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International Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior

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This paper has the purpose to review the seven articles and parts of books stated in class and evaluate them with the help of 3 criteria. Firstly, the three chosen criteria are going to be defined. Then a brief summary of each article or book chapter is going to be made followed by an evaluation according to the mentioned criteria. .

 The Criteria

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This criteria is supposed to define if the information in the article is current, not only by stating when it was published, but also by analyzing if this is from importance for the purpose/outcome of the article. This criterion might be very important when evaluating factual information, because new findings constantly emerge. However, for some type of information, currency is not an issue. * Objectivity This criterion is supposed to check if the information presented is mostly based of facts or it just expresses personal opinion.

Important for the evaluation is to examine whether the claims are logical and credible and if there is evidence for that. * Relevance for practitioners Here it is important to evaluate if the information given in the article could be of use for the audience it is meant for. For this paper, under “audience” is meant people who deal with the issue of international human resource management and organizational behavior. III. Global Managers: no longer men alone

The article of Nancy Adler explores the changing role of women in management position and traces the evolution of the perceptions of the female role and that of diversity in the context of successful global management. The introduction to the topic stresses on the fact that the traditional judgment for one’s skills and abilities based on gender is increasing the opportunity costs for the companies. Due to the global intensified competition, it is becoming more and more crucial for a company’s success to recognize a potential talent regardless of its gender.

This has led to an increasing number of female representatives to be found in top leading position. Following this trend, questions about the difference in the management style of both genders have arisen. Furthermore, no consensus has been reached on the issue if male and female managers act differently or they are just perceived to do so. For the better understanding of this issue, a table with a set of six questions – three behavior- vs. hree perceptual-based, two descriptive vs. four evaluating, was presented. In it individual assumptions showed different dimensions of “difference”, some people stating just that both type of managers are similar or different, and others evaluating the difference as inferior or superior. It was criticized the fact, that most of the assumptions are based on perceptions and not on real observations, due to the fact that still not so many women are to be found in higher positions.

After further reclassification of the questions, four approaches were presented about increasing the number of women in global management positions:

  1. Identifying with men’s approaches to managing internationally : Here management by men is conceived to be superior to that by women and women try adopt their manner of managing;
  2. Denying difference : this approach assumes that there are no differences, there is only one way to manage and both male and female managers are treated identically;
  3.  Identifying with women’s approaches to managing internationally : here the difference between the two gender is agreed upon, but also the women’s superiority in managing because of the typical characteristics of the female gender and their increasing importance in doing business globally;
  4.  Creating synergy : this approach stresses on the contribution and synergies of the combined management styles

‘ The article also presents the evolution of organizational culture and classifies it into 5 stages:

  1. Homogenous culture: in this first stage it is mainly the historical-conditioned dominance of men in leading roles. This is possible only when no internal or external pressure is present and diversity is irrelevant;
  2.  Single-culture dominance: identifying with men – since the 60s, equality on the two genders was promoted which led to an increased number of women in domestic and low-level position;
  3. Denial of differences: the stress here is not on the gender, but on excellent performers. However, the identical treatment of women like men led to many women in top positions resigning because of the unsatisfactory conditions;
  4.  Accepting differences: companies recognized and appreciated the different between the genders and the importance of tolerating women’s approach for market segments dominated by women;
  5. Leveraging differences: the increased global competition since the beginning of the 20th century has led to the recognition of the importance of diversity and diversity-based learning and innovation.

As a conclusion, the evolution of the role women has played over time was briefly summarized again, stressing on the shift from quantitative to qualitative measures. The authors mentions that still only few companies have reached the last level and recommends a more open discussion about the importance of diversity.

Currency : the article was published in 2002 and most of the sources are from the 90s; furthermore, the last trends discussed has started with the beginning of the century and so, are still current;

Objectivity: the statements made are mostly based on research on a global level and a logical relationship between the arguments and the stages presented in obvious

Relevance for practitioners: the topic is of high relevance and importance for practitioner.

