Anatomy and Physiology of Body Systems

Intermediate Apprenticeship in Health (Emergency Care Assistance) Edexcel L2 Diploma in Emergency Care Assistance (QCF) Unit 11 Anatomy and Physiology of Body Systems A/602/5038 Candidate Name: _Ashley Orwin____________________ Candidate Employer: ___________________ Unit Overview: This unit will give learners a basic understanding of how the body is organised – from cells up to systems. Learners will also gain an understanding of the components and functions of the main systems of the body, leading to further understanding of how illness or injury affects the normal functions of an organ or system. How you will be assessed for unit 12:

This unit consists of one knowledge outcome which will be assessed via a workbook. Outcomes| Assessment| Criteria| 1. Know how body Systems are organised| Knowledge Workbook| 1. 1 Label the structure of a typical cell1. 2 Outline the definition of tissue1. 3 Outline the definition of an organ1. 4 Outline the definition of a body system1. 5 Define directional terms used in medicine1. 6 Label major organs within the body cavities| 2. Know the Functions of the Respiratory System| Knowledge Workbook| 2. 1 Describe the function of the respiratory system2. 2 Label the components of the respiratory tract2. Describe the structure of the lungs2. 4 Outline the process of respiration2. 5 Describe the initial management of asthma| 3. Know the function of the Cardiovascular System| Knowledge Workbook| 3. 1 Outline the role of thecardiovascular system3. 2 Label the structure of the heart3. 3 State the electrical conductionsystem of the heart3. 4 Describe the purpose of differenttypes of blood vessels3. 5Describe the properties of blood| 4. Know how the nervous system supports body functions| Knowledge Workbook| 4. 1 Outline the role of the nervoussystem4. 2 Identify the components of thenervous system| 5.

Know how the skeletal system functions | Knowledge Workbook | 5. 1 Outline the role of the skeletalsystem5. 2 Label the bones of the skeleton5. 3 Describe the different types of skeletal joints5. 4 Outline the relationship between the muscular system and theskeleton| In order to pass this unit you must complete this workbook to a satisfactory standard. Should you have any difficulties with this workbook your clinical tutors will be happy to support you 1. Know how the body systems are organised. 1. 1: Label the structure of a typical cell Using the following diagram label the key component of the cell.

Nucleolus Nucleolus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Nucleus Centriole Centriole Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell membrane Cell membrane Mitochondria Mitochondria Rough endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex Golgi complex 2. 2 Outline the definition of a tissue You need to describe the following types of tissue in your answer, epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle specifying how muscle is sub divided into both voluntary and involuntary giving appropriate examples. A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them.

There are four basic kinds of tissue in the body: epithelium, connective tissues including adipose tissue, blood, bone, and cartilage, muscle tissue; and nerve tissue. Epithelial: Covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of cells closely packed and ranged in one or more layers. This tissue is specialised to form the covering or lining of all internal or external body surfaces. Connective: Connective tissue serves a connecting function; it supports and binds other tissue. Nervous: nervous tissue is responsible for sensing stimuli and transmitting signals to and from different parts of an organism.

Neurons are the basic unit of nervous tissue. Muscle tissue: has ability to relax and contrast and so brings about movement and mechanical work in various parts of

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the body. (Skeletal, smooth and cardiac) 1. 3 Outline the definition of an organ. An organ is a number of specialised tissues and cells that are formed together to form an organ which has a specific function within the body. E. g. the heart, use for carrying blood around the body. An organ is a number of specialised tissues and cells that are formed together to form an organ which has a specific function within the body.

E. g. the heart, use for carrying blood around the body. You need to consider the following in your answer, namely how specialized tissues have both specialist functions or form a particular structure such as the heart or lungs. 1. 4 Outline the definition of a body system. The body has many different organs all with their own specific jobs and are made up of different parts for example the respiratory system has the nose, trachea, diaphragm, bronchus, bronchioles, lungs and mouth which are all use to breath.

A group of organs working together to perform a particular function The body has many different organs all with their own specific jobs and are made up of different parts for example the respiratory system has the nose, trachea, diaphragm, bronchus, bronchioles, lungs and mouth which are all use to breath. A group of organs working together to perform a particular function You need to include in your answer that the body is comprised of a number of systems that contain specific organs that have specialized functions, for example the lungs in the respiratory system. . 5 Define Directional terms used in medicine Your answer must provide a clear definition of the following terms and how these are utilised to describe the human body and positioning of both injuries and/or organs. 1. Superior — Toward or at the upper part of the structure 2. Inferior– Toward or at the lower part of the structure 3. Lateral – Away from the midline of the body / on the outer side 4. Medial – Toward or at the midline of the body / on the inner side 5. Posterior – Toward back of the body 6. Anterior – Toward or at the front of the body . Proximal – Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk 8. Distal – Further from the point of attachment of limb 9. External –Structure closer to internal organs 10. Internal – structure further from the internal organs 11. Superior — Toward or at the upper part of the structure 12. Inferior– Toward or at the lower part of the structure 13. Lateral – Away from the midline of the body / on the outer side 14. Medial – Toward or at the midline of the body / on the inner side 15. Posterior – Toward back of the body 16.

