adoption of International Standards means that suppliers can develop and offer products and services meeting specifications that have wide international acceptance in their sectors. Therefore, businesses using International Standards can compete on many more markets around the world. ? For innovators of new technologies, International Standards on aspects like terminology, compatibility and safety speed up the dissemination of innovations and their development into manufacturable and marketable products. For customers, the worldwide compatibility of technology which is achieved when products and services are based on International Standards gives them a broad choice of offers. They also benefit from the effects of competition among suppliers. For consumers, conformity of products and services to International Standards provides assurance about their quality, safety and reliability. For trade officials, International Standards create "a level playing field" for all competitors on those markets. The existence of divergent national or regional standards can create technical barriers to trade.
International Standards are the technical means by which political trade agreements can be put into practice. ? For developing countries, International Standards that represent an international consensus on the state of the art are an important source of technological know-how. By defining the characteristics that products and services will be expected to meet on export markets, International Standards give developing countries a basis for making the right decisions when investing their scarce resources and thus avoid squandering them. For everyone, International Standards contribute to the quality of life in general by ensuring that the transport, machinery and tools we use are safe. For the planet we inhabit, International Standards on air, water and soil quality, on emissions of gases and radiation and environmental aspects of products can contribute to efforts to preserve the environment.
Examples of the benefits standards provide solves the repair and maintenance problems caused by a lack of standardization that were once a major headache for manufacturers . Standards establishing an international consensus n terminology make technology transfer easier and safer. Consensus on grades of various materials gives a common reference for suppliers and clients in business dealings.
Agreement on a sufficient number of variations of a product to meet most current applications allows economies of scale with cost benefits for both producers and consumers. An example is the standardization of paper sizes. ? Standardization of performance or safety requirements of diverse equipment makes sure that users' needs are met while allowing individual manufacturers the freedom to design their own solution on how to meet those needs. Standardized computer protocols allow products from different vendors to "talk" to each other.
Advantages of ISO:
- Implementing ISO has following advantages:
- Create a more efficient, effective operation
- Increase customer satisfaction and retention
- Reduce audits
- Enhance marketing
- Improve employee motivation, awareness, and morale
- Promote international trade
- Increases profit
- Reduce waste and increases productivity
- The need for International Standards is very important as more organizations operate in the global economy by selling or buying products and services from sources outside their domestic market.
Disadvantages of ISO
- Does not guarantee better quality ISO certification definitely does not automatically lead to better quality product. While it does encourage operations to think in terms of systems, it does not require them to be good.
- Focus on certification .
- Frequent audits Full system audits every three years with annual surveillance audits.
- ISO 9000 ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. The rules are updated, as the requirements motivate changes over time.
Some of the requirements in ISO 9001:2008 include a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business; monitoring processes to ensure they are effective; keeping adequate records; checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action; regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness; and facilitating continual improvement ISO 9001:2000 – What does it mean in the supply chain? ISO 9001:2000 is an international standard that gives requirements for an organization’s Quality Management System (“QMS”).
The objective of ISO 9001:2000 is to provide a set of requirements that will provide confidence that the supplier can consistently provide goods and services that:
- Meet needs and expectations and
- Comply with applicable regulations How can you have confidence that your supplier meets ISO .There are various ways in which your supplier can claim that its QMS meets the requirements of ISO 9001:2000.
These include: ‘Supplier’s declaration of conformity’: supplier’s internal audit system, or on second party or third party audits; Second party assessment: check if its QMS meets ISO 9001:2000 requirements and your own requirements - sometimes used in contractual “business-to-business” transactions; Third party assessment: (Often referred to as certification or registration)
CASE STUDY KERALA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS),is a 450-bed multispecialty Hospital which has been awarded the ISO 9001:2000 certificate for a high-end cardiac cauterization laboratory, hi-tech operation theatres, a 24-hour emergency department, CT scan, facility for open heart surgery, blood bank, neurology and neuro-surgery departments.
Quality and accreditation are prominent strategies adopted by KIMS to ensure world-class treatment at third-world prices. KIMS has acquired ISO 9001: 2000 certificate from BSI Group. ISO 12000: Plastics/rubber -- Polymer dispersions and rubber (natural and synthetic) - Definitions and review of test methods .ISO 14000 The ISO 14000 family addresses "Environmental management". This means what the organization does to: minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its activities, and to Achieve continual improvement of its environmental performance.
