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English For Speakers Of Other Languages Program Education Essay

Chapter 1

ESOL or English for Speakers of Other Languages plan is learning English plan that used by Jakarta International School particular for his English as a Second Language ( ESL ) pupil. This plan end is assisting ESL pupils to run into the demand of academically proficiency, that is Basic Interpersonal Communicative accomplishments ( BICS ) and Cognitive Academic Language proficient ( CALP ) .

The course of study of ESOL plan follows the regular schoolroom course of study so that when ESOL pupils come back to their regular schoolroom, they can follow the lesson and able to avoid the struggles or troubles that ever occur in their regular schoolroom when they are confronting some of import topics such as in math, scientific discipline, societal surveies and linguistic communication and humanistic disciplines.

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In maintaining with the description, ESOL plan has an of import function in bettering communicating accomplishments of ESL pupils, so that they can compose and talk English like native.

As a affair of facts, a figure of ESL pupils who have no experience with English able to avoid the jobs in societal interaction and in following the lesson after they joined the plan for 6 months and the advancement get downing to demo on the first 3 months. They can pass on with instructors or friends and following the instructions.

A scholar needs basic societal ( survival ) linguistic communication accomplishments before he/she can believe in that linguistic communication in an academic scene so that they can last in their new school.

ESOL plan has been adopted become one of the particular plan in Jakarta International School since 1992 before JIS used English for ESL. Statement related to ESOL plan as particular plan for ESL can be quoted as follows:

“ In order to fix LEP pupils to successfully get the English linguistic communication, we need to establish our instructional determinations on sound, research-validated patterns that respect the person ; promote lingual and academic excellence ; and construct upon the pupils ‘ linguistic communication, civilization, old cognition, experiences, accomplishments, and endowments. Ignoring what LEP pupils bring with them would be damaging to their educational growing and development. ” ( Gallnick & A ; Chinn, 1990 ) .

Allen, Frohlich, and Spada ( 1984:223 ) province that their construct of communicative characteristic has been derived from current theories of communicative competency, from the literature on communicative linguistic communication instruction, and from a reappraisal of recent research into first and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. The experimental classs are designed ( a ) to capture important characteristics of verbal interaction in L2 schoolroom, and ( B ) to supply a agency of comparing some facets of schoolroom discourse with natural linguistic communication as it is used outside the schoolroom.

Research Questions

Based on the background above, the research inquiries in this survey are:

How is ESOL plan applied to ESL pupils at JIS?

How does ESOL plan work in assisting ESL pupils at JIS to run into the school demand of academic linguistic communication proficiency?

What are the activities that the instructors do in the plan?

Scope of the Study

The survey focuses on depicting the usage of ESOL plan at JIS PIE, so that they can last in their societal interaction and in academic trials. The activities that the instructors do refering on learning learning stuffs and activities that can better pupils linguistic communication accomplishments.

Purpose of the Study

The intent of the survey is to depict how ESOL plan is applied at JIS and besides this plan works in bettering communicating accomplishments of ESL pupil. It related to the teachers-students ‘ activities, refering on learning learning stuffs and activities.

Significance of the Study

The consequence of the survey may hopefully give the images of teachers-students interactions and activities that really go on in ESOL plan that related to the betterment of communicating accomplishments of ESL at JIS PIE. Thus, English Department of Jakarta University ( UNJ ) can take an appropriate manner in developing learning English for ESL in order to better ESL pupils ‘ English accomplishments particularly communication accomplishments.

Chapter 1I

LITERATURE REVIEW

To supply the basic theory of the research related to English for Speaker of Other Languages ( ESOL ) plan, this chapter discusses ESOL in general, ESOL plan at JIS PIE, communicating accomplishments ( BICS and CALP ) of ESL and the usage of ESOL plan that related to the betterment of communicating accomplishments.