Anterior – Toward or at the front of the body 17. Proximal – Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk 18. Distal – Further from the point of attachment of limb 19. External –Structure closer to internal organs 20. Internal – structure further from the internal organs 1. 6 Label major organs within body cavities Complete the diagram clearly labelling the organs and major structures. Aorta Aorta Tarynx Tarynx Trachea Trachea Heart Heart Superior vena cava Superior vena cava Oesophagus Oesophagus Lung Lung Diaphragm Diaphragm Aorta Aorta

Liver Liver Inferior vena cava Inferior vena cava Spleen Spleen Gall bladder Gall bladder Stomach Stomach Pancreas Pancreas Kidney Kidney Ureter Ureter Small intestine Small intestine Appendix Appendix Large intestine Large intestine Bladder Bladder Rectum Rectum Urethra Urethra Student notes and Supplementary Work sheets. Directional Medical Terms As an Ambulance Care Assistant you should be able to use directional medical terms. The first important thing in learning about anatomy and physiology is to know the anatomical position and body landmarks.

To accurately describe body parts and position, initial reference point and directional terms should be used in a medical setting. The correct anatomical position is standing up (erect) with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body. To precisely point out the chief complaint of a patient, the ECA or Paramedic uses anatomical terms representing a certain body part. For example, a patient walks in the emergency room with a laceration on the posterior portion of the left lower leg.

To clearly state the area of injury the Paramedic uses the term “sural” which means the posterior surface of the lower leg rather than writing “back area of the lower leg”. Knowing these terms not only give the ECA or Paramedic a more accurate formulation of chief complaints but it also saves time of a good deal of description. To clearly explain exactly the relation of a body structure to each other, directional terms are used. For example to describe the relationship or location of the heart to the arms, we can say “the heart is located in between the arms”.

Using anatomical terminology, this is expressed as “the heart is medial to the arms. ” Hence, it is a more clear and precise statement Common Anatomical Terms (for reference purposes only) ABDOMINAL| ACROMIAL| ANTECUBITAL| AXILLARY| BRACHIAL| BUCCAL| CARPAL| CERVICAL| COXAL| CRURAL| DIGITAL| FEMORAL| FIBULAR| INGUINAL| NASAL| ORAL| ORBITAL| PATELLAR| PELVIC| STERNAL| PUBIC| TARSAL| THORACIC| UMBILLICAL| CALCANEAL| CEPHALIC| DELTOID| FEMORAL| GLUTEAL| LUMBAR| OCCIPITAL| OLECRANAL| POPLITEAL| SCAPUALR| SURAL| VERTEBRAL| PLANTAR| | | |

Common Anatomical Terms (for reference purposes only) ABDOMINAL| ACROMIAL| ANTECUBITAL| AXILLARY| BRACHIAL| BUCCAL| CARPAL| CERVICAL| COXAL| CRURAL| DIGITAL| FEMORAL| FIBULAR| INGUINAL| NASAL| ORAL| ORBITAL| PATELLAR| PELVIC| STERNAL| PUBIC| TARSAL| THORACIC| UMBILLICAL| CALCANEAL| CEPHALIC| DELTOID| FEMORAL| GLUTEAL| LUMBAR| OCCIPITAL| OLECRANAL| POPLITEAL| SCAPUALR| SURAL| VERTEBRAL| PLANTAR| | | | The terms commonly used in practice are superior, inferior, lateral, medial, posterior, anterior, sural, proximal, distal, external and internal.

Using these terminologies show on the diagram below and identify the position of the directional medical terms. These terms will commonly be used in practice not only to describe injuries but to provide an appropriate handover to other healthcare professionals. Supplementary Reading The Tissues Tissue is a group of cells that have a similar shape and function. Different types of tissues can be found in different organs. In humans, there are four basic types of tissue:  epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue. There may be various sub-tissues within each of the primary tissues.

Epithelial tissue covers the body surface and forms the lining for most internal cavities. The major function of epithelial tissue includes protection, secretion, absorption, and filtration. The skin is an organ made up of epithelial tissue which protects the body from dirt, dust, bacteria and other microbes that may be harmful. Cells of the epithelial tissue have different shapes as shown on the student’s worksheet. Cells can be thin, flat to cubic to elongated. Connective tissue is the most abundant and the most widely distributed of the tissues.

Connective tissues perform a variety of functions including support and protection. The following tissues are found in the human body, ordinary loose connective tissue, fat tissue, dense fibrous tissue, cartilage, bone, blood, and lymph, which are all considered connective tissue. There are three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Skeletal muscle is a voluntary type of muscle tissue that is used in the contraction of skeletal parts. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of internal organs and blood vessels. It is an involuntary type.

The cardiac muscle is found only in the walls of the heart and is involuntary in nature. Nerve tissue is composed of specialized cells which not only receive stimuli but also conduct impulses to and from all parts of the body. Nerve cells or neurons are long and string-like. In tissues the simplest combination is called a membrane, or a sheet of tissues which cover or line the body surface or divide organs into parts. Examples include the mucous membrane which lines body cavities. Tissues combine to form organs. An organ is a part of the body which performs a definite function.

