There are many approaches that stem from motivation these come in the form of environmental factors, psychological bases of motivation as well as a biological factor. Motivation is a factor that lies within each individual both intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic is the motivation where the basis comes from a psychological perspective. Intrinsic motivation is when an individual takes on a task when the pay-off or reward is internal.
Extrinsic on the other hand is where an individual carries out a task and is forced or driven by and external factor this may example this may be the drive for a person to carry out a task where the individual may receive a promotion in their place of employment. Individuals from the moment they are born are programmed with instincts. From the moment an infant is born they are programmed to cry when they are in need of something for instance the need to be fed this in a biological approach to motivation.
Needs and drives are also a benefactor to motivation. Individuals have the need to rid of waste, for food to satisfy hunger, also for water for the relief of thirst and also an individual’s need to avoid pain. Environmental factors have been found to also contribute to motivation as well as an individual’s behaviour. In today’s society it has shown that an individual’s performance at work and their motivation has been a major benefactor (www. businessperformance. com). There are also cultural and social bases for motivation.
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Some individuals social needs regarding motivation can over write the biological bases for motivation example an individual who diets from a social perspective that need to achieve for what they seem to be perfect in society can over write the need for biological need for instance food in that particular case. Power motivation is also a benefactor in certain individuals. This may come in the form of an individual wanting to somehow control the outcome of a certain situation using the force of power.
Winter (1991) states “The need for power involves the desire to tell others what to do and to use rewards or punishment to control the behaviours of others” (winter 1991, as cited in Bourne and Russo 1998). A household may experience this if a child is told to carry out a duty or chore in one case where a reward is offered the chore will be carried out in a greater manner than if the chore had not had a payoff or a reward is not offered.
Motivation is an individual’s driving state or force. Motivation can also affect an individual’s state of arousal. Arousal comes in many forms this may range from an individual feeling anxiety, stress or motivation. Individuals may think that anxiety may be a negative but in cases this can be a driving force for an individual to complete certain tasks or duties and may also result and the amount of input and motivation used in that particular situation.
Every individual at some point in their life will feel anxiety in a task for instance an example an individual with a mortgage if there was no arousal felt that mortgage may not be paid so motivation is a benefactor in situations like the example just shown. As human being we a need to form relationships and friendships with the people around us this is also a benefactor of motivation.
With these relationships and friendship we are driven by motivation to fulfil the need and sensation of belonging with another person or persons. Individuals have the urge and willingness to succeed and to be the best they can possibly be motivation and emotion plays a big role in the way and individual plans and what steps they take to reach their goals. Not all individuals are the same that is why we are call individuals but in today’s Australian society the need for success and accomplishment is rated somewhat high.
There are different incentives behind motivation Bandura explains that there are five different reasons for incentives these being primary incentives, this being the incentive of food, secondary incentive is the incentive to complete, plan or carry out new tasks, third is social incentives this is the need for recognition or praise, forth is the monetary incentive which may come in the form of a salary increase and finally activity incentive this incentive may come in the form of time off work.
As human beings individuals dislike the feeling of failing or not being able to complete a certain task. All individuals have different driving forces and levels of motivation what one may find important to one person may not be important to another. Individuals use a somewhat standard of excellence to evaluate their status of other individual.
A person with a lower drive to succeed or a lower level of motivation is less likely to accomplish what task was set out by that certain individual; people with lower level of motivation will also seek out or take on tasks which they feel that they can master quickly without much difficulty compared to a person who has a high range of motivation who is in more of a position to challenge themselves and face the task at hand and will work hard to accomplish whatever it is that they have set out for themselves or what has been set out before them.
There are many theories surrounding motivation one being the push and pull theory, this can simply be broken down. The push theory for instance can be best explained for an individual planning a holiday, the push theory is the actual desire to travel. The pull theory on the other hand is best described to be the force where the attributes of that destination are the benefactor (www. businessperformance. comt). Another theory that was stated by Fredrick Winslow Taylor and this theory are based surrounding people and their place of employment.
Fredrick Taylor Winslow states the idea that most individuals are driven and motivated mainly by salary or pay. He also states that generally workers do not certainly or naturally enjoy work and close supervision and control of workers from their employers is needed (www. tutor2u. net). Taylor’s theory has been used in a wide variety of work and business places. His theory has been a benefactor in businesses opting for the use of production lines.
Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) put forward his theory which is a pyramid which details five separate stages which focused on an individual’s psychological needs. The bottom or lowest level of the pyramid being the most basic of the psychological this is the need of basic survival; this includes food, water and sex. The next stage is the need and want of safety. This may come in the form of family, an individual’s well-being and health and also a person’s security of employment.
The next stage up the pyramid is the relationship, love and belonging as earlier stated as individuals we are built to social creatures and to build friendships and relationships is the motivation to fulfil this particular need. The fourth stage is a person sense of self-esteem. This also includes the respect we have of ourselves and the respect we have of other’s; it is our confidence. The highest point of Marlow’s hierarchy of needs and the top of the pyramid is the ultimate fulfilment.
This stage is known as self –actualisation. It is the level that a person realises one self and one’s potential and is the desire or driving force for an individual to become all that they can possibly become. Elton Mayo also put forward another theory, this is the theory that not all individuals regarding the workplace are not only focused on the money but could also be focused by the social need of an individual to be fulfilled in their place of employment.
When working in groups together or when a group is given a certain task there are benefactors who may drive a person’s strive for the input of motivation given by a particular person this could be from benefactors from the size of the group, and an individual’s belief about what other individuals in the group are doing and also the amount of creativity required. If there is a larger group a person’s drive or motivation may not be as strong because the amount of workload can be reduced on a certain individual.
Another benefactor is if individuals feel that a peer or peers are not doing their part or doing the best that they can that individual may also not perform to the best of their ability. If the task that is given out requires low level of creativity the motivation may also not be as strong as that if a task requires a higher amount of creativity or input. Bourne and Russo (1998) also explain that motivation and emotion are closely linked. Motivation involves the needs and goals, whilst emotions involve our feelings when expectancies are not fulfilled (ACAP notes week 9).
According to Robert Plutchik (1980) there are eight primary emotions these being joy, sadness, acceptance, disgust, fear, anger, surprise and anticipation. These emotions can be combined to produce another certain amount of emotion this may come into the form of a mixture of joy and acceptance can produce love; our relationships and friendships are influenced by emotions. Psychologists have discovered a ways that individuals can improve their amount of motivation so an individual can accomplish personal goals. Laurie Pawlik-Kienlen wrote an article covering the topic.
The finding within the article suggested that is to view circumstances from a third person’s perspective rather than that of a person who view issues from a first hand or personal view. Psychologists have found that using the term he or she rather than I can help individuals fulfil their goals and increases the level of motivation a person has for achieving whatever it is that they wish to achieve (www. suite101. com). The subject of improving or strengthening motivation has also shown to be a popular topic with in the work place. Mayo suggests that managers take a greater interest in employees (www. utor2u. net) As individuals we all have the need and want to live a comfortable lifestyle where we are happy and fulfilled but to accomplish this motivation is a major benefactor in the completion of goals or steps that is necessary to be at that stage in life where individuals feel a sense of happiness and completion. If an individual psychologically has the right mind set and motives behind that particular driving force anything is possible.
References: ACAP notes weeks 1 – 9 www. businessperformance. com www. businessperformance. com www. tutor2u. net www. suite101. com
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