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Forests

INTRODUCTION The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms. The forests of India are ancient in nature and composition. Indian people need to have more wildlife education.

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They are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of flora and fauna and insects. The fact they have existed from time immemorial is substantiated from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. Even today in parts of India the sacred forests exist and are worshiped. The wildlife in India is equally diverse and rich.

From big animals like elephants and tiger and deers and bisons to small reptiles the Indian forests are teeming with life force. But unfortunately most Indians don’t understand the importance of this rich wealth of forest and wildlife India has. Felling of tress and illegal poaching of animals are fast depleting the forest and wild life wealth of India. So efforts must be taken to stop these malpractices and conserve the forest and wild life of India. KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind.

By resource, one refers to any physical entity which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples are as follows: 1. Air, wind, and atmosphere 2. Plants (Flora) 3. Animals (Fauna) 4. Agronomy (the science of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber) 5. Wildlife 6. Forestry and Agroforestry 7. Coal and fossil fuels 8. Range and pasture 9. Soils 10. Water, oceans, lakes, and rivers Something that people generally aren’t aware of is that everything we use in everyday life is derived from natural resources.

For example, milk, which comes from cows, vegetables that come from plants, salt which is a mineral, etc. Wood that we get from tree is another example. It can be used to build a house, make paper, burn in fireplaces and in stoves for cooking, etc. FOREST RESOURCES Forests have a tremendous importance to the humans. They constitute important components of our environment. Forests are important renewable natural resource. Forest ecosystem is dominated by trees, the species varying in different parts of the world. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization.

The chief products which forests supply is wood which is used as fuel raw materials, new materials for various industries as pulp, paper, board, plywood, timber for furniture items. Forests influence flood conditions by intercepting surface run-off infiltration, evaporation, and most importantly provide suitable habitats for a number of important plant and animal species and this help in maintaining a broad genetic base from which future strains of species could be developed. Forests also have aesthetic and tourist values. Forest resources play an important role in the development of regions, states and nations. SOIL EROSION

Soil erosion is when the soil is blown away by the wind orwashed away by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down, in droughts when crops and other vegetation grows poorly and in rural areas which are overpopulated. Nepal, in the Himalayan Mountains, has severe problems caused by increased population density and steep slopes. Soil erosion can be reduced by building terraces on hillsides, irrigation schemes to overcome droughts, planting more trees to bind the soil together and make wind breaks, and using fertilisers in overpopulated areas to make the soil more fertile.

It is very important that the farming techniques used do not damage the structure of the soil, as this makes it easily eroded. Good farming techniques include contour ploughing, crop rotation and keeping the soil rich in humus. THINGS WE GET FROM FOREST Trees are amazing! They provide beauty, shade, oxygen, clean air and water, fruit, nuts and wood products such as paper, furniture and housing. These benefits are well known. But did you know that literally thousands of products are made from trees? Many are surprising!

From the medicine L-Dopa for treating Parkinson’s Disease, to film in your camera, forest products are all around us. When Trees are used to make lumber and plywood, there are leftover chips, bark sawdust. The chips and sawdust are made into wood pulp for paper and other products. Not too long ago, those leftovers would have been burned as waste. Bark is used for landscaping, and to generate electricity for paper and lumber mills. Modern forest products operations are very efficient at using every part of a tree. Nothing is wasted. Wood is made of tiny fibers (cellulose) and the natural glue that holds them together (lignin).

When wood is turned into pulp for paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and release the cellulose fibers. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. TYPES OF FOREST Piece of land that is thickly covered with trees is the general of definition of a forest. Forest is also known as woods, weald or woodlands. Forests cover approximately 30% of land and 9. 4% of all the planet earth. They are also responsible for regulating our planet’s climate and act as large purifiers of airs, by absorbing carbon dioxide, and giving out oxygen.

Types of forests are classified differently from one and another depending upon the species developed with the age of forests, soil found in those forests, the density of trees and history of the geological region. So forests are divided into following main types: * Tropical forest * Sub tropical forest * Plantations * Boreal Forest * Temperate forest * Seasonal or monsoon forest CONSERVATION OF FOREST Our Government has also made laws to prevent unnecessary felling of trees. Government has decided to declare certain forests as protected areas. These protected areas are called Reserves or wild Life Sanctuaries.