The final units of organization in the body are called systems. A system is a group of organs each of which contributes its share to the function of the body as a whole 2. Know how the respiratory system functions 2. 1 Describe the function of the respiratory system. You need to consider the following topics in your answer, namely the extraction of Oxygen from the atmosphere and the excretion of carbon dioxide. You also need to describe how the respiratory system maintains the acid base balance of the blood and how lungs are ventilated i. e. he process by which air enters the lungs. It may be useful to read the following text, Section 8- The Respiratory system, Ambulance Service Basic Training Manual. Nancy Caroline (2007) Emergency Care in the Streets, chapters 11. 3-11. 16 inclusive Watch the following presentation before attempting this question, http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000018. htm The respiratory system, in close conjunction with the circulation system is responsible for supplying body cells with essential oxygen and removing potentially harmful carbon dioxide from the body.

The mouth and nose channel air from outside the body through a system of tubes of diminishing size that eventually reach the two lungs on either side of the heart within the chest cavity. The respiratory system, in close conjunction with the circulation system is responsible for supplying body cells with essential oxygen and removing potentially harmful carbon dioxide from the body. The mouth and nose channel air from outside the body through a system of tubes of diminishing size that eventually reach the two lungs on either side of the heart within the chest cavity. 2. 2 Label the components of the respiratory tract.

Complete the diagram below. Diaphragm Diaphragm Right lung Right lung Trachea Trachea Alveolus Alveolus Bronchus Bronchus Mouth Mouth Bronchioles Bronchioles Nasal cavity Nasal cavity 2. 3 Describe the structure of the lungs You need to consider the following in our answer, namely the structure of the lungs, there position within the thoracic cavity, the shape and membranes that cover them. If needed you can utilise a diagram to facilitate your explanation. The two sponges- like lungs fill most of the chest cavity and are protected by the flexible ribcage. Together they form one of the body largest organs.

Their essential function is gas exchange taking vital oxygen from the air and expelling waste carbon dioxide to the air. Air enters the lungs from the trachea, which branches at its base into main airways, the primary bronchi. Each primary bronchus enters its lungs at a site called the hilum, which is also where the main blood vessels pass in and out of the lungs. The primary bronchus divides into secondary bronchi, all the time decreasing in diameter. Many subsequent divisions from the narrowest airways; the terminal and then respiratory bronchioles, which distribute air to the alveoli.

This intricate network of air passages resembles an inverted tree, with the trachea as the trunk, and is known as the bronchial tree. They are corresponding trees from the pulmonary arteries and arterioles bringing low-oxygen blood from the hearts right side and pulmonary venules and veins, returning high oxygen blood to the heart left side. The two sponges- like lungs fill most of the chest cavity and are protected by the flexible ribcage. Together they form one of the body largest organs. Their essential function is gas exchange taking vital oxygen from the air and expelling waste carbon dioxide to the air.

Air enters the lungs from the trachea, which branches at its base into main airways, the primary bronchi. Each primary bronchus enters its lungs at a site called the hilum, which is also where the main blood vessels pass in and out of the lungs. The primary bronchus divides into secondary bronchi, all the time decreasing in diameter. Many subsequent divisions from the narrowest airways; the terminal and then respiratory bronchioles, which distribute air to the alveoli. This intricate network of air passages resembles an inverted tree, with the trachea as the trunk, and is known as the bronchial tree.

They are corresponding trees from the pulmonary arteries and arterioles bringing low-oxygen blood from the hearts right side and pulmonary venules and veins, returning high oxygen blood to the heart left side. 2. 4 Outline the process of respiration Your answer needs to include the process of both internal and external respiration and diffusion of gases through a semi permeable membrane. You do not need to consider partial pressures and diffusion gradients in order to answer this question. ECTIS (2007) chapter 11. 12 provides a valuable insight into the mechanics of respiration.

External inspiration is the process of extracting air particles from the atmosphere so that lungs and the main organs are the body expel carbon dioxide, a by – product which is removed by the lungs. Internal inspiration is where the blood and cells carry oxygen around the body to different organs. CO2 the waste product is absorbed through the blood and sent back to the lungs and expired back into the atmosphere. Reference – Ambulance service basic training manual 2003 (updated January 2010) External inspiration is the process of extracting air particles from the atmosphere so that lungs and the main organs are the body expel carbon ioxide, a by – product which is removed by the lungs. Internal inspiration is where the blood and cells carry oxygen around the body to different organs. CO2 the waste product is absorbed through the blood and sent back to the lungs and expired back into the atmosphere. Reference – Ambulance service basic training manual 2003 (updated January 2010) 2. 5 Describe the initial management of asthma Your answer needs to focus on current best practice clinical guidelines JRCALC 2006, Nice. As an ECA you are not permitted to administer any medication such as adrenaline, Salbutalmol or Ipatropium Bromide only Oxygen therapy.

