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Industrial Accidents

Wed a.m.Turkish government investigating shipyard deaths, AP Worldstream, August 12, 2008 C.

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ONUR ANT Turkey’s government launched two investigations on into the latest of several fatal accidents at the country’s leading shipyard, where about two dozen workers have died in the past year. The government already had recommended better training and stricter safety measures to end workrelated deaths at the booming Tuzla shipyard on Istanbul’s eastern tip. But on Monday three workers died there in another accident.

A lifeboat that employees were on broke free from a ship under repair and plunged into the sea at Tuzla shipyard, killing three workers and injuring 12. Main TOPIC: ____________________________________________________________ ____ The Impact of Industrial Accidents, by Eurofound, EU Agency, November 2004 The origin of industrial accidents is to be found in environmental, organisational and personal factors and in the increase in business and employment. One of the causes most often cited is individual responsibility.In Spain, almost two-thirds of workers claim that their job involves an accident risk, but 52% of them think that the main causes of accidents are “overconfidence and habit”. In other words, workers believe that they themselves are largely responsible for accidents. On the other hand, only 3. 1% of workers think that the accident risk is due to working without sufficient training and only 39% believe that it is due to lack of experience.

It is estimated by the European Foundation that in Europe about 25 accidents take place for every 1,000 workers with a fatality rate of 6. 5 for every 100,000 workers. Spain, Belgium and Luxembourg are the European countries with the highest rate of both industrial accidents and deaths. Industrial disasters are mass disasters caused by industrial companies, either by accident, negligence or incompetence. To reduce the number of industrial accidents substantially and continuously, the problem must be approached systematically so as to create an authentic culture of prevention in society and at work.This involves substantially conducting research into the causes of industrial accidents as well as increasing social awareness by demonstrating the advantages of accident prevention, increasing the training of workers, technicians and employers, monitoring and controlling strictly compliance with the labour regulations and evaluating the prevention measures that are adopted. Main TOPIC: ____________________________________________________________ ___The Flixborough Disaster : Report of the Court of Inquiry, Health and Safety, 1975 The Flixborough disaster was an explosion at a chemical plant close to the village of Flixborough, England, on 1 June 1974.

It killed 28 people and seriously injured 36. The chemical plant produced caprolactam, a precursor chemical used in the manufacture of nylon. Residents of the village of Flixborough were not keen to have such a large industrial development so close to their homes and had expressed concern when the plant was first proposed.The official inquiry into the accident determined that the bypass pipe had failed due to unforeseen lateral stresses in the pipe. The bypass had been designed by engineers who were not experienced in high-pressure pipework, no plans or calculations had been produced, the pipe was not pressure-tested, and was mounted on temporary scaffolding poles that allowed the pipe to twist under pressure. Main TOPIC: ____________________________________________________________ ___ ING 102 MIDTERM RESEARCH MATERIAL** Wed a. .

Industrial Accidents, by Arnold Brown, Attorney Mining accidents are some of the most devastating industrial accidents, and can involve severe injuries, and often, heavy fatalities. These accidents can occur due to an explosion inside a mine, leakage of poisonous chemicals and gases, flooding of mines, or collapse of the mine roof, which can be attributed to malfunctioning equipment, lack of adequate safety training, or lack of supervision—all are responsibilities of the mine operator or employer.Refinery explosions tend to make front-page news, too, because of their link to high profile petrochemical industry and because of the massive devastation they can cause. They occur as a result of hazardous practices and conditions that increase the risk of an explosion, such as placing of atmospheric vents on pressure units, inability to manage hazardous gases in a controlled manner, and poor management of alarm systems. Construction has the largest number of fatal injuries of the main industry groups. In 2008/09p there were 53 fatal injuries giving at rate of 2. per 100 000 workers.

Relative to other industries, a higher proportion of reported injuries were caused by falls from height, falling objects, contact with moving machinery, collapses/overturns and electricity. Moreover, workers may be inadequately trained in the prevention of accidents; emergency response systems may be inadequate at the plant. Exposure to chemicals in the workplace can be either through skin penetration, or inhalation of gases and vapors, such as benzene used at petrochemical plants and oil refineries.Benzene has been linked to blood disorders, including various forms of leukemia and anemia. Exposure to asbestos, which was widely used in the construction industry a few decades ago, left thousands of workers battling mesothelioma, a hardening of the lining of the lungs, and other serious and sometimes fatal lung diseases. Main TOPIC: ____________________________________________________________ ___ Preventing Major Industrial Accidents, ILO Asia Pacific Regional Network, 29 July 2005 Major industrial accidents may generally be caused by human errors, technical faults or external forces.They almost always result from a number of causes at the same time, including the operators immediately concerned, maintenance personnel, supervisors, management and plant and equipment designers and suppliers.

Technical failures usually arise from human errors such as poor maintenance, overloading or improper use. A poorly trained and instructed operator is likely to take wrong action. If a company does not have a well-organized training program, it is probably because its management does not consider safety a first priority and does not devote adequate time and money to it.The most dangerous common cause failures are of an organizational nature: insufficient management commitment to safety, lack of communication between departments, inadequate instruction and information to workers. Management should be fully committed to plant safety and its commitment made known to all personnel. The immediate consequences of a major accident may be many dead or injured, heavy damage to installations and buildings, and pollution and damage to the environment.A serious accident has long-term effects at three levels: first, the enterprise is affected by increased insurance rates expenses for recruitment and training of new personnel, lawsuits resulting in severe fines or prison terms or extensive repair or replacement, loss of production, interruption of supply to customers and break in relations with them.

As a result, the plant may have to be shut down for a long time, perhaps permanently. Also, people living in the vicinity of the accident may become permanently disabled or emotionally disturbed.Some chemical substances can cause illnesses that manifest themselves long after actual exposure. The property value itself may decline as people may not want to live near a potentially unsafe area. Hazardous substances released in the accident may be detrimental to the environment, animals, and vegetation: crops may be spoiled and water supplies polluted, land may not be suitable for cattle-grazing or crop growing for a long time. (Taken from International Labour Organization official website: http://www. ilo.

org/) Main TOPIC:

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