The issue presented in the article in increasingly discussed globally and represents a crucial part in the modern understanding of management. IV. Creating Values with Diverse Teams in Global Management The central issue in this article is how to create value with global diverse teams and the obstacles that arise using such teams. There teams are believed to have a lot of potential and be able to create significant comparative advantage. However, in practice this is usually not the case because of misunderstandings and lack of interaction between the various cultures. On the other hand, exactly the cultural differences are believed to create value due to the multi-sided approach and innovative solutions they can generate.

According to the article, global teams were divided into three performance categories: * The destroyers: those team usually underperform because of mutual mistrust and lack of collaboration . The equalizers: by suppressing the differences, these teams are just performing on average in order for the business to keep going. The creators: here the potential of a global teams is fully taken advantage of and cost and time are saved while coming up with new and innovative products at the same time As stated in the article, the success of the creators? team was due to the use of the three principles of mapping, bridging and integrating (MBI). Mapping to understand the differences: i. e. understanding the reasons that lead to the different approach of the team members. This principle includes the following steps: define the territory (identification of the crucial differences), draw the map ( assessment of members` characteristics), assess the terrain ( using the map generated in the previous step in order to identify future potential dynamics), develop cartographers ( mapping alone is not enough for high performance, incorporating the knowledge is what makes difference). Bridging to Communicate Across Differences: here of great importance in the well-functioning communication within the team, the latest define in the article as “sending and receiving meaning as it was intended”. Three steps are included in this principle : prepare the ground ( “motivation to communication… and confidence to overcome any differences” are considered to be crucial, keyword here is also self-management), decenter : build to the other shore ( adapting one? s behavior and thinking to the other’s one, without judgment), recenter: p the bridge ( in contrast to the previous step, here essential is the building of a new basis of interaction after the differences are already known). Integrating to Leverage Differences: the final principle in order to manage diversity consist of the following steps: managing participation for basic leverage with the help of tools and techniques that can facilitate the interaction and include all the members, resolving disagreement ( also hidden ones) to increase leverage and building on ideas for optional leverage, where everybody should be given the chance to take part and to express their ideas. In conclusion, the article states that the MBI principles are just a prescription, and not a guarantee of success. Furthermore, a separate approach for each team should be applied since each team and its potential is unique.

Last but not least, the article concludes with the statement that global teams hide great potential, but it takes time and effort in order for it to be exploited. However, global teams belong inevitable to the future and so, the sooner managers try to use differences and not to avoid them, the better their companies will be performing * Currency: The topic is quite current nowadays. It has been discussed for a large degree in the recent years and it is also going to be a leading issue in the years to come. Also, due to the high degree of unsatisfactory performance of such teams, the topic is going to be further analyzed till some form of advance has been found. Objectivity: The arguments presented are following a certain, easily-traceable scheme, with logical relationships and empirical supported information. The logical transition from one stage to another is solidly explained. * Relevance for practitioners: this is highly important topics for practitioners. Because of the effects of increasing globalization and the more free movement of people on a global level, work in diverse teams has become a major issue for managers. Especially the fact, that in such teams a huge potential is hidden, makes the article very attractive for this audience. V. Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe : an Introduction to the project GLOBE The article of House et al. ntroduces and gives a more detailed description of the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) research program as well as the motives that hide behind the idea. The aim of the survey is to identify how and to what extend could cultural-specific attributes have an influence on effective leadership. The need for a deeper understanding of the influence of culture on management and leadership styles has arisen for various reasons. Apart from its practical relevance, nowadays it is also highly important to know in what way one should conduct business in a different cultural environment. In addition to that, factors, not taken into consideration in the existing theories ( e. g. eligion, ethnic background) could play a key role in identifying new relationships. Literature on this issue shows an established connection between culture and leadership styles. However, different points of view also exist. According to the article, some believe that historical background inevitably has an impact on the degree of cooperation and commitment. On the other hand, some aspects of leadership are thought to be universal in practice. The GLOBE research consists of several phases and different methods are being used in order to study the relationship between societal and organizational culture, as well as organizational leadership.