Consider management of a simple exacerbation and also life threatening asthma. Ensure you structure your answer in the D,R,C,A,B,C,D,E format. 1. Check for dangers that could injure you or the causalities and people around you. 2. Check response levers by speaking to the person and tapping their shoulder if they are unconscious 3. Ring 999 for support 4. Check that causalities airway is clear and look for obstructions. Check the spo2 levels using a pulse oximeter , checking oxygen sats are 94% or above.

If they are below you will need to administer oxygen at 15lpm via an adult non re breather until backup arrive ready to administer salbutamol via a nebuliser mask at 8lpm until they symptom subside or transported to hospital for treatment. 5. Check for dangers that could injure you or the causalities and people around you. 6. Check response levers by speaking to the person and tapping their shoulder if they are unconscious 7. Ring 999 for support 8. Check that causalities airway is clear and look for obstructions. Check the spo2 levels using a pulse oximeter , checking oxygen sats are 94% or above.

If they are below you will need to administer oxygen at 15lpm via an adult non re breather until backup arrive ready to administer salbutamol via a nebuliser mask at 8lpm until they symptom subside or transported to hospital for treatment. Supplementary Worksheets and Reading Introduction Primary function of respiratory system is transport of O2 and CO2. This requires the four processes collectively known as respiration: Fill out the blanks Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of …oxygen…… Into and out of the lungs (breathing). This involves gas pressures and ………muscle……… contractions. 1.

External… Respiration…………… is the exchange of O2 (loading) and CO2 2. (Unloading) between blood and alveoli (air sacs). 3. Transport of respiratory gases between ………blood…… and tissues. 4. Internal…… Respiration……is gas exchange between blood and tissue cells. The respiratory system is situated in the thorax, and is responsible for gaseous exchange between the circulatory system and the outside world. Air is taken in via the upper airways (the nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx) through the lower airways (trachea, primary bronchi and bronchial tree) and into the small bronchioles and alveoli within the lung tissue.

The lungs are divided into lobes; the left lung is composed of the upper lobe, the lower lobe and the lingula (a small remnant next to the apex of the heart), the right lung is composed of the upper, the middle and the lower lobes. To take a breath in, the external intercostal muscles contract, moving the ribcage up and out. The diaphragm moves down at the same time, creating negative pressure within the thorax. The lungs are held to the thoracic wall by the pleural membranes, and so expand outwards as well. This creates negative pressure within the lungs, and so air rushes in through the upper and lower airways.

Expiration is mainly due to the natural elasticity of the lungs, which tend to collapse if they are not held against the thoracic wall. This is the mechanism behind lung collapse if there is air in the pleural space (pneumothorax) Each branch of the bronchial tree eventually sub-divides to form very narrow terminal bronchioles, which terminate in the alveoli. There are many millions of alveloi in each lung, and these are the areas responsible for gaseous exchange, presenting a massive surface area for exchange to occur over.

Each alveolus is very closely associated with a network of capillaries containing deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery. The capillary and alveolar walls are very thin, allowing rapid exchange of gases by passive diffusion along concentration gradients. CO2 moves into the alveolus as the concentration is much lower in the alveolus than in the blood, and O2 moves out of the alveolus as the continuous flow of blood through the capillaries prevents saturation of the blood with O2 and allows maximal transfer across the membrane. The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of only five gases: nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, argon, and carbon dioxide.

Several other compounds also are present. Complete the table below which details the composition of inspired air. Percentage Present Inspired Air| | 100%| Oxygen| | 20%| Nitrogen| | 79%| Carbon Dioxide| | 0. 04%| Water Vapour| | variable%| Inert Gases| | 0. 15%| Complete the table below providing a brief description of each structure. Structure| description| Nose| The nose is mainly made up of cartilage bones and fibrous tissues. | | Pharynx| Pharynx is a cone shaped passageway leading from the oral and nasal cavities in the head to the oesophagus and larynx. | Larynx| Is part of the respiratory system and is located between the pharynx and the trachea. We use it to talk and swallow. | | Trachea| Trachea is a tube like a portion respiratory tract that connects the larynx with the bronchus and bronchioles lungs. This is also known as the windpipe. | | Bronchi| Bronchi are the main part of the lung that goes through to the bronchioles. | | Bronchioles| The tiny branch of air tubes within the lungs that are a continuation of bronchus. They join the bronchi to the alveoli| | Lungs| Lungs are involved with inspiration of oxygen and expiration of CO2, which is a part of breathing. | Alveoli| Part within the lungs where gas and blood exchange occurs. Tiny air sacs with a large surface area and surrounded by dense network of capillaries| | Pleura| Liquid that lubricates the lungs and keeps them working correctly. Offer some protection against impact| | The rate of breathing differs significantly when presented with a variety of illnesses and/or trauma. To adequately assess a patients respiratory function you must be able to recognise whether a patients respiration rate is bradypnoeic, tachypnoeic or within normal parameters.

