I. George Washington (1732-1799) II. "I have no other view than to promote the public good, and am unambitious of honors not founded in the approbation of my Country. " III. He was a surveyor, planter, and general of the Army of the United Colonies. IV. His term was from 1789-1797. V. There were no prominent issues in his first or scone term and ran unopposed. VI. He didn't have any opponents, it was only a matter of who would become vice president. VII. John Adams was his vice president for both of his terms. VIII. Washington had no political party, and there was no congressional majority yet.
IX. Foreign policy decisions Proclamation of Neutrality: prevented Americans from supplying either side with weapons or help, stated that the U. S would not offer protection to Americans who violated neutrality laws, and that the United States would prosecute anyone in its jurisdiction that violated international neutrality. Genet Affair: Citizen Edmond-Charles Genet violated the neutrality laws by planning to use American ports to stop British commerce and support France, which disgraced French supporters in the U. S. Jay Treaty with England: withdrawal of British soldiers in the west of U.
S. , commission to settle border issues with U. S. and Canada, commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and loyalist losses from Revolutionary War Battle of Fallen Timbers: famous for the decisive victory of the United States over a confederacy of Indian tribes, took place between the two at Fallen Timbers, which was an area full of trees toppled by a tornado, Americans wanted to settle the west but were afraid of the natives Treaty of Greenville: between Indians and Americans, natives give up land in southwest part of northwestern territory and other defined areas, U.
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S. pays tribe $20,000 and $9,500 a year to split among tribes, tribes can still hunt there Naturalization Act: raised the period of residence from two years to five years before a person could be a citizen Pinckney Treaty with Spain: Spain recognized U. S. borders at Mississippi River and 31st parallel, granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans X. Political Affairs George Washington is Elected: Only president unanimously elected Judiciary Act: established a court of one chief justice and five associate justices, court met for the first time in 1790
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan: proposed that the federal government take on debts contracted by the states during the revolution, at the national government borrow money to be repaid over a long period, national bank runs it and have taxes to help pay for it, pay off all debts and high tariffs kept out foreign competition Bill of Rights added to the Constitution: added to make all states ratify the Constitution and ensure rights of the people First Bank of US chartered: created by Hamilton to tackle war debt and make one currency
Vermont admitted to the Union Second Term: unanimously elected again Whiskey Rebellion: protest on tax of 25% of liquor's value, showed government not afraid to enforce it's laws with it's militia, farmers who sold corn as whiskey hit the hardest and western frontiersmen were main prostestors Farewell Address: country scared that it would tear apart without Washington as president, but he said that whatever changes happened were because of their efforts and success, and he wasn't qualified for being president anyways XI. Economic Decisions
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan: (see above) XII. Major Supreme Court Cases N/A XIII. Major Social Events Fugitive Slave Law: Slave hunters were allowed to capture an escapee in any territory or state and only had to say in front of a state or federal judge that the person was a runaway, captive was not entitled to a trial by jury and the judge's decision was terminal, people hiding an escaped slave could be fined $500 XIV. Major Inventions Cotton Gin Invented: took seeds out of cotton quickly, created widespread cash crop of cotton and revived slavery
Samuel Slater builds first American factory: used stolen ideas from Britain to create first American textile factory, hired entire families, including children, to work in his mills; workers lived in company-owned housing, shopped at company-owned stores, and studied in company-run schools XV. Presidential Evaluation President Washington was kind of overrated in my opinion. We glorify him today as if he was perfect and god-like, but most of "his" achievements are actually a result of his colleagues' ideas.
Alexander Hamilton had many of the attainments during Washington's presidency, and really ensured that the country would continue to prosper and pay off all debts. George Washington's best decision was actually surrounding himself with intelligent people to rely on in times of crisis that the new country would go through. His major foreign successes would have to be the Proclamation of Neutrality and his treaties with Europe. The proclamation helped keep the country out of wars and trouble in general at a time of weakness.
Any fighting could have destroyed the nation if they lost and it would be back under the command of a European power. His treaties wit Europe gained the U. S. land and respect, helping in the long run. His major domestic successes would be the Bill of Rights and Hamilton's Financial Program. The Bill of Rights made sure that the rights that we still have today would be granted to citizens of the nation, though there were qualifications based on gender and race. Without the financial plan, the U. S. ight never have fully payed off it's debts to Europe and caused further conflict, and it made it easier to pay off with it's extended period that wouldn't require high taxes all at once. He and his cabinet handled the issues of building a nation and having rights for the people while avoiding the tyranny like they had in Britain very well, though he played an almost minimal role in the handling of it. Overall, I rate him 7 out of 10. XVI. Major Themes Slavery: Negative Impact -Passing of the Fugitive Slave Law -Slaves and black men and women had no rights in the Bill of Rights Invention of the cotton gin revived slavery because of cheap labor and massive production of cotton -Slaves treated like second class citizens with no trial by jury, freedom, or credibility in matters of importance -Status: Slavery is running rampant in the South with large plantations of cotton and cheap easy labor. Though the North opposes it, there are no movements as of yet to abolish it. During the presidency, nothing is being done to free slaves, give black people more freedoms and rights,or find an alternative work force.
The status of slavery right now is bleak with no signs of improvement. Social and Political Movements and Reforms: Positive impact for some, negative for others - Bill of Rights gives freedoms to some Americans and gives an overall better quality of life than under Britain - Slavery was an important social issue that wasn't only ignored, but perpetuated by the cotton industry - More jobs in factories, leading to better education with in-company schools and better quality of life - Complete political change from the tyranny of Britain o a representative democracy in it's very early stages - Status: The country is doing well for being brand new and handling tough situations with good long term solutions. There are some massive improvements over the original government of England, such as education and the rights of the people of the United States, or at least a select few. Major issues like slavery are not being addressed, and are actually being furthered by the lack of help in finding alternative work forces and advances in the rights of every citizen, not just the landowning white males.
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