Surveies on ESOL Program

ESOL is an acronym for English for Speaker of Other Languages or “ English as a Second Language ( ESL ) is used to place the instruction of English linguistic communication Humanistic disciplines to pupils whose first linguistic communication is other than English while Limited English Proficient ( LEP ) is the term used to place pupils who are in the procedure of geting English linguistic communication accomplishments to to the full work in a school puting without ESOL direction alteration. A LEP pupil is non fluid in all communicative accomplishments a rear of English speech production, listening, composing, or reading and can non vie with equals in an English-Only academic scene.

ESOL plan started in the beginning 1961 when the great inflow of kids from Cuba and go on to the LULAC et Al. v. State Board of Education Consent Decree ( 1990 ) is that LEP pupils will have adequate and appropriate direction to enable them to go through the needed graduation scrutiny and meet other demands for a sheepskin. The plan direction includes both entree to Language Humanistic disciplines direction through the usage of ESOL schemes and direction in the basic capable affair countries of mathematics, scientific discipline, societal surveies, and computing machine literacy. Lee Roberts to Charles Reed, ( 1991 ) said each high school recognition in basic ESOL fulfills an English high school graduation demand. Therefore, pupils who successfully complete Basic ESOL classs should “ have tantamount recognition when using for entry into province universities ” .

LEP pupils are paced in regular English-only direction for most of the twenty-four hours and they receive excess direction in English that is designed to learn English as a Second Language. One of the effectual attacks is “ Pullout ‘ from their content schoolroom to acquire isolation in ESOL category for about 45 proceedingss. In the plan schoolroom instructor works collaboratively with ESOL squad in placing the pupils demands and advancement.

Surveies on ESOL Program at JIS Pondok Indah Elementary

JIS ESOL plan ends are to supply each pupil with the chance to get English through meaningful communicating in a non threatening environment and to provide them with the accomplishments needed to work satisfactorily in the mainstream schoolrooms. The scholar of the plan is ESL pupils that started from class homework to rate five. They face the undertaking of larning to pass on and map good in a linguistic communication which is non their ain.

ESOL classes parallel the grade degree units and accomplishments being taught in the mainstream categories. Coordination between the mainstream schoolroom instructor and the ESOL squad in placing the pupils linguistic communication demands and developing an appropriate plan of direction ( Levine, Ph. D, 1997 ) . It besides based on the research of August & A ; Pease Alvarez, 1996 ; Collier, 1995 ; Nelson, 1996, which indicates that ESOL pupils ‘ linguistic communication acquisition is facilitated by entree to rate degree and disputing course of study, entree to English speech production equals, partnership between ESL and mainstream instructors ; a antiphonal acquisition environment for a scope of larning manners and accomplishment degrees, synergistic acquisition chances ; higher order believing accomplishments ; and a high-quality English Language Arts Program.

The methodological analysiss and attacks which are consistent with the plan ‘s doctrine and ends are:

The Natural Approach ( Krashen & A ; Terrell 1983 ) .

This attack views linguistic communication acquisition as a natural procedure. For basic social/conversational English, pupils should larn to manage simple inquiry and reply state of affairss and able to discourse and compose on subjects of personal involvement. As Asher ( 1982 ) notes that Total Physical Response is a method compatible with preproduction acquisition, utilizing concrete stuffs and visuals AIDSs are effectual ways to guarantee pupil apprehension and at subsequently phase, the pupils should besides be exposed to basic academic vocabulary, survey accomplishments, and larning schemes appropriate to their demand and ability to grok the linguistic communication.

Cognitive Academic linguistic communication Learning Approach ( CALLA ) .

CALLA integrates linguistic communication development, content direction and expressed direction in larning schemes. Cognitive academic linguistic communication accomplishments are integrated in a multidisciplinary attack so that pupils learn linguistic communication construction that will assist them in the mainstream schoolroom.

Functional Notional Approach.

This attack links linguistic communication maps ( e.g. thanking, explain, apologising, measuring ) with grammatical impressions ( constructions needed to show a peculiar map ) . The accent is on communicative, non grammatical competency and is used to back up both societal and academic linguistic communication growing. A functional attack to linguistic communication development is used at JIS because a functional theoretical account of linguistic communication focal points on significance. It sees a resource of sharing information, developing thoughts, acquiring our demands and doing sense of the universe. At JIS there is accent on communicating for specific intents with peculiar audience in head.