Its team is represented by the Principal Investigator (who is author of the article), Co-Principal Investigators and Country Co-Investigators (CCIs), who have a specific knowledge of the examined cultures and are able to interpret the results in a proper way and context. As stated in the article, the main goal behind the idea for the GLOBE project was to develop an empirically-tested theory which examines the impact of different cultural variables on effective leadership. Of course, this was achieved with the help of numerous sub-questions, which studied different aspects of the acceptance of leader behavior. The following phases were used in the research: Phase 1 – development of research instruments (societal and organizational measures of culture) ; * Phase 2 – assessment of nine relevant dimensions and testing the hypotheses made; additional measures of ethnic, social, political and economic background were also included; * Phase 3 – impact and effectiveness of leadership styles, culture-specific and organization-specific aspects; long-term effects on the organization; In order to conduct the research, unanimous definitions of the examined factors were needed. A consensus was reached about the definition of “an organizational leadership” and “a leader”. However, it was not so easy to give a definition for “culture”. As House et al. states in the article, the chosen variables were “indicators of shared modal values of collectivist” (House et al, 2002, p. 5) The studied nice dimensions were: Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Societal and In-Group Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Assertiveness ( reflecting the Hofstede dimensions), Future Orientation ( Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck ), Performance

Orientations ( Mcclelland ) and Human Orientation ( Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck ) . The empirical research identified six of those nine dimensions that could be generalized for different cultures. The results were not presented in the article with further details but a reference to another article of the same author was made. The integrated theory in the areas of leadership, values/belief, implicit motivation and organizational form and effectiveness that hides behind the GlOBE model is based on various propositions about the relationships between cultural values, leaders’ actions, organizational and societal culture, strategic organizational contingencies and leader’s effectiveness and his acceptance by others. Currency: The GLOBE project began in the mid-90s and so, the data analyzed has been collected also towards that time, which makes them considerably current. Furthermore, the topic is of great relevance and this would remain so also in the future. Many current studies are also based on the GLOBE project, which means that the information and data it provides are considered to be up-to-date. * Objectivity: The research has been conducted in several phases, also with the usage of different methods, which means that the results presented could be considered for highly reliable. Also, the logical connection between the arguments and the main points discussed are easy to follow and well-grounded. * Relevance for practitioners: Leadership is also one of the main issues of the new century.

Due to the fact that business is conducted worldwide and one and the same company is expanding to new and foreign markets, the problem of effective leadership has been worrying many managers. This is why this article provide an important and relevant information for managers and leaders. VI. Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project GLOBE The article by Javidan & House focuses on cultural similarities and a difference among many of the countries examined in the GLOBE project, discusses the results and explains their implications for global managers. Globalization itself in considered to be bringing many opportunities, but with respect to cultures, it also brings many challenges.

As stated in the article: “Being global is not just about where you do business. It is also about how you do it. ” ( Javidan & House, 2001, p. 292). As an introduction to the topic, the authors mention the drivers and results of globalization and their impact on international business. Nowadays different cultures come more and more often in contact with each other and business is becoming more global than ever. The main drivers for that are considered to be the increasing trade between nations, internet, foreign direct investments and various mergers and acquisitions. As a result of that, collision of different cultures in the business life has become something common.

From this, however, could not be concluded that cultural differences diminish. Quite the opposite, major problems and misunderstandings arise from the lack of awareness for the various cultural values and practices. This is why the importance of a competent global leader is becoming crucial. His role was even rated the most important factor for business success in a survey of Fortune 500. An expert in international business is required to accustom and take into consideration differences as well as to consider the ideas and opinion of the partners he is doing business with. Because of the mentioned above, the authors stress the importance of the GLOBE project as a guide for managers in international business.