Complete the table below to demonstrate this. Respiratory Rates | Bradypneoic| Normal| Tachypnoeic| Neonate| <24| 30 – 40| >40| Child| <10| 25 – 30| >30| Adult| <9| 12 – 20| >30| Asthma: Signs, Symptoms and Management. Asthma is a condition that affects the airways – the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. When a person with asthma comes into contact with something that irritates their airways (an asthma trigger), the muscles round the walls of the airways tighten so that the airways become narrower and the lining of the airways becomes inflamed and starts to swell. Sometimes, sticky mucus or phlegm builds up, which can further narrow the airways. These reactions cause the airways to become narrower and irritated – making it difficult to breath and leading to symptoms of asthma. Asthma is a long-term condition that can cause a cough, wheezing and breathlessness. The severity of the symptoms varies from person to person. Asthma can be controlled well in most people most of the time. In the UK, 5. million people are currently receiving treatment for asthma. That is 1 in every 12 adults and 1 in every 11 children. Asthma in adults is more common in women than men. If you are diagnosed with asthma as a child, the symptoms may disappear during your teenage years. However, asthma can return in adulthood. If childhood symptoms of asthma are moderate to severe, it is more likely that the condition will persist or return later in life. However, asthma does not only start in young people and can develop at any age. The cause of asthma is not fully understood, but it is known that asthma often runs in families.

You are more likely to have asthma if one or both of your parents has the condition. What is asthma? Asthma is caused by inflammation of the airways. These are the small tubes, called bronchi, which carry air in and out of the lungs. If you have asthma, the bronchi will be inflamed and more sensitive than normal. When you come into contact with something that irritates your lungs, known as a trigger, your airways become narrow, the muscles around them tighten and there is an increase in the production of sticky mucus (phlegm). This makes it difficult to breathe and causes wheezing and coughing.

It may also make your chest feel tight. A severe onset of symptoms is known as an asthma attack or an ‘acute asthma exacerbation’. Asthma attacks may require hospital treatment and can sometimes be life-threatening, although this is rare. For some people with chronic (long-lasting) asthma, long-term inflammation of the airways may lead to more permanent narrowing. Common triggers A trigger is anything that irritates the airways and brings on the symptoms of asthma. These differ from person to person and people with asthma may have several triggers.

Common triggers include house dust mites, animal fur, pollen, tobacco smoke, exercise, cold air and chest infections. Other types of asthma There are other types of asthma that can be made worse by certain activities: * Work-aggravated asthma is pre-existing asthma that is made worse by dust and fumes at work. * Occupational asthma is caused by exposure to specific substances at work. For example, some nurses develop occupational asthma after exposure to latex, and some workers in the food-processing industry develop occupational asthma as a response of exposure to flour. Outlook

While there is no cure for asthma, symptoms can come and go throughout your life. A number of treatments can help control the condition very effectively. Treatment is based on two important goals: * relief of symptoms * preventing future symptoms and attacks from developing Successful prevention can be achieved through a combination of medicines, lifestyle advice and identifying and then avoiding potential asthma triggers Know how the cardiovascular system functions. 3. 1 Outline the role of the cardiovascular system. You need to provide a summary of the cardiovascular system its organs and their function.

Watch the presentation to enable you to answer this question correctly. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000023. htm The functions of the cardiovascular system are to transport nutrient, oxygen, water and remove waste products from the cardiovascular system. The other function is to pump oxygenated blood around the body. 1. Deoxygenated blood enters the heart full of CO2. 2. It gets pushed through the heart through electrical impulses into the lungs. 3. It gets rid of CO2 and replaces oxygen. 4. Blood flows around the body giving vital organs oxygen and taken away waste products. 5.

Deoxygenated blood goes back into the heart. The functions of the cardiovascular system are to transport nutrient, oxygen, water and remove waste products from the cardiovascular system. The other function is to pump oxygenated blood around the body. 6. Deoxygenated blood enters the heart full of CO2. 7. It gets pushed through the heart through electrical impulses into the lungs. 8. It gets rid of CO2 and replaces oxygen. 9. Blood flows around the body giving vital organs oxygen and taken away waste products. 10. Deoxygenated blood goes back into the heart. 3. 2 Label the structure of the heart Complete both diagrams below.

It may be useful to read section 9 of the Ambulance Service basic training manual. Left Atrium Left Atrium Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins Pulmonary veins Inferior vena cava Inferior vena cava Right ventricle Right ventricle Septum Septum Left ventricle Left ventricle Arterial valve Arterial valve Bicuspid valve Bicuspid valve Tricuspid valve Tricuspid valve Right atrium Right atrium Pulmonary valve Pulmonary valve Branch of pulmonary vein Branch of pulmonary vein Aortic Trunk Aortic Trunk Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery Aortic branches Aortic branches Superior vena cava Superior vena cava . 2 Label the diagram. Aortic Trunk Aortic Trunk Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery Right atrium Right atrium Left ventricle Left ventricle Great cardiac vein Great cardiac vein Bradiocephalic artery Bradiocephalic artery 3. 3 State the electrical conduction system of the heart. Your answer needs to include a description and functioning of the SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje Fibres and L&R Bundle Branches. It might be useful to incorporate a diagram of the normal sinus rhythm to illustrate your answer. Watch the following presentation to reinforce your understanding of this chain of events. ttp://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000021. htm 1. The brain sends electrical impulses to the heart telling it to beat. 2. The S-A node (sinoatrial node) receives the message and sends it along the atria telling it to contract and push blood forward. 3. The A-V node (atrioventricular node) holds the current for 60 -80 milliseconds to allow blood to gather. 4. The A-V bundle takes the signal and passes it down the branches. 5. The purkinje fibres receive the signal. 6. The contractions happen as the fibres contract. 7. The brain sends electrical impulses to the heart telling it to beat. . The S-A node (sinoatrial node) receives the message and sends it along the atria telling it to contract and push blood forward. 9. The A-V node (atrioventricular node) holds the current for 60 -80 milliseconds to allow blood to gather. 10. The A-V bundle takes the signal and passes it down the branches. 11. The purkinje fibres receive the signal. 12. The contractions happen as the fibres contract. 3. 4 Describe the purpose of different types of blood vessels. Your answer must include a description of the arteries , veins, arterioles, venules and capillaries along with their function.