Here no one is allowed to hunt animals. There are about 150 wild life sanctuaries in India. People come from all over the world to see these sanctuaries. They consist of some of the most beautiful and rare animals. The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal. It is called the Sunderbans. This sanctuary is famous for its Bengal tigers. The other well known sanctuaries are Kaziranga in Assam, in Gujarat, Bundipur in Karnataka, Kanha in Madhya Pradesh. Corbetf in Uttar Pradesh, Palamau in Bihar and Periyar in Kerala. The Government has made plans to grow more trees.

Vanmahotsava is celebrated every year to plant more trees. Thousands of school children participate in the Van-mahotsava and plant trees every year. Chipko Movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are some of the movements to save forests and wild life in India. Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna in Tehri District of Uttar Pradesh. The women of a village in Tehri clung to the trees and protected them from being cut down. Shrimati Medha Patekar started a Movement named Narmada Bachao Andolan to save the forests and wild life in the Narmada region.

DEFORESTATION Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world’s rain forests have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests.

The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest. In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.

Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. AFFORESTATION Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Reforestation is the reestablishment of forest cover, either naturally (by natural seeding, coppice, or root suckers) or artificially (by direct seeding or planting).

Many governments and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of afforestation to create forests, increase carbon capture and sequestration, and help to anthropogenically improve biodiversity. (In the UK, afforestation may mean converting the legal status of some land to “royal forest”. ) Special tools, e. g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. Less than 0,5% of South Africa is covered by indigenous forests. Owing to their slow growth and sensitivity to logging, these forests cannot supply the majority of our country’s wood requirements.

Additional fast-growing trees are planted to cater for the demand for wood products. Commercial forests, or plantations, cover 1,1% of South Africa. VANAMAHOTSAVA Van=forests mahotsava=festival So vanamahotsava is the festival of forests. The day to remind all of us that we should take care of priceless forests. Vanamahotsava is a big celebration day for forest officials, forest rangers, DFOs, employees, and their contractors, suppliers, mahaldars etc. On this day they all get together and take decision n promise for the coming year and calculate the present year’s gross income.

On this day they enquire about their deposit in the bank, the deposit which is said to be their side income, happens to b their monthly salary and send their family member to the bank to meet the branch manager to enquire how to make fixed deposits in some Alia’s name. Actually they not require the meagre salary they earn as their legitimate income, when they earn daily in multiples of that. WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES India has over 441 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife sanctuaries (IUCN Category IVProtected Area). Among these, the 28 Tiger

Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named Bird Sanctuary, e. g. Keoladeo National Park before attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named National Wildlife Sanctuary, like National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978) NATIONAL PARKS

A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. It is most commonly a natural park. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, an international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined “National Park” as its Category II type of protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one, Yellowstone National Park, in 1872.

The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. INTRODUCTION The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms. The forests of India are ancient in nature and composition. Indian people need to have more wildlife education. They are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of flora and fauna and insects.

The fact they have existed from time immemorial is substantiated from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. Even today in parts of India the sacred forests exist and are worshiped. The wildlife in India is equally diverse and rich. From big animals like elephants and tiger and deers and bisons to small reptiles the Indian forests are teeming with life force. But unfortunately most Indians don’t understand the importance of this rich wealth of forest and wildlife India has. Felling of tress and illegal poaching of animals are fast depleting the forest and wild life wealth of India.

So efforts must be taken to stop these malpractices and conserve the forest and wild life of India. KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind. By resource, one refers to any physical entity which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples are as follows: 1. Air, wind, and atmosphere 2. Plants (Flora) 3. Animals (Fauna) 4. Agronomy (the science of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber) 5. Wildlife 6. Forestry and Agroforestry 7. Coal and fossil fuels 8. Range and pasture . Soils 10. Water, oceans, lakes, and rivers Something that people generally aren’t aware of is that everything we use in everyday life is derived from natural resources. For example, milk, which comes from cows, vegetables that come from plants, salt which is a mineral, etc. Wood that we get from tree is another example. It can be used to build a house, make paper, burn in fireplaces and in stoves for cooking, etc. FOREST RESOURCES Forests have a tremendous importance to the humans. They constitute important components of our environment. Forests are important renewable natural resource.