With the help of the nine dimensions (already mentioned in the previous article as well), the derived results could be used for better understanding of cultural similarities and differences. In the articles the nine dimensions are briefly explained and the results of cultural practices are shortly presented: * Assertiveness – explained as the extent to which a self-confident and assertive behavior is tolerated. Here high score the U. S. , Austria and Spain; low – Sweden, New Zealand respectively, the last being thought to prefer cooperation over competition. * Future Orientation – the inclination for planning and investing in the future. As highly future-oriented appear Singapore, Switzerland and the Netherlands.

On the contrary, Russia, Argentina and Italy are characterized with shorter planning horizon * Gender Differentiation – the emphasize on garner role differences; As paying less importance on gender appear Hungary, Poland and Denmark. , where more women could be found on higher positions. On the other hand, in South Korea, Egypt and China men enjoy higher social status. * Uncertainty Avoidance – in Sweden and Germany more attention is paid to orderliness and structure, whereas in Russia, Greece and Venezuela people are more tolerant towards uncertainty. * Power Distance – here high rank Russia, Thailand and Spain, where superiors are granted greater power and obedience. In countries like Denmark and the Netherlands, however, there is less differentiation in the hierarchical structure. Institutional emphasis on collectivism versus individualism – individual performance counts more in countries like Greece, Italy and Argentina. Cooperation and collective good is more important in Sweden, South Korea and Japan, where because of historical reasons people tend to help and rely on each other for their “survival”. * In-group collectivism- in Iran, India and China belonging to a group is of great importance. In contract, in Denmark, Sweden and New Zealand people do not feel obliged to the others belonging to their groups. * Performance Orientation – in Singapore, Hong Kong and the U. S. results show a high interest in development and training.

In countries like Russia, Italy and Argentina people pay more attention to loyalty and tradition than performance and competition * Humane orientation – in Malaysia, Ireland and the Philippines support of each other is highly valued, whereas in Germany, France and Singapore people are more interested in power and material gains. As the authors point out, the results of the GLOBE project provide information managers can rely on when confronted with cross-cultural communication. Because of the high sensitivity of each culture, for successful negotiations it is crucial to be aware of some cultural differences in the other country, concerning direct language and punctuality, contract horizon, hierarchy etc. As a further advantage of the project, the author point out the high reliability that the findings provide. All in all, the GLOBE provides guidance and help for the global managers and enhances their cultural acumen. Currency: As already mentioned by the evaluation of the previous article, the information that the GLOBE project provides and the possible areas of its implication are a topical relevance and high interest. Furthermore, the problem discussed in the article in a global problem at the moment and will probably be in the next decades. * Objectivity: Data for the research has been gathered in several phases, also with the usage of different methods, which means that the results presented could be considered for highly reliable. Arguments are logically connected and relationships between the results of the project and the problem discussed are supported. Relevance for practitioners: Since globalization brings so many opportunities and doing business abroad always includes minimum a collision of two different cultures, the impact of culture on the business and negotiation process has been of high relevance for practitioners Because the article provides important information in this matter, it could be used as a guide with real-life related tips. VII. Culture: the neglected concept The book chapter “Culture: the neglected concept” has as main issue the prediction of behavioral differences across cultures. At the beginning the role of culture is discussed as a tool for cross-cultural comparison, as well as the different aspects that culture, social system and society imply. However, no clear conclusion was reach at on how to differentiate cultures.

Furthermore, the author mentions also that there is a huge diversity within major nations (e. g. Japan, UK, the Netherlands) and also that there are many conflicts within nations. As next, with the help of key studies, the author tries to develop a conceptual framework which would help to identify variables with which cultures could be differentiated. Different studies using economic development factors, or ecological and sociopolitical indicators were discussed, but in both cases there were criticism and inconsistent findings. A positive contribution was considered the work of Hofstede in his book “Culture’s consequences”. He has analyzed a large scale data bank and on this basis has developed a model how to compare countries.