Community Language Learning Circle.

This attack stresses the importance of turn toing pupils ‘ single demands and feelings. Language learning can take topographic point in the procedure of the treatment so that they have chances to pattern for covering with their schoolmates and instructors. However, alternatively of direct rectification, rephrasing and theoretical account restatements are most frequently used. Direct instruction of grammar and construction may besides be used when appropriate in a mini lesson format.

Inquiry- Based acquisition.

This attack promotes the thought that pupils are motivated to larn when they find an activity per se interesting and prosecuting. It encourages pupils to believe by oppugning the intent of their acquisition, doing meaningful connexion and pulling decisions.

Multiple Intelligences.

The construct of multiple intelligences encourages the creative activity of effectual acquisition environments through interdisciplinary surveies. Learning through music or motion, making three dimensional constructions, work outing jobs through logic and logical thinking, or understanding relationships between themselves and others, are all illustrations of dynamic springboards for linguistic communication acquisition.

Surveies on Communication Skills of ESL

Communication accomplishment is ability to show your ides clearly in address and authorship. Widdowson ( 1983:57 ) provinces that the purposes of linguistic communication instruction classs are normally defined in term of four accomplishments: speech production, understand address ( listening ) , reading and composing. Speaking is one of the ways to pass on, show your feelings, ideas, or sentiment in unwritten signifier. Bromley ( 1992:282 ) says that speech production is an expressive linguistic communication accomplishment in which the talker uses verbal symbols to pass on. Baker ( 2000 ; 34 ) states the speech production accomplishments is a productive accomplishments, because talker has to supply linguistic communication actively in order to pass on. Calderon ( 1988 ) ; Cohen ( 1986 ) ; Green ( 1991 ) and Kagan ( 1985 ) discuss that concerted acquisition is a dynamic scheme through which pupils develop lingual and academic accomplishments at the same time.

Chamot & A ; O’Malley ( 1994 ) province Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills ( BICS ) or mundane colloquial linguistic communication accomplishments, differ in a figure of ways from cognitive/academic texts, and literacy plants, where as Developing Cognitive/Academic linguistic communication Proficiency ( CALP ) presents a different challenge for 2nd linguistic communication scholars than developing BICS.

BICS is societal linguistic communication. It ‘s the linguistic communication kids use on the resort area and in insouciant conversation when speaking about personal experiences. Often pupils develop BICS eloquence rather rapidly and can see, on the surface, to expose greater linguistic communication proficiency that they really posses. The BICS features as followed:

Universal facets of linguistic communication proficiency that are usually acquired by all native talkers of any linguistic communication.

Colloquial linguistic communication eloquence ; included pronunciation, grammar, basic vocabulary ‘

Ability to understand and talk informally with friends, parents, instructors, schoolmates.

Those linguistic communication accomplishments needed for mundane face-to-face communicating ; personal ; societal state of affairss.

Contexts are non clear and by and large concrete

Not demanding ; non much abstract believing ; becomes about mechanical/automatic.

May take up to two old ages to develop in a 2nd linguistic communication.

CALP is the more formal, academic linguistic communication required to pass on about abstract or complex thoughts. This is the linguistic communication needed for success in the class degree course of study content countries and the CALP features as followed:

Those linguistic communication accomplishments associated with literacy and cognitive development.

Success with tests and academic undertakings.

Language accomplishments required to travel beyond ordinary societal communicating.

Language accomplishments needed for concluding, job resolution, or other cognitive procedures required for academic accomplishment in topic matter/included those academic accomplishments needed to understand and show abstract constructs in the schoolroom such as literacy, job resolution, test-taking, concluding, argument, sentiment.

Cognitively demanding, de contextualized.

May take 5-7 old ages to develop in a 2nd linguistic communication.

CALP developed in a first linguistic communication contributes to the development of CALP in a 2nd linguistic communication.

Cummins ( 1979 ) has conceptualized this in footings of the linguistic communication usage ( from context-embedded to context-reduced ) and of the footings of the grade of cognitive engagement required for communicating ( from cognitively undemanding to cognitively demanding ) :

Cummingss ( 1981 ) , Curtain and Pesola ( 1988, 1994 )

Degree of Difficulty

Examples of Activities

A

( less linguistic communication dependant ; cognitively undemanding )

Presentations

Illustrations

Following waies

P.E. , music, art

Face-to-face conversation

Simple games

Bacillus

( more linguistic communication dependant ; cognitively undemanding )

Telephone conversation

written notes

Oral or written waies for accomplishments already learned

C

( less linguistic communication dependant ; cognitively demanding )

Manipulative-based math activities

Science experiments

Social surveies undertakings ( mapping )

Calciferol

( more linguistic communication dependant ; cognitively demanding )

Contented country accounts without diagrams or illustrations

Mathematic word jobs without illustrations

Explanation of new constructs

Standardized testing

The usage of ESOL plan that related to the betterment of communicating accomplishments of ESL pupils at JIS PIE campus.

Nunan ( 1999 ) province communicating is a collaborative accomplishment in which the talkers negotiate significance in order to accomplish their ends. Therefore, a talker ‘s communicative success will be partially determined by the accomplishments of the other individual. In bettering communicating accomplishments of ESL pupils, ESOL plan works collaboratively with schoolroom the instructors. The activities in ESOL plan is following the lesson or subject that presents in the schoolroom, but in ESOL plan discuss or emphasis more about the diction. However the ESOL plan function more to bridge the ESL pupils into English. Krashen ( 1985 ) province pupils get linguistic communication when they are engage in an activity in which they do non experience pressured. Gallnick & A ; Chinn ( 1990 ) discussed how to do LEP pupils successfully get the English linguistic communication. They need to establish their instructional determination on sound, research-validated patterns that respect the person ; promote lingual and academic excellence ; and construct upon the pupils ‘ linguistic communication, civilization, old cognition, experiences, accomplishments, and endowments.

Nathan birnbaums and Joyce ( 1997:134 ) place three sets of factors that decelerate the betterment of talking accomplishments of ESL pupils. It may be due to cultural factors that derive from scholars ‘ anterior acquisition experiences and the outlooks created by these outlooks. Linguisticss factors include troubles in reassigning from the scholar ‘s first languages to the sounds, rimes, and stress form of English, troubles with the native talker pronunciation of the instructor, a deficiency of apprehension of common grammatical forms in English ( e.g. English tenses ) and how these may be different from their ain linguistic communication, deficiency of acquaintance with the cultural or societal cognition required to treat significance. While psychical and affectional factors include civilization daze, old negative societal or political experiences, deficiency of motive, anxiousness or shyness in category. Bygate ( 1987:4 ) divided talking accomplishments into two sub accomplishments: motor-perceptive and interaction accomplishments. Motor-perceptive accomplishment refers to the ability to comprehend, remember, and joint the cognition in the right order sounds and construction of the linguistic communication. Mackey ( 1965:266 ) in Bygate ( 1987:5 ) argues that in order to be good at speech production, one has to take the right signifiers and words, utilize them in the correct forms, be able to sound like a native talker and convey the right significance. This accomplishment can be developed through the speech production exercisings such as theoretical account duologue, pattern pattern, unwritten drill, expression and say exercisings, and unwritten composing. While interaction accomplishments refer to the ability to command the linguistic communication production and do picks such as doing determinations about communicating affecting what to state, how to state and develop it, how to keep the coveted dealingss with others, and so on.

The non-native talkers need to be cognizant that the linguistic communication is tightly related to the civilization. They have to cognize what is accepted and non in the mark linguistic communication. As stated by Robinson ( 1991 ) , cited by Celce-Murcia et. Al ( 1995:25 ) in their article, that the acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication can non be separated with the acquisition of the 2nd civilization.

