Chapter 1 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology envisions itself as a dynamic institution highly regarded for its sustained humane safekeeping and development of inmates. This is indeed a very noble vision which has guided the institution over the last 20 years. With this, the Bureau aims to enhance public safety by providing humane safekeeping and development of inmates.
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In line with the vision, the Bureau endeavors to formulate policies and guidelines in the administration of all district, city and municipal jails nationwide, provide for the basic needs of inmates, and conduct activities for the development of inmates to ultimately improve their living conditions in accordance with the accepted standards set by the United Nations. Our Constitution provides that any person accused of committing a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
Thus, a person charged with a crime should not be denied of his freedom to choose and live at par with other innocent people who are not incarcerated, unless there is a good reason. In connection to this, the government is a party to several Geneva Conventions such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, to name a few.
Our government’s formal commitment to principles of human rights and international humanitarian law has been translated into various local laws and foremost is the 1987 Philippine Constitution which has often been referred to as the Human Rights Constitution. However, in spite of all these international and local laws, the government is still unable to comply with its obligations because of very limited resources. As a result, most of our jails are unpleasant and dehumanizing.
It dwells stress, boredom and can even harm the individuals and their visiting families in countless ways. It is therefore a great challenge on the part of the administration of the BJMP to efficiently and effectively utilize its resources in the implementation of its mandate. And to address the increasing and recurring problems inside detention facilities not to mention the different personalities and varied needs of inmates, the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology has intensified the implementation of the Inmates Welfare and Development Program.
Theoretical Framework This study is anchored on the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which states that if motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are more important for every individual under his/her management. In this regard, Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued.
In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied, it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is shown in the following diagram:
Figure 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The Physiological Needs are those required to sustain life, such as air, water, nourishment, and sleep. According to Maslow’s theory, if such needs are not satisfied then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one’s bodily functioning.
For the Safety Need, once physiological needs are met, one’s attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by living in a safe area, medical insurance, job security and financial reserves. According to Maslow’s hierarchy, if a person feels that he or she is harm’s way, higher needs will not receive much attention. Then once a person has met the lower level of physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are Social Needs.
Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include need for friends, need for belonging, need to give and receive love. Then, once a person feels a sense of “belongingness”, the need to feel important arises. Esteem Needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to self-esteem such as self-respect and recognition. Some esteem needs are self-respect, achievement, attention, recognition, and reputation.
Maslow later refined his model to include a level between esteem needs and self-actualization: the need for knowledge and aesthetics. Next is the Self-actualization Need, it is the summit of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of reaching one’s full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically, there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as truth, justice, wisdom, and meaning.
Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. This study was based on the above mentioned theory because it is inherent for Jail Officers to safeguard the conditions of inmates inside jails and to develop their personalities. Jail Officers have a major role to help these individuals help themselves for them to become a law-abiding member of the society and be a productive one.
Hypothesis The different programs, projects and activities of the Inmates Welfare and Development Program of the Laoag City Jail are very relevant to the holistic development, welfare and rehabilitation of the inmates during their incarceration through the efficient implementation of the concerned BJMP personnel. Statement of the Problem The study aimed to assess the implementation of the Inmates Welfare and Development Program at Laoag City jail.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1.What are the different programs, projects and activities being undertaken at the Laoag City Jail to address the welfare and development of the inmates?
2. Who are responsible in the implementation of the different programs, projects and activities of the IWD Section?
3. How does the jail administration source out funds to realize and implement the various programs, projects and activities of the IWD Program?
4. What is/are the perception/s of the inmates on the implementation of the different programs, projects and activities undertaken by the IWD Section in terms of 2. Relevance; and 2. 2 Efficiency
5. Are the programs, projects and activities of the IWDP effective in advancing the welfare and development of the inmate s during their incarceration? Significance of the Study This study shall be beneficial to the following: The Lawmakers. The result of this study would help our lawmakers in crafting and promulgating laws to improve the living conditions of persons deprived of liberty and promote the general welfare and development of these inmates. The Jail Bureau.
The outcome of the study would be of great help to the top management of the Bureau in drawing out and formulating programs and policies for the strict implementation of the IWD Program. The Inmates. The welfare and condition of inmates is the primordial concern of the BJMP. The insights provided in this study will serve as a basis to enhance their situation while being incarcerated conforming to the United Nation’s standard in the treatment of Persons Deprived of Liberty (PDL). The Community.
The community which is composed of the families, the academe, various government and non-government organizations, cause-oriented groups, several religious groups and other capable and concerned private individuals who are actively supporting the programs of the Bureau would use this study as a stepping stone towards building lasting partnership with the BJMP, working together as one, sharing a collective, comprehensive and a holistic approach to help the plights of the PDLs. The Researchers.
Other than for the compliance for the requirement of the course, this work would satisfy the healthy and curious minds of the researchers on the different activities of the inmates during their incarceration. Moreover, the joy of sharing a humble contribution for the future of BJMP and its clientele is a joy so profound. This paper would also serve as a guide along the way for the researchers who have the same concern and passion for a humane safekeeping and development of inmates and might consider working and building a career with BJMP. Scope and Delimitations of the Study
The study deals with the determination of the different programs projects and activities undertaken by the Inmates Welfare and Development Section of the jail and the different personalities involved in its implementation. It is also geared to establish the perception of the personnel and inmates on the relevance and efficiency of the different programs, projects and activities of the IWD Section of the jail. In the conduct of the interview, it was limited only for the concerned personnel involved in the implementation of the Inmates Welfare and Development Program of the jail.
For the inmates as respondents in the survey, a certain number of inmates from each of the eight (8) cells of the jail were included to represent the total number of inmates’ jail population. The Laoag City Jail was chosen to be the locale of the study. It is interesting to note that the Laoag City Jail has won the Best City Jail award in Region 1 for two consecutive years because of the intensified implementation of the IWD Program. It was also nominated as Best City Jail nationwide for the year 2011. Definition of Terms To better understand the study, the following terms are defined operationally and contextually:
- BJMP. This stands for the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. Cell. It is a place inside the jail wherein the inmates are confined. City Jail. This refers to the Laoag City Jail which houses detainees awaiting judicial disposition of their cases and prisoners whose sentences ranged from one day to three years. Community. It is a group of interacting people living in a common location. Court Order. This is a legal document or proclamation in which a court orders a person to perform a specific act, prohibits from performing an act, sets a court date, or legally establishes something.
- Detainee. This refers to the accused person of a crime before a court or competent authority that is temporarily confined in jail undergoing investigation and trials or awaiting for final judgment and conviction. Efficiency. The quality or property of being efficient that is the degree to which this quality is being exercised. Implementation. This refers to the carrying out or physical realization of the program. Inmates. This refers to either a prisoner or detainee confined inside jail. IWDP. Inmates Welfare and Development Program Personnel.
This refers to a bona fide member of the BJMP. PDL. This refers to persons Deprived of Liberty. These are detainees who are incarcerated pending trial and/or final judgment. It includes all persons who are arrested, detained, imprisoned or otherwise under custody of government authorities. PDLs maybe held in jails, prisons, detention centers, “lock-ups”, hospitals, rehabilitation centers elsewhere. Relevance. This refers to the applicability or helpfulness of the different programs, projects and activities; applicability to social issues. TCMP. Therapeutic Community Modality Program
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