He has classified them into four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism and masculinity- femininity. Of course, that model is considered to be just one possibility in finding differences among on a country level. Hofstede’s study was criticized on various basis, but still the data used covers a substantial global sample. Furthermore, conformity is identified in the definition of culture by Hofstede and Rohner. However, it has been pointed out that the core values of Hofstede are applicable to national cultures and not individuals, and as still, they are average results. The Chinese Culture Connection pointed out the necessity to discount cultural bias from the results Hofstede came with.

The results of their research overlapped to a great extend with those of Hofstede (three out of four factors). In addition to that, another variable was also proposed which led later on to the supplement of a fifth dimension. Another study by Schwarz was reviewing earlier history and defined three needs as essential: biological needs, social coordination needs, and the survival and welfare needs. This study was more analyzing the meaning different people put into values and it focused more on individuals rather than countries. However, the results were seen as a more detailed version than those of Hofstede. Furthermore, Trompenaars examined value dilemmas across nations.

He proposed seven dimensions, some of them very close to the ones of Hofstede plus conservatism-egalitarian commitment and loyal involvement – utilitarian involvement. In the last part of the chapter a step-wise approach towards identifying a useful conceptual framework was adopted. Firstly, a search for universal aspects of social behavior, mainly used by social anthropologists and psychologist, has been discussed. In this place universals are further divided into simple, variform and functional ones, the first two mainly used by ‘etic’ analysis of human behavior and the third one- in ‘emic’ analysis. The last one (emic analysis) is considered for the most reliable method for making generalizations on a local level.

In this first step also the four elementary forms of social relations by Fiske are mentioned : ‘communal sharing’ , ’authority ranking’ (these two similar to two of the Hofstede’s dimensions) , ‘equality matching’ ( i. e. parties relate on the basis of equal contribution) and ‘market pricing’ (i. e. people use their comparative advantages over the others). The second step mentioned is the dilemma about the cultural causation of human behavior. A problematic point here is to determine if the research question is to be examined at the individual- or at the culture- level (the so called levels of analysis). The article proposed several different approached by different researchers. Furthermore, Smith and Schwartz (1997) proposed the following dimensions: autonomy vs. embeddedness and equality vs. ierarchy, which resemble again some of the Hofstede’s dimensions (namely individualism-collectivism and power distance), but using the updated results from some more recent studies. Then the authors introduce a further division of collectivism according to the context it is meant: in a hierarchical or egalitarian one. According to Parsons and Shils there is also another pair of concept: universalism and particularism. The first is describing the equal distribution of justice and the second – the subjective desire to associate with somebody. The final part of the chapter comes back to the major issue if values of people serve as a sufficient orientation point when cultures are being compared. Behavior is also mentioned to play an important role in this matter.

Different studies are offering different approaches and assumptions concerning those variables and it is also presumed that this is a potential future field of further research. * Currency: Concerning this criterion, this chapter might be classified as a bit old. A reason for that is not only the publication year (1998), but also because many of the studies and data used for it are already dating to even earlier. As it is quite well-known, the new century brought with itself many new directions for the futures and the impact of globalization on culture-related issues changes every now and then. * Objectivity: In this chapter various authors and research results are mentioned, however with the criticism that some of the researches conducted do not based on a solid and reliable data.

The different concepts are relationships between concepts and studies are explained, but due to the large number of studies and various explanations, the comprehensiveness sometimes goes lost and this might lead to losing the logic of the argument. * Relevance for practitioners: the approach in this chapter is more theoretical relevant than practical. Many studies are discussed, which are based on different approaches and research fields. However, less practical applicability in real business life has been detected. VIII. Theoretical Basis: Intercultural Communication and Cooperation The article of Thomas begins with a discussion about culture and its meaning.