Montgomery and Eisenstein ( 1985 ) supported that chances to pattern the linguistic communication in communicative state of affairss was of import for linguistic communication acquisition.

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research inquiry in this survey Base on the background above, the research inquiries in this survey are:

How is ESOL plan applied to ESL pupils at JIS?

How does ESOL plan work in assisting ESL pupils at JIS to run into the school demand of academic linguistic communication proficiency? And

What are the activities that the instructors do in the plan?

In order to reply the inquiries above, this survey was designed as a descriptive analytical survey which applied interview and observation as the methods of the survey.

3.1. Data Collection Methods

The informations aggregation method involved the participant, clip and topographic point, instruments of the survey, and informations aggregation processs.

3.1.1. Participant of the Study

After detecting several times in ESOL category, it was found that two instructors use the same scheme and attack in bettering communicating accomplishments of participants, while the other one merely concentrate on reading. The topics of these three ESOL instructors is every night reading books, while the two instructors who taught communications accomplishments, taught subject, word of the twenty-four hours, board games and analogy. These two categories are more merriment than the other one.

Interview sources

The interview sources of the survey were the three instructors who taught ESOL and six ESOL pupils from class one that taken indiscriminately from the three categories. Burns ( 2002 ) notes that trying mistake is reduced by stratification for the sample can non differ from the population with regard to the stratifying factors. Stratified sampling is trying in which group within the population are each sampled indiscriminately because population can be divided on the footing of societal category rank, sex, degree of intelligence or degree of anxiousness.

The three instructors as interview sources were besides the topics of the survey in the schoolroom observation.

3.1.2. The Time and Place of Study

The survey was conducted in ESOL categories at Jakarta International School Pondok Indah Elemenetary ( JIS PIE ) . The schoolroom observation was done from October 2006 to May 2007 while the interview was around January 2007 and May 2007.

The Instruments of the Study

In obtaining the information, the survey used schoolroom observation and guided interview as the instruments of the survey

Classroom Observation

Classroom observation was chosen as a agency of roll uping informations that is to acquire the information and description every bit exactly as possible by capturing important characteristics of verbal interaction in ESOL categories and description of schoolroom activities that relate to communicative characteristics or the usage of mark linguistic communication. Allen, Frohlich, and Spada ( 1984:223 ) note that the experimental classs are designed to capture important characteristics of verbal interaction in L2 schoolrooms, and to supply a agency of comparing some facets of schoolroom discourse with natural linguistic communication as it is used outside the schoolroom.

It took topographic point in Jakarta International School Pondok Indah Elementary at Kamboja 24 and 25 faculties and was done from October 2006 to May 2007. The schoolroom observation of the instructor 1 ( ESOL1 ) was done from October 2006 to November 2006. For instructor 2 ( ESOL 2 ) the observation was done from January 2007 to February 2007, and teacher 3 ( ESOL 3 ) the observation was done from April 2007 to May 2007. The information recorded base on the Nunan ( 1993 ) about COLT strategy as reference below. All activities that the instructors did during the categories was recorded and noted on the observation notes ( field notes )

Lightbown and Spada ( 1993 ) found that schoolroom informations from a figure of surveies offer support for the position that form-focused direction and disciplinary feedback provided within the context of a communicative plan are more effectual in advancing 2nd linguistic communication acquisition.

Chaudron ( 1988 ) identifies 84 different classs in the COLT ( Communication Orientation of Language learning ) . The COLT consists of the description of schoolroom activities, it consist of: the activity type, the participant organisation, the content, the pupil mode, and stuffs, and it relates to communicative characteristics such as the usage of the mark linguistic communication, information spread, sustained address, reaction to code or message, incorporation of predating vocalization, discourse induction, and comparative limitation to lingual signifier. The purpose of this strategy is to enable the perceiver to depict every bit exactly as possible.