Forest ecosystem is dominated by trees, the species varying in different parts of the world. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. The chief products which forests supply is wood which is used as fuel raw materials, new materials for various industries as pulp, paper, board, plywood, timber for furniture items. Forests influence flood conditions by intercepting surface run-off infiltration, evaporation, and most importantly provide suitable habitats for a number of important plant and animal species and this help in maintaining a broad genetic base from which future strains of species could be developed.

Forests also have aesthetic and tourist values. Forest resources play an important role in the development of regions, states and nations. SOIL EROSION Soil erosion is when the soil is blown away by the wind orwashed away by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down, in droughts when crops and other vegetation grows poorly and in rural areas which are overpopulated. Nepal, in the Himalayan Mountains, has severe problems caused by increased population density and steep slopes.

Soil erosion can be reduced by building terraces on hillsides, irrigation schemes to overcome droughts, planting more trees to bind the soil together and make wind breaks, and using fertilisers in overpopulated areas to make the soil more fertile. It is very important that the farming techniques used do not damage the structure of the soil, as this makes it easily eroded. Good farming techniques include contour ploughing, crop rotation and keeping the soil rich in humus. THINGS WE GET FROM FOREST Trees are amazing! They provide beauty, shade, oxygen, clean air and water, fruit, nuts and wood products such as paper, furniture and housing.

These benefits are well known. But did you know that literally thousands of products are made from trees? Many are surprising! From the medicine L-Dopa for treating Parkinson’s Disease, to film in your camera, forest products are all around us. When Trees are used to make lumber and plywood, there are leftover chips, bark sawdust. The chips and sawdust are made into wood pulp for paper and other products. Not too long ago, those leftovers would have been burned as waste. Bark is used for landscaping, and to generate electricity for paper and lumber mills.

Modern forest products operations are very efficient at using every part of a tree. Nothing is wasted. Wood is made of tiny fibers (cellulose) and the natural glue that holds them together (lignin). When wood is turned into pulp for paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and release the cellulose fibers. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. TYPES OF FOREST Piece of land that is thickly covered with trees is the general of definition of a forest. Forest is also known as woods, weald or woodlands. Forests cover approximately 30% of land and 9. 4% of all the planet earth.

They are also responsible for regulating our planet’s climate and act as large purifiers of airs, by absorbing carbon dioxide, and giving out oxygen. Types of forests are classified differently from one and another depending upon the species developed with the age of forests, soil found in those forests, the density of trees and history of the geological region. So forests are divided into following main types: * Tropical forest * Sub tropical forest * Plantations * Boreal Forest * Temperate forest * Seasonal or monsoon forest CONSERVATION OF FOREST Our Government has also made laws to prevent unnecessary felling of trees.

Government has decided to declare certain forests as protected areas. These protected areas are called Reserves or wild Life Sanctuaries. Here no one is allowed to hunt animals. There are about 150 wild life sanctuaries in India. People come from all over the world to see these sanctuaries. They consist of some of the most beautiful and rare animals. The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal. It is called the Sunderbans. This sanctuary is famous for its Bengal tigers. The other well known sanctuaries are Kaziranga in Assam, in Gujarat, Bundipur in Karnataka, Kanha in Madhya Pradesh.

Corbetf in Uttar Pradesh, Palamau in Bihar and Periyar in Kerala. The Government has made plans to grow more trees. Vanmahotsava is celebrated every year to plant more trees. Thousands of school children participate in the Van-mahotsava and plant trees every year. Chipko Movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are some of the movements to save forests and wild life in India. Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna in Tehri District of Uttar Pradesh. The women of a village in Tehri clung to the trees and protected them from being cut down.

Shrimati Medha Patekar started a Movement named Narmada Bachao Andolan to save the forests and wild life in the Narmada region. DEFORESTATION Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world’s rain forests have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests.

The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest. In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.

Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. AFFORESTATION Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Reforestation is the reestablishment of forest cover, either naturally (by natural seeding, coppice, or root suckers) or artificially (by direct seeding or planting).

Many governments and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of afforestation to create forests, increase carbon capture and sequestration, and help to anthropogenically improve biodiversity. (In the UK, afforestation may mean converting the legal status of some land to “royal forest”. ) Special tools, e. g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. Less than 0,5% of South Africa is covered by indigenous forests. Owing to their slow growth and sensitivity to logging, these forests cannot supply the majority of our country’s wood requirements.