He compares it with a ‘system of orientation’ that creates a sense of belonging among the members of the same culture due to its specific features. Moreover, based on the usage of the same symbols and meanings, people can identify that they belong to the same group. However, in the socialization process it often happens that we are confronted with an unfamiliar behavior. Here a crucial point is what orientation signals to use when two persons from different cultures are in a conflict situation. A good example of the different approaches of Germans and Americans is given – the first handing more customer-oriented and the second caring more about technical perfection.

Those examples lead to the conclusion that some general cultural standards exists that can explain why different cultures act differently and the same situation. Furthermore, domain-specific cultural standards also exist, which are bound to a specific context. Lastly, another study indicates also the existence cultural-specific behavior patterns. The main use of cultural standards in that they provide a helping hand for orientating and explain why the partner behaves unfamiliar. The knowledge of other culture standards can be very important by interpersonal negotiating and cooperating. In addition to national culture, the concept of corporate culture also exists and it is highly influenced by the first one.

In an organization, many factors, such as the industry the company in operating in and other job-related factors have an impact on the behavior of its members/employees and thus they can also form a “common language” and values. It is suggested that corporate culture can be analyzed on the basis a three-level-model suggested by Schein. Those are: material and immaterial artefacts (easy to identify, but not to interpret their impact), values, norm and rules of behaviour (great influence) and basic assumption (vastly accepted values that help attain corporate goals). Thus, due to the daily interaction people in a corporation create their own subjective reality, based on the common values and social norms.

So, as stated in the article, corporate culture is influenced by and influences national culture on the one side, and on the other, there are also subcultures formed within the corporate one. As a further point in the article the effects of internalization are discussed. Because of this phenomenon, the international atmosphere that is more often to find in many work places, cause that many different national cultures collide in an organization. Here an importance should also be paid to the industry the company is operating. The author mentions both the advantages and challenges of internalization and mentions that the inability to identify with the newly formed corporate culture can has a serious negative impact on the newly formed company.

This is why the issue of the transition from the old to a new system has become a central concern for the leaders of such international corporations. The last part deals with cultural overlap, more precisely, the situation when two people with different cultures (values and understandings too) are supposed to work together. This difference can either improve the work together or threaten it. In the article four type of behavioural ruler are presented: either the own culture is considered for superior and the other party has to adapt or vice versa. The third option would be the one, where the two parties are too different in order to cooperate in any case.

The best option, however, is when significant elements of the two cultures and combined and integrated into a new one. A Challenge in those rules is to gain more understanding about the cause-effect relationship of each other’s behaviour and also to have a deeper understanding about the own way of thinking and judgement and the reasons defining the way of perception of the other. New opportunities could be recognized and exploited only if a person is open for and interested in the different culture, and not taking right away the unfamiliar behaviour for one of lower rang. Obviously, none of the too extreme options (convergence or divergence) are good for the interaction.

As stated in the article, differences should be recognized and acknowledged, and a gradual modification of the own, and adaptation to the other’s culture should follow. The next question that arises is: to what extend should that happen? As a conclusion it is said, that interculturality is only possible is one of the partners has a dominant role. However, he should also be able to understand and accept the other’s behaviour, be tolerant and respect it. This characteristic can be best developed by specialized trainings and intercultural coaching. * Currency: The book from with this chapter comes was published only in 2010, which is an obvious sign of its currency. Furthermore, the issue discussed in it is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing trend towards internalization. Objectivity: The chapter includes different theories, but no own empirical research. Many situations are given as an example for the stated arguments and those sound quite convincing. Also for the issue discussed, probably observation of behavior in cultural overlap should also be more appropriate. * Relevance for practitioners: The topic is quite important for managers doing business abroad. Even if they are not aware of the fact, that cultural overlap can cause huge problems in negotiations or work together, the topic should be seriously taken by them. The main argument behind that is the fact that the majority of foreign ventures are not successful mainly due to misunderstandings between the parties. IX.