The ISO 14000 is a standard for environmental management systems that is applicable to any business. The aim of the standard is to reduce the environmental footprint of a business and to decrease the pollution and waste a business produces. The major objective of the ISO 14000 series of norms is "to promote more effective and efficient environmental management in organizations”. It offers source of guidance for introducing and adopting environmental management systems based on the best universal practices.
The ISO 14000 is a standard for environmental management systems that is applicable to any business, regardless of size, location or income. The aim of the standard is to reduce the environmental footprint of a business and to decrease the pollution and waste a business produces. The major objective of the ISO 14000 series of norms is "to promote more effective and efficient environmental management in organizations and to provide useful and usable tools like cost effective, system-based, flexible tools that help organizations in gatherong environment related information.
It offers source of guidance for introducing and adopting environmental management systems based on the best universal practices, in the same way that the ISO 9000 series on quality management systems represents a tool for technology transfer of the best available quality management practices The two major standards under ISO 14000 ISO 14001:2004 SO 14004:2004 Business benefits of ISO 14000 reduced cost of waste management savings in consumption of energy and materials lower distribution costs improved corporate image among regulators, customers and the public Framework for continual improvement of environmental performance. In the global economy CASE STUDY Copley Square Hotel A prominent hotel created an aggressive environmental program that provides a foundation for ISO 14001 registration. Energy Use Reduction: Energy efficient lighting was installed in public areas .Install compact fluorescent bulbs in guest room table lamps , hanging lamps and back areas .Remind employees to turn off all energy using devices that are not being used. Water Use Reduction: Installing toilets with 1. 5 gallon capacity, replacing ones with 3. gallon capacity will save $3,276 and 430,000 gallons annually. Showerheads of greater efficiency will save $6,546 and 859,000 gallons annually. Guest have been offered the option of reusing their towels and linens when staying more than one night. Comments Some of the reasons the program has been successful are: Everyone in the hotel participates in the program and can contribute from within their job responsibilities. Small savings are as important as big ones.
CASE STUDY NOKIA ISO 14001 standard is used to control and manage the environmental aspects of Nokia’s production sites and large offices.
Nokia has a corporate level ISO 14001 certificate in place for all manufacturing sites.
What's the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 ISO 9001 contains a set of requirements for implementing a Quality Management System and ISO 14001 for an Environmental Management System ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004 have become thoroughly integrated with the world economy. ISO 9001:2000 (the transition to ISO 9001:2008 is now taking place) is now firmly established as the globally accepted standard for providing assurance about the quality of goods and services in supplier-customer relations.
ISO 14001:2004 confirms its global relevance for organizations wishing to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the global economy ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004 have become thoroughly integrated with the world economy. ISO 9001:2000 is now firmly established as the globally accepted standard for providing assurance about the quality of goods and services in supplier-customer relations. ISO 14001:2004 confirms its global relevance for organizations wishing to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. ISO 16000-1:2004 is intended to aid the planning of indoor pollution monitoring.
Before a sampling strategy is devised for indoor air monitoring, it is necessary to clarify for what purposes, when, where, how often and over what periods of time monitoring is to be performed. The answers to these questions depend, in particular, on a number of special characteristics of the indoor environments, on the objective of the measurement and, finally, on the environment to be measured. ISO 16000-1:2004 deals with the significance of these factors and offers suggestions on how to develop a suitable sampling strategy.
ISO 16000-1:2004 is applicable to indoor environments such as dwellings having living rooms, bedrooms, do-it-yourself rooms, recreation rooms and cellars, kitchens and bathrooms; workrooms or work places in buildings which are not subject to health and safety inspections in regard to air pollutants (for example, offices, sales premises); public buildings (for example hospitals, schools, kindergartens, sports halls, libraries, restaurants and bars, theatres, cinemas and other function rooms), and also cabins of vehicles. Latest ISO(15270:2008) On Plastic Recycling
Plastics – Guidelines for the recovery and recycling of plastics waste. The standard has been developed to assist all plastics industry stakeholders in the development of: A sustainable global infrastructure for plastics recovery and recycling Establishes the different options for the recovery of plastics waste arising from pre-consumer and post-consumer sources. The standard assists in the selection of methodologies and processes for the management of post-use plastics that may be approached using various strategies. ? A sustainable market for recovered plastics materials and their derived manufactured products.
Plastics material for recovery may be obtained from various sources and the major markets for plastics are packaging, building and construction products, electrical and electronic products, automotive/transportation, and household/consumer items. ISO promotes role of International Standards in tackling climate change at COP15 ISO International Standards can help fight climate change by providing a basis for ensuring trust, integrity and effective management in the quantification, measurement and verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation efforts, and practical tools for the development of energy efficiency and alternative energy sources.