Additional fast-growing trees are planted to cater for the demand for wood products. Commercial forests, or plantations, cover 1,1% of South Africa. VANAMAHOTSAVA Van=forests mahotsava=festival So vanamahotsava is the festival of forests. The day to remind all of us that we should take care of priceless forests. Vanamahotsava is a big celebration day for forest officials, forest rangers, DFOs, employees, and their contractors, suppliers, mahaldars etc. On this day they all get together and take decision n promise for the coming year and calculate the present year’s gross income.

On this day they enquire about their deposit in the bank, the deposit which is said to be their side income, happens to b their monthly salary and send their family member to the bank to meet the branch manager to enquire how to make fixed deposits in some Alia’s name. Actually they not require the meagre salary they earn as their legitimate income, when they earn daily in multiples of that. WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES India has over 441 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife sanctuaries (IUCN Category IVProtected Area).

Among these, the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named Bird Sanctuary, e. g. Keoladeo National Park before attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named National Wildlife Sanctuary, like National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978) NATIONAL PARKS

A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. It is most commonly a natural park. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, an international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined “National Park” as its Category II type of protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one, Yellowstone National Park, in 1872.

The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. CONCLUSION Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters.

The endangered species in India have been identified by different national and international organisations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). INTRODUCTION The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms. The forests of India are ancient in nature and composition. Indian people need to have more wildlife education. They are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of flora and fauna and insects.

The fact they have existed from time immemorial is substantiated from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. Even today in parts of India the sacred forests exist and are worshiped. The wildlife in India is equally diverse and rich. From big animals like elephants and tiger and deers and bisons to small reptiles the Indian forests are teeming with life force. But unfortunately most Indians don’t understand the importance of this rich wealth of forest and wildlife India has. Felling of tress and illegal poaching of animals are fast depleting the forest and wild life wealth of India.

So efforts must be taken to stop these malpractices and conserve the forest and wild life of India. KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind. By resource, one refers to any physical entity which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples are as follows: 1. Air, wind, and atmosphere 2. Plants (Flora) 3. Animals (Fauna) 4. Agronomy (the science of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber) 5. Wildlife 6. Forestry and Agroforestry 7. Coal and fossil fuels 8. Range and pasture . Soils 10. Water, oceans, lakes, and rivers Something that people generally aren’t aware of is that everything we use in everyday life is derived from natural resources. For example, milk, which comes from cows, vegetables that come from plants, salt which is a mineral, etc. Wood that we get from tree is another example. It can be used to build a house, make paper, burn in fireplaces and in stoves for cooking, etc. FOREST RESOURCES Forests have a tremendous importance to the humans. They constitute important components of our environment. Forests are important renewable natural resource.

Forest ecosystem is dominated by trees, the species varying in different parts of the world. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. The chief products which forests supply is wood which is used as fuel raw materials, new materials for various industries as pulp, paper, board, plywood, timber for furniture items. Forests influence flood conditions by intercepting surface run-off infiltration, evaporation, and most importantly provide suitable habitats for a number of important plant and animal species and this help in maintaining a broad genetic base from which future strains of species could be developed.

Forests also have aesthetic and tourist values. Forest resources play an important role in the development of regions, states and nations. SOIL EROSION Soil erosion is when the soil is blown away by the wind orwashed away by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down, in droughts when crops and other vegetation grows poorly and in rural areas which are overpopulated. Nepal, in the Himalayan Mountains, has severe problems caused by increased population density and steep slopes.

Soil erosion can be reduced by building terraces on hillsides, irrigation schemes to overcome droughts, planting more trees to bind the soil together and make wind breaks, and using fertilisers in overpopulated areas to make the soil more fertile. It is very important that the farming techniques used do not damage the structure of the soil, as this makes it easily eroded. Good farming techniques include contour ploughing, crop rotation and keeping the soil rich in humus. THINGS WE GET FROM FOREST Trees are amazing! They provide beauty, shade, oxygen, clean air and water, fruit, nuts and wood products such as paper, furniture and housing.