The A, B, Cs of Acculturation This chapter is a review of both theory and empirical research concerning acculturation. The term of acculturation is defined here as “changes that occur as a result of continuous first-hand contact between individuals of different cultures” (Ward, 2001). Furthermore, it can be divided on the basis of various dimensions. In this chapter the focus falls on sojourners, immigrants and refugees on the one hand, and social identification, culture learning and stress and coping theoretical approaches, on the other. The first of the theoretical approaches – social identification- concerns the perception of oneself and others.

This can be measured on two levels- on individual (focuses on how acculturation is defined and measured) or on group-level (interaction between a member and a foreigner of a community). Culture learning, on the other hand, blames for the cross cultural problems the ‘foreign’ parties and suggests that they should adapt to the culture-specific variables. The third approach defines the process of adapting as a series of stress-provoking situations, followed by attempts to cope with them. In a reversed order, those approaches constitute the three components of acculturation- affective, behavioral and cognitive, the so called A, B, Cs of acculturation.

The question how to define adaptation has been mentioned as an important point. Many indices resulting from numerous researches have been proposed, each offering different approach and models. However, as common variables in all mentioned measures appear the psychological well-being/satisfaction and the effective relationships with representatives of the new culture. Furthermore, the author proposes two major categories for intercultural adaptation - psychological adjustment and sociocultural adaptation – that provide a good but still scarce overview. A model that combines the three theoretical approaches and the two aspects of cross-cultural adaptation is further introduced and described in details.

On the cognitive side (social identification), three models are mentioned for fundamental changes of cultural identity: assimilation of the foreign culture, a middle position between assimilation and separatism (bicultural identity) and the perception of the host and home cultures as independent. The following findings were presented: younger immigrants tend to be more easily acculturated; men get accustomed quicker than women and second generation immigrants are more opened to adapt. In addition to that, demographic, educational and socioeconomic factor also have an impact on acculturation. However, a recommendation for further theory development has been because of the insufficiency and inconsistency of the existing ones. The next approach – cultural learning- focused on behavioral changes in connection with cultural interaction in order to gain useful skills to adapt.

Social skills and social interaction has been mentioned as crucial. However, many barriers, may threaten the successful intercultural communication. For example, nonverbal forms, such as gestures, silence or facial expression, that have different meaning across cultures, may lead to even an insult without any purpose. These obstacles can be over masters with the help of cultural trainings, participation and intercultural friendships. Sociocultural adaptation could be facilitate with more culture-specific knowledge, it follows a learning curve and it is easier for sedentary groups. Of greatest importance for the last theoretical approach is the prediction of psychological adjustment.

For the stress-and-coping approach cultural contact and change are crucial because they lead to the search of a response. Here also a recommendation for further research in the area has been made. In the conclusion the author mentions that concerning acculturation, the field of research is vast. The combination of theory and conducted research contributes to the better understanding of the issue, but it is still not universal. Cultural differences could easily be translated into assimilation discouragement and psychological and sociocultural problems. Even if great development in the area of acculturation has been witnessed, for the future more comprehensive and larger scale studies would be warmly welcomed. Currency: The chapter has been published in the beginning of the century, thus also marking the beginning of the century where borders have less and less meaning. The topic is also one that is highly discussed and many future researches will be directed towards the issue of acculturation. * Objectivity: The chapter represents a mix of various theories and empirical studies, the results of various relevant to the topic studies has been presented and so, this criteria could be considered as fully fulfilled.  Relevance for practitioners : No doubt the problem of acculturation and the impact on a global level is of high relevance for practitioners.

Especially since borders has lost their meaning, nowadays people are moving all around the world, and consequently, are directly faced with the problem.


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  4. Javidan, M. , House, R. Cultural Acumen for the global manager: Lessons from project GLOBE. In: Organizational Dynamics, 2001, Vol. 29, (4) (pp. 289-305)
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  6. Thomas, A. : Theoretical Basis of Intercultural Communication and Cooperation. In: Thomas, A. , Kinast, E. , Schroll-Machl: Handbook of intercultural Communication and Cooperation: Basics and Areas of Application, 2010, 1st edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (17-52)
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