These messages were underlined by ISO at COP15, the 15th conference of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), held on 7-18 December 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark. ISO Guide 64:2008 Guide for addressing environmental issues in product standards It proposes a step-by-step approach, based on the principle of life-cycle analysis, in order to promote a reduction of potential adverse environmental impacts caused by products. The Guide is intended for use by all those involved in the drafting of product standards, encouraging them to: Identify and understand basic environmental aspects and impacts related to the product under consideration, Determine when it is possible and when it is not possible to deal with an environmental issue through a product standard an approach for continuously improving the quality of goods and services through the participation of all levels of organization, especially for the benefit of the customers
COMPONENTS OF THE MODEL
Quality Policy and Communication If an organization is to start implementing TQM, a sound quality policy is a fundamental requirement.
The TQM foundation consists of strategic quality management, executive leadership and a continuous focus on consumer. This must be clearly stated, documented and communicated, as a quality policy to each and every employee of the organization in an easily understood language. The next step is to clearly define the key objectives and quality goals that must be achieved if the company has to realize its vision. Team Work and Participation From time to time, Indian industry has realized the importance of both Team Work and Participative Management.
To institutionalize both the concept s of team work ad participation, Cross functional Management Teams, Quality Circles and Suggestion Systems have to be formed. This has indeed been done in organizations like THERMAX, ALFA LEVEL, NLC, BHEL, SAIL, MADRAS CEMENTS, MODI XEROX, and SONA STEERING SYSTEMS
Problem solving Tools and Techniques One very common approach of problem solving is use of Deming Cycle, which is reproduced below: As shown in the cycle, the Planning Stage will primarily involve defining a Quality mission, getting the organization relevant data, and going in for experiments in quality.
And when we do something (Stage Two), the effects or results are checked in stage three. Recognizing people and rewarding them and changing processes form the essential steps of stage four. Standardization Standardization is a management tool for encouraging and securing optimum utilization o resources and maximum efficiency of operations through formal establishment of the most suitable, pre-determined, solutions and answers to recurring problems and needs. Technical specifications in design, procurement, production and control are company standards.
Similarly, administrative specifications in supervision and management, which may deal with products, processes, methods, materials, parts, etc. , are also company standards. Design and implementation of Quality System Standardization can be attained through ISO-9000 certification. ISO -9000 is not product standard, but it is Quality Systems Standard. It is a practical standard for a Quality system. There are four Quality System Standards as shown in the table . Quality costs and measurements Contrary to popular belief high quality is not high cost.
If things are done right the first time, tremendous savings in cost can be obtained. Around 10 – 25 % of the sales revenue is being spent by manufacturing companies due to poor quality. Hence, calculating the cost of quality is a must. ? Quality audit and review It is conducted by people who have no direct responsibility for performance and is always an independent examination to compare given aspects of quality performance with standards or specifications. Hence, an internal quality system should be developed for addressing customer requirements and complaints as well as internal quality problems. Process Control If processes are controlled properly, deficiencies are not with product and process control gives feedback for initiating necessary action. Customer supplier integration Effective integration between customer and supplier identifies mutual needs and fulfilling expectations becomes easier. Education and training Today, Indian companies that have implemented TQM spends thousands of rupees in preparing employees and educating them on various aspects of quality improvement.
ONLY customers determine the level of quality , what ever you do to foster quality improvement , training employees , integrating quality into processes management , ONLY customers determine whether your effort were worthwhile ? EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT Removing fear from work place by providing the proper environment ? PROCESS CENTERED Fundamental part of TQM is to focus on Process thinking.
All employee must know business mission and vision, must monitor the process . an integrated business system may be modeled by ISO 9000.
Strategic plan must integrate quality as core component.
Using analytical and creative thinking in finding ways to become more effective.
FACT BASED DECISION MAKING
Decision making must be ONLY on data, not personal thinking or situational.
Communication strategy, method and timeliness must be well defined.