These benefits are well known. But did you know that literally thousands of products are made from trees? Many are surprising! From the medicine L-Dopa for treating Parkinson’s Disease, to film in your camera, forest products are all around us. When Trees are used to make lumber and plywood, there are leftover chips, bark sawdust. The chips and sawdust are made into wood pulp for paper and other products. Not too long ago, those leftovers would have been burned as waste. Bark is used for landscaping, and to generate electricity for paper and lumber mills.

Modern forest products operations are very efficient at using every part of a tree. Nothing is wasted. Wood is made of tiny fibers (cellulose) and the natural glue that holds them together (lignin). When wood is turned into pulp for paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and release the cellulose fibers. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. TYPES OF FOREST Piece of land that is thickly covered with trees is the general of definition of a forest. Forest is also known as woods, weald or woodlands. Forests cover approximately 30% of land and 9. 4% of all the planet earth.

They are also responsible for regulating our planet’s climate and act as large purifiers of airs, by absorbing carbon dioxide, and giving out oxygen. Types of forests are classified differently from one and another depending upon the species developed with the age of forests, soil found in those forests, the density of trees and history of the geological region. So forests are divided into following main types: * Tropical forest * Sub tropical forest * Plantations * Boreal Forest * Temperate forest * Seasonal or monsoon forest CONSERVATION OF FOREST Our Government has also made laws to prevent unnecessary felling of trees.

Government has decided to declare certain forests as protected areas. These protected areas are called Reserves or wild Life Sanctuaries. Here no one is allowed to hunt animals. There are about 150 wild life sanctuaries in India. People come from all over the world to see these sanctuaries. They consist of some of the most beautiful and rare animals. The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal. It is called the Sunderbans. This sanctuary is famous for its Bengal tigers. The other well known sanctuaries are Kaziranga in Assam, in Gujarat, Bundipur in Karnataka, Kanha in Madhya Pradesh.

Corbetf in Uttar Pradesh, Palamau in Bihar and Periyar in Kerala. The Government has made plans to grow more trees. Vanmahotsava is celebrated every year to plant more trees. Thousands of school children participate in the Van-mahotsava and plant trees every year. Chipko Movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are some of the movements to save forests and wild life in India. Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna in Tehri District of Uttar Pradesh. The women of a village in Tehri clung to the trees and protected them from being cut down. Shrimati Medha Patekar started a Movement named

Narmada Bachao Andolan to save the forests and wild life in the Narmada region. DEFORESTATION Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world’s rain forests have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests.

The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest. In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.

Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. AFFORESTATION Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Reforestation is the reestablishment of forest cover, either naturally (by natural seeding, coppice, or root suckers) or artificially (by direct seeding or planting).

Many governments and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of afforestation to create forests, increase carbon capture and sequestration, and help to anthropogenically improve biodiversity. (In the UK, afforestation may mean converting the legal status of some land to “royal forest”. ) Special tools, e. g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. Less than 0,5% of South Africa is covered by indigenous forests. Owing to their slow growth and sensitivity to logging, these forests cannot supply the majority of our country’s wood requirements.

Additional fast-growing trees are planted to cater for the demand for wood products. Commercial forests, or plantations, cover 1,1% of South Africa. VANAMAHOTSAVA Van=forests mahotsava=festival So vanamahotsava is the festival of forests. The day to remind all of us that we should take care of priceless forests. Vanamahotsava is a big celebration day for forest officials, forest rangers, DFOs, employees, and their contractors, suppliers, mahaldars etc. On this day they all get together and take decision n promise for the coming year and calculate the present year’s gross income.

On this day they enquire about their deposit in the bank, the deposit which is said to be their side income, happens to b their monthly salary and send their family member to the bank to meet the branch manager to enquire how to make fixed deposits in some Alia’s name. Actually they not require the meagre salary they earn as their legitimate income, when they earn daily in multiples of that. WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES India has over 441 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife sanctuaries (IUCN Category IVProtected Area).

Among these, the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named Bird Sanctuary, e. g. Keoladeo National Park before attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named National Wildlife Sanctuary, like National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978) NATIONAL PARKS

A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. It is most commonly a natural park. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, an international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined “National Park” as its Category II type of protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one, Yellowstone National Park, in 1872.

The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. CONCLUSION Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons.

Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. The endangered species in India have been identified by different national and international organisations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). CONCLUSION Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife.

The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. The endangered species in India have been identified by different national and international organisations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII).