Last Updated 26 Jul 2020

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology (9th Edition)

Category Anatomy
Essay type Research
Words 1137 (4 pages)
Views 379

Exam 1

Introduction to Anatomy 

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  • What is the definition of anatomy?
  • What is the definition of physiology?
  • What is homeostasis?
  • What are the two ways in which homeostasis is maintained?
  • What are the directional terms used to find things in the body?

For example, what are the medical terms for the following? 

  • What are the major cavities of the body?
  • What are the planes of the body?
  • What are the body regions?
  •  What are the four abdominal quadrants and what major organs are found in each quadrant? What are the levels of the organization and what is the order?

Chemistry

  • What are the four major elements of the body?
  • What are the lesser or trace elements of the body?
  • What are the three subatomic particles and what charge do they carry?
  • What is an isotope?
  • What is the difference between an atom and an element?
  • What are the three major types of chemical bonds? How do they differ?  Give examples for each.
  • What three atoms are associated with hydrogen bonding?
  • What are the two major types of chemical reactions?
  • Do you make or use energy when you make a bond? Break a bond? What is the difference between a catalyst and an enzyme?
  • What is the major atom/element contained in organic compounds?
  • What is acid?
  • What is the base?
  • What is pH the measure of?
  • If aspirin is a weakly acidic drug, where is it most likely to be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract? Why?
  • Is lemon juice an example of an acid or a base?
  • Is household chlorine an example of an acid or a base?
  • What are the four major types of organic compounds?
  • What are examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides?
  • What are the examples of lipids?
  • What are the examples of proteins? What are the building blocks of proteins?
  • What do proteins contain that carbohydrates and lipids do not?
  • What are the two major types of nucleic acids?
  • What are the two major types of purines?
  • What are the three major types of pyrimidines?
  • Which purines are bonded to which pyrimidines? How many hydrogen bonds hold them together?
  • What is DNA?
  • What is RNA?
  • What are the nucleotides (chains of nucleic acids) composed of?
  • What are the two major parts of metabolism?
  • What are the high compounds which store energy? Cells
  • What is the plasma membrane composed of? What is the function of the plasma membrane?
  • What are the two different types of plasma membrane proteins?
  • What are the three functions of membrane proteins?
  • Where are glycolipids only found?
  • What are the three major types of membrane junctions?
  • What are their functions?
  • What is osmosis?
  • What is diffusion?
  • What are the two major types?
  • What is active transport?
  • What are the major types?
  • What is endocytosis/exocytosis?
  • What are the different types of endocytosis?
  • What is phagocytosis?
  • What is pinocytosis?
  • What is clathrin-mediated/receptor-mediated endocytosis?
  • What is the cytoplasm? Cytosol?
  • What are the major organelles of the cell?
  • What are their functions?

For example, what is the function of the following organelles? 

  • Mitochondria o Peroxisomes o Lysosomes o Endoplasmic reticulum? Smooth?
  • Rough o Golgi apparatus o Cytoskeleton o Centrioles o Ribosomes o Etc. (Maybe more)
  • What are cilia?
  • What is the nucleus? What does it contain?
  • What is chromatin? What is the cell cycle?
  • When is DNA replicated?
  • What does the cell undergo cell division?
  • What is mitosis?
  • What are the phases of mitosis? What occurs during each phase? What is meiosis? How does it differ from mitosis?
  • What are the phases of meiosis?
  • What is transcription? From what to what?
  • What is translation? From what to what? Tissues
  • What makes up tissues?
  • What are the 4 different types of tissues?
  • What are the different types of epithelial tissues?
  • How do you name the epithelial tissues? o Simple o Stratified o Pseudostratified o Transitional o Squamous o Cuboidal o Columnar o Etc. (look for more)
  • Where are these epithelial tissues located?
  • What are the major functions of each?
  • What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands? Where do you find goblet cells?
  • What is the function of goblet cells?
  • What are the different types of exocrine glands? (Structures)
  • What is the difference between merocrine and holocrine glands?
  • What are the different types of connective tissues?
  • What are their (above) functions and where are they found?
  • What 3 structural elements make up connective tissue?
  • What are the characteristics of nervous tissue?
  • What are the 3 different types of muscle tissue? What the differences? What are the similarities?
  • What are the characteristics of each?
  • What happens in tissue repair? Skin Tissue
  • What are the 3 major regions of the skin?
  • What are the 4 cells of the epidermis? What are their functions?
  • What are the 4 or 5 layers of the epidermis?
  • Where do you find stratum lucidum?
  • What is also called the basal layer? What is also called stratum germinativum? o What do you find in this layer? What is also called the prickly layer? What do you find in this layer?
  • What is also called the granular layer?
  • Where do you find each type?
  • What are the different types of growth for cartilage and which direction do they occur?

Appositional o Interstitial 

  • Is cartilage vascular?
  • What are the 2 major divisions of the skeleton?
  • What are the 4 major shape classifications for bone?
  • What are some major functions of bone?
  • What are the major bone markings and how are they described?  Tuberosity o Crest o Trochanter o Line o Tubercle o Epicondyle o Spine o Process Head o Facet o Condyle o Ramus o Meatus o Sinus o Fossa o Groove o Fissure o Foramen
  • What is: o Diaphysis? o Epiphysis? o Metaphysis?  Epiphyseal line? o Periosteum? o Medullary cavity?
  • Is bone vascular?
  • What type of tissue is bone?
  • What makes up bone tissue? o Ground substance?  Fibers?  Cells?
  • What types of bones contain spongy bone?
  • What is the function of red bone marrow?  In infants?  In adults?
  • What is the function of yellow bone marrow?
  • What is the functional (or basic) unit of the bone?
  • What are Haversian systems (or osteons)?
  • What are the functional zones in long bone growth? o What are the 3 zones?
  • How does growth hormone (GH) affect bone growth before puberty (and epiphyseal growth plate closure?
  • How does growth hormone (GH) affect bone growth after puberty (and epiphyseal growth plate closure)?
  • What are the two hormones released at puberty?  What type of closure occurs as a result? what type of growth does this closure end?
  • What is the difference between bone deposition and resorption?
  • What is calcium used for?
  • What is the function of calcitonin?
  • Where does it come from?
  • What is the function of the parathyroid hormone?
  • What is Wolff’s law?
  • Fractures? Comminuted o Compression o Spiral o Epiphyseal o Depressed o Greenstick
  • What are the stages of bone healing?

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Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology (9th Edition). (2016, Dec 21). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/fundamentals-of-anatomy-physiology-9th-edition-ch1-6-study-guide/

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