- Chain Reaction of TQM
- Improve Quality
- Improve Productivity
- Decrease costs
- Decrease prices
- Increase market
- Stay in Business
- Provide More jobs
- Return on investment
- Deming’s Fourteen Points
- Constancy of purpose
- Drive out fear
- Eliminate Exhortations
- Encourage education
- Institute training on the job
- Improve every process
- End “lowest tender” contracts
- The New philosophy
- Institute Leadership
- Cease dependence on inspection
- Break down barriers
- Eliminate arbitrary numerical targets
- Permit pride of workmanship
- Top management’s commitment
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF TQM :
- Customer-driven quality
- Top management leadership and commitment
- Continuous improvement
- Fast response
- Actions based on facts
- Employee participation
BENEFITS OF TQM :
- Increased pride of workmanship among individual workers
- Increased readiness Improved sustainability Greater mission survivability
- Better justification for budgets ? Streamlined maintenance and production processes Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. Surveys by consulting firms have found that only 20 - 36 % of companies that have undertaken TQM have achieved either significant or even tangible improvements in quality, productivity, competitiveness or financial return. As a result many people are skeptical about TQM. However, when you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage of successful TQM implementation.
Why ISO 9000 Should Be a Company's Guidepost, And Not TQM The ISO-9000 quality standard and total quality management (TQM) is both necessary for any organization to become world class. But ISO is far superior because it offers a set of guidelines for quality management and can stand alone, while TQM can not.
The reasons are:
While ISO-9000 is a clearly defined system, TQM is a philosophy ? ISO-9000 is preventive. TQM is remedial. TQM is aimed at identifying the causes of quality problems and eliminating them TQM is not quality management but process management -- the process of improvement.
ISO-9000 is total quality management ? While ISO-9000 requires documentation and record keeping, there is no such requirement in TQM
One of the greatest features of ISO-9000 is that it is self-policing EQM Various countries, 8 including India, have set up standards with specify the limit pf emission of various pollutants that are permitted in specific media i. e. air or water. They may take the firm of emission standards, or relate to the content of products in food, or phosphates in detergents.
Management includes : Management of Air Quality The air quality standards are prescribed by CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD. They provide quantitative limits within which the pollutants may be present in the environment. There are three types of standards . Emission standards : they are the maximm tolerable level of a pollutant that are permissible to escape the chimney of an industry or the thermal power plant . Immission standards : it specifies the ambient air quality i. e. the amount of various pollutants that are tolerable in space surrounding the source of generation Vehicular emission standards : they have been prescribed recently, it specifies the maximum tolerable limit of the various pollutants that are allowed to escape the exhaust of an automobile ? Management of water quality Water quality management involves multidisciplinary approach in which the required water quality is related to municipal, industrial and agricultural requirements. Water quality standards are based on two standards ? Stream standards: It is based on the beneficial uses of water which fixes the threshold value of specific pollutants permissible in the water required for various uses.
As specified by Central Pollution Control Board in 1979. It states that drinking water should have a minimum of 6 mg/1 dissolved oxygen and a maximum of 2mg/1 of Biological oxygen demand. ? Effluent standards: They are based on the maximum concentration of a pollutant of maximum pollution load discharged into receiving water. In India under the Water Pollution Control Act enacted in 1974, effluent standards, based on the maximum concentration of a pollutant (mg/1) have been prescribed. Management of land It is essential to improve man quality to grow more and to meet the increasing demands for food and other essential agricultural items.
Large scale use of fertilizers is not advisable. Chemical fertilizers can improve soil and land quality but they are costly. Various ways to improve land quality are ? Organic farming : organic fertilizers in the form of biomass not only provide nutrients to soil but also enrich humus content. Biomass is used as fuel in the form of dung cakes agricultural residues etc. ? Mixed cropping : under this leguminous and non-leguminous crops are grown together in the same area in a mixed pattern. It always the crop to derive nutrients from the soil. Use of helophytes : excessive irrigation leads to salinisation of soils rendering it useless for agriculture. Thus, special plants known as halophytes are grown, which are tolerant to salinity. These plants improve the soil condition. ? Ariel seeding : packets containing seeds along with little fertilizers are sprayed from aircrafts and they are left togrow undisturbed. This mproves the performance of degraded land. Land use planning : for maintaining the land quality excessive irrigation should be avoided, proper avenues for drainage and mixed cropping should be practiced.
The positive roles played in globalization by ISO’s standards for quality and environmental management systems include the following: a unifying base for global businesses and supply chains – such as the automotive and oil and gas sectors. a technical support for regulation – as, for example, in the medical devices sector) a tool for major new economic players to increase their participation in global supply chains, in export trade and in business process outsourcing; ? a tool for regional integration – as shown by their adoption by new or potential members of the European Union in the rise of services in the global economy – nearly 32 % of ISO 9001:2000 certificates and 29 % of ISO 14001:2004 certificates in 2007 went to organizations in the service sectors, and ? in the transfer of good practice to developing countries and transition economies
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