You may wish to include a diagram in your answer. Blood is transported around the body in a network of different blood vessels that come in different sizes. Arteries are the biggest of the blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart towards the vital organs and tissues but the only one that doesn’t is the pulmonary artery. Arterioles branch out from the main arteries and carry oxygenated blood to the capillaries and they are a lot smaller and thinner than arteries. Capillaries are smaller of the vessels and lead to the tissues where they deposit oxygen and minerals and extract carbon dioxide which is a waste product.

Veins carry deoxygenates blood back to the body ready to go round the system again. Venules carry deoxygenated blood away from the capillaries and branchy together to make veins. Blood is transported around the body in a network of different blood vessels that come in different sizes. Arteries are the biggest of the blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart towards the vital organs and tissues but the only one that doesn’t is the pulmonary artery. Arterioles branch out from the main arteries and carry oxygenated blood to the capillaries and they are a lot smaller and thinner than arteries.

Capillaries are smaller of the vessels and lead to the tissues where they deposit oxygen and minerals and extract carbon dioxide which is a waste product. Veins carry deoxygenates blood back to the body ready to go round the system again. Venules carry deoxygenated blood away from the capillaries and branchy together to make veins. 3. 5 Describe the properties of blood. Blood is essential to life; your answer must describe in detail the major components of blood and their functions in maintaining homeostasis. Don’t forget that blood contains more than solids.

They key components you must discuss are red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma. Begin by describing their shape and size along with their function. Bloody is a specialized body fluid, it has four main components, red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets. Blood has many different functions including: * Transporting oxygen and nutrients to lungs and tissues * Forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss * Carrying cell and antibodies that fight infection * Bring waste products to kidneys and liver, which filter and clean blood * Regulation body temperature

Red blood cells account for 40-45 % of blood volume; they are a biconcave disk shape with a flattened centre. RBC contain a special protein called haemoglobin which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to rest of the body and return carbon dioxide from body to lungs to be exhaled. White blood cells protect body from infections. They are much fewer in number than RBC’s, accounting for only 1% of blood. Most common is neutrophil (immediate response) accounts for 55-75% of total white blood cells. Each neutrophil lives less than a day.

There are other types; lymphocyte which there is a T and a B lymphocyte. T attack various infected cells and tumours, B makes antibodies, which are proteins that target bacteria viruses and other foreign materials. Plasma is a liquid component of blood it is a mix of water, sugar, fat, protein and salt, plasma job is to transport blood cells throughout the body along with nutrients, waste product, antibodies, clotting, and proteins, chemical Messages such as hormones and proteins that help maintain body’s fluid balance.

Platelets clot the blood together at the site of an injury and also contain white blood cells to stop infection entering the wound which is why the scab forms. Bloody is a specialized body fluid, it has four main components, red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets. Blood has many different functions including: * Transporting oxygen and nutrients to lungs and tissues * Forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss * Carrying cell and antibodies that fight infection * Bring waste products to kidneys and liver, which filter and clean blood * Regulation body temperature

Red blood cells account for 40-45 % of blood volume; they are a biconcave disk shape with a flattened centre. RBC contain a special protein called haemoglobin which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to rest of the body and return carbon dioxide from body to lungs to be exhaled. White blood cells protect body from infections. They are much fewer in number than RBC’s, accounting for only 1% of blood. Most common is neutrophil (immediate response) accounts for 55-75% of total white blood cells. Each neutrophil lives less than a day.

There are other types; lymphocyte which there is a T and a B lymphocyte. T attack various infected cells and tumours, B makes antibodies, which are proteins that target bacteria viruses and other foreign materials. Plasma is a liquid component of blood it is a mix of water, sugar, fat, protein and salt, plasma job is to transport blood cells throughout the body along with nutrients, waste product, antibodies, clotting, and proteins, chemical Messages such as hormones and proteins that help maintain body’s fluid balance.

Platelets clot the blood together at the site of an injury and also contain white blood cells to stop infection entering the wound which is why the scab forms. 4 Know how the nervous system supports body functions. 4. 1 Outline the role of the nervous system. Your answer should consider how the nervous system receives external and internal stimuli and conveys impulses not only to the brain, spinal cord and organs but also away from these, eliciting specific responses and in turn maintaining homeostasis. You may use diagrams and continue on a separate sheet if needed.

The main function of the central nervous system is to send electrical impulse to the brain through the spinal cord and sends it back to the peripheral nervous system which causes to react and feel pain when hurt or unwell. Somatic nerves have control over movement of joints whether you can move arms or legs. Autonomic nerves control the body’s natural reactions such as breathing, you don’t need to control them they happen naturally. Sympathetic nerves control things such as accelerating your heat rhythm and breathing rate.

Homeostasis is the body controlling the body’s natural state and responding to change within your natural state. The stimulus receives the message telling the brain the body has a change in natural response and relays a signal to receptors which is the site where it processes the information and relays the message to the control centre which makes the decision on how to deal with the situation and return affected are back to normal state. STIMULUS RECEPTOR C N RESPONSE EFFECTORS S

The main function of the central nervous system is to send electrical impulse to the brain through the spinal cord and sends it back to the peripheral nervous system which causes to react and feel pain when hurt or unwell. Somatic nerves have control over movement of joints whether you can move arms or legs. Autonomic nerves control the body’s natural reactions such as breathing, you don’t need to control them they happen naturally. Sympathetic nerves control things such as accelerating your heat rhythm and breathing rate. Homeostasis is the body controlling the body’s natural state and responding to change within your natural state.

The stimulus receives the message telling the brain the body has a change in natural response and relays a signal to receptors which is the site where it processes the information and relays the message to the control centre which makes the decision on how to deal with the situation and return affected are back to normal state. STIMULUS RECEPTOR C N RESPONSE EFFECTORS S 4. 2 Identify the components of the nervous system. Peripheral nerve Peripheral nerve Spinal cord Spinal cord Brain Brain 4. 2 Identify the components of the nervous system.

Please label the diagrams. Parietal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Occipital lobe Cerebellum Cerebellum Temporal lobe Temporal lobe Spinal cord Spinal cord 5 Know how the skeletal system functions. 5. 1 Outline the role of the skeletal system. You should consider the skeletal system has several functions that include not only protection, movement and support but also blood cell production. Your answer should provide a brief explanation on how the skeletal system performs the aforementioned functions. The functions of the skeletal system are to support the main framework of the human body.

It allows attachments of different tendons and muscles which form joints around the body which allow us to move arms and legs. The system also stores vital nutrients such as calcium which is stored within the bone marrow. The skeletal system also plays a vital role in protecting main organs around the body e. g. heart and lung found inside the thoracic cavity. With the organs been protected this allows the body to functions correctly without becoming injured. The functions of the skeletal system are to support the main framework of the human body.

It allows attachments of different tendons and muscles which form joints around the body which allow us to move arms and legs. The system also stores vital nutrients such as calcium which is stored within the bone marrow. The skeletal system also plays a vital role in protecting main organs around the body e. g. heart and lung found inside the thoracic cavity. With the organs been protected this allows the body to functions correctly without becoming injured. 5. 2 Label the bones of the skeleton Label the diagrams below Skull Skull Sternum Sternum Patella Patella Sacrum Sacrum Ulna Ulna Radius Radius Humerus Humerus Ribs Ribs

Metatarsals Metatarsals Tibia Tibia Fibula Fibula Femur Femur Radius Radius Ulna Ulna Scapular Scapular Clavicle Clavicle 5. 3 Describe the different types of skeletal joints. Your answer must provide a full description of the different types of joints in the human body. It would be useful to identify where these joints are and if needed provide a diagram. Fibrous joints are fixed or unmovable, staying same place and never move shape or size. Cartilaginous joints can move partly but cannot fully move within the body. E. g. rib cage, spinal column. Saddle joints, only allow flexing and extending of different limbs but cannot be rotated.

The thumb is the only bone with a saddle joint. Hinge joint, elbow, fingers, knees. Movement only occurs in one direction, usually forward. The knee is an exception it allows the foot and lower leg to move side to side. Gilding joints allow two or more joints to move against each other without any grinding or friction. Pivot joints allow up to 360 degree Movement in certain joints for example the wrist is very flexible and has full rotation. Ball joints are a ball and socket joint and they provide movement and rotation such as your hips and shoulders. Fibrous joints are fixed or unmovable, staying same place and never move shape or size.

Cartilaginous joints can move partly but cannot fully move within the body. E. g. rib cage, spinal column. Saddle joints, only allow flexing and extending of different limbs but cannot be rotated. The thumb is the only bone with a saddle joint. Hinge joint, elbow, fingers, knees. Movement only occurs in one direction, usually forward. The knee is an exception it allows the foot and lower leg to move side to side. Gilding joints allow two or more joints to move against each other without any grinding or friction. Pivot joints allow up to 360 degree Movement in certain joints for example the wrist is very flexible and has full rotation.

Ball joints are a ball and socket joint and they provide movement and rotation such as your hips and shoulders. 5. 4 Outline the relationship between the muscular system and the skeleton Your answer must include the functions of ligaments, tendons and muscles in relation to bones and joints: e. g. ligaments, attach one bone to another at the site of a joint; tendons continuous with the sheath covering each muscle and attached to the outer surface of a bone, another muscle or the skin, muscles, generate force to produce movement.

The muscular skeletal system is made up of all bones in the body and the joints and muscles that surround them; this allows movement of different muscles and protection of our vital organs inside our human body. The muscular skeletal system is made up of all bones in the body and the joints and muscles that surround them; this allows movement of different muscles and protection of our vital organs inside our human body. Supplementary resources and reading All the web links are interactive resources that you can utilise to reinforce and consolidate your understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the human body.

These are interesting and informative interactive modules that you should enjoy completing. These are not compulsory however it will help you in your continued study towards becoming an Emergency Care Assistant and further in your career as a pre hospital professional. It would be helpful once you have completed these interactive modules to provide a screen print of the last page confirming you have completed the module, placing this in your portfolio under unit 11 anatomy and physiology. Using the web link below complete the online learning module that investigates the pulmonary and systemic circulation 1. http://www. wisc-online. om/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP12704 Use the link below to reinforce your understanding of the anatomy of the respiratory system 2. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA1004 The following link investigates the mechanism of breathing and the process of external and internal respiration 3. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP15104 Use the link below to consolidate your understanding of the cardiovascular system 4. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA1304 This link enables you to further investigate blood and the cells found within it. 5. http://www. isc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=CLT103 6. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP14604 7. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP14704 This link is a crossword puzzle that asks you to identify common cardiovascular diseases, be warned it is quite difficult. 8. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=GEN2405 The nervous system is of paramount importance to maintain homeostasis, use these links to investigate the nervous system further. The links will enable you to have a full understanding of the brain, the sympathetic nervous system and nerve fibres. 9. ttp://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP14404 10. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP2704 11. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA502 12. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=COS1903 This link follows on from the nervous system and gives a brief insight into brain injury 13. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA1104 The skeletal system enables the human form to remain upright, use this link to name the bones contained within the skeleton and the skull 14. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. spx? ID=MEA304 15. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP12904 16. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=COS1503 This final resource is produced by the BBC, again very interactive and sallows you to demonstrate your knowledge of a variety of body systems. 17. http://www. bbc. co. uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index. shtml As part of your role as a ECA you will be required to measure a patients’ blood pressure, utilise the interactive tutorial to familiarise yourself with blood pressure, its measurement and consequence of abnormality 18. http://www. nlm. ih. gov/medlineplus/tutorials/hypertension/htm/_no_50_no_0. htm 19. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/tutorials/hypertension/htm/index. htm (allows you to download notes to the presentation) 20. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000013. htm This resource contains hundreds on interactive tutorials on a variety of diseases, this is a valuable research tool for you to use at your leisure 21. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/tutorials. html Interactive Module Links Tracking Sheet Watched| Y/N| Comment| 1. http://www. wisc online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP12704 2. http://www. isc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA1004 3. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP15104 4. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA1304 5. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=CLT103 6. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP14604 7. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP14704 8. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=GEN2405 9. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP14404 10. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP2704 11. ttp://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA502 12. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=COS1903 13. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=OTA1104 14. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=MEA304 15. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=AP12904 16. http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx? ID=COS1503 17. http://www. bbc. co. uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index. shtml 18. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/tutorials/hypertension/htm/_no_50_no_0. htm 19. http://www. nlm. ih. gov/medlineplus/tutorials/hypertension/htm/index. htm (allows you to download notes to the presentation) 20. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000013. htm 21. http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/tutorials. html| | | Criteria| Achieved(? )| AssessorsComments| Internal Verifiers Comments| 1. 1 Label the structure of a typical cell| | | | 1. 2 Outline the definition of tissue| | | | 1. 3 Outline the definition of an organ| | | | 1. 4 Outline the definition of a body system| | | | 1. 5 Define directional terms used in medicine| | | | 1. 6 Label major organs within the body cavities| | | | . 1 Describe the function of the respiratory system| | | | 2. 2 Label the components of the respiratory tract| | | | 2. 3 Describe the structure of the lungs| | | | 2. 4 Outline the process of respiration| | | | 2. 5 Describe the initial management of asthma| | | | 3. 1 Outline the role of thecardiovascular system| | | | 3. 2 Label the structure of the heart| | | | 3. 3 State the electrical conduction system of the heart| | | | 3. 4 Describe the purpose of different types of blood vessels| | | | 3. 5Describe the properties of blood| | | | 4. 1 Outline the role of the nervous system| | | | 4. Identify the components of the nervous system| | | | 5. 1 Outline the role of the skeletal system| | | | 5. 2 Label the bones of the skeleton| | | | 5. 3 Describe the different types of skeletal joints| | | | 5. 4 Outline the relationship between the muscular system and the skeleton| | | | | General Comments| Areas for Improvement| Assessor Signature: Date:| Learner Signature Date:| Internal Verifier Signature: Date:|

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