Classroom Observation Scheme:

Table 1 QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF THE COLT SCHEME

Feature

Questions

Part A: schoolroom Activities

1a. Activity type

2a. Participant organisation

3a. Content

4a. Student mode

5a. Materials

Part B: schoolroom linguistic communication

1b. Use mark linguistic communication

2b. Information spread

3b. Sustained address

4b. Chemical reaction to code message

5b. Incorporation of predating vocalization

6b. Discourse induction

7b. Relative limitation of lingual signifier

What is the activity type -e.g. , drill, function drama, command?

Is the instructor working with the whole category or non?

Are pupils working in groups or separately?

If group work, how is or organized?

Is the focal point on schoolroom direction, linguistic communication ( signifier, map, discourse, sociolinguistics ) , or other?

Is the scope of subjects wide or narrow

Who selects the topic-teacher, pupils, or both?

Are pupils involved in listening, speech production, reading, composing, or combination of these?

What types of stuffs are used?

How long is the text?

What is the source/purpose of the stuffs?

How controlled is their usage?

To what extent is the mark linguistic communication used?

To what extent is requested information predictable in progress?

Is discourse extended or restricted to a individual sentence, clause or word?

Does the middleman react to code or message?

Does the talker integrate the predating vocalization into the his or her part?

So scholars have chances to originate discourse?

Does the instructor expect a specific signifier, or is there no outlook of a peculiar lingual signifier?

Nunan, D. ( 1993 ) . Research Methods in Language Learning ( p. 99 ) . Cambridge University Press.

Interview

Interview was chosen as a agency of roll uping informations that is to acquire more item information about how this plan works in bettering their communicating accomplishments. As Johnston ( 1985 ) said, the unwritten interview has been used by 2nd linguistic communication acquisition research worker seeking informations on phases and procedures of acquisition and Ingram ( 1984 ) said that it besides as a agency of measuring proficiency. Brown and Rodgers ( 2002 ) describe interview is done orally face to confront format on telephone or in groups and that is besides the most utile for detecting what the issues are in a peculiar study undertaking or even for happening out which inquiries should be asked.

Hammersley & A ; Atkinson, 1983 ) province the interview format could be described as brooding. To minimise the research worker ‘s influence on what the interviewee said, but at the same clip the interview followed a model so that they covered certain cardinal countries identified in my ongoing related research and my reading of the literature. The inquiries asked in the interview were designed to arouse a big sample of vocalizations ( Spradley, 1979 ) . Participants were encouraged to reply at length. Initial inquiry largely open-ended and descriptive ( Spradley, 1979 ) , such as “ Can you describe the typical part from ESOL plan for you ” ? And “ Do you run into some jobs with math and scientific discipline? Do the ESOL plan helps you in the category? “ , and “ Do you run into some jobs with your instructor and friends when you interacted with them or make they understand what you said and do you understand what they want? “ , “ How make you manage that? Structural inquiries ( Spradley, 1979 ) , such as “ Could you give me other illustrations of jobs you have in the regular schoolroom.

The interview was addressed around January 2007 and May 2007 to six ESOL pupils and for the three ESOL instructors, interview was taken at the same twenty-four hours with the schoolroom observation that is after the schoolroom observation done. There were 12 inquiries for pupils and 10 for instructors included 6 points for the constructs of ESOL, 2 points for the parts of ESOL and 2 for ESOL plan that related to communicating accomplishments betterment, prepared before carry oning the interview. The interview is to expect the possible failings of questionnaire as Burns ( 2002 ) described, who purposes there is no chance to get auxiliary experimental informations. Besides, the respondents ‘ motive for replying the questionnaire is unknown.

Model for Analysis of Interview Data for Teachers

Material

Questions

Concepts of ESOL

ESOL parts

ESOL plan plants related to the communicative accomplishments ( BICS and CALP ) betterment

What is ESOL plan?

Why do they hold to fall in the plan? And how?

How the ESOL plan plants in placing advancement or failings of the pupils?

What is BICS AND CALP?

How do you develop pupils BICS and CALP?

What stuff do you utilize for your category?

What is ESOL model?

What is the English linguistic communication proficiency criterion for ESOL pupil?

How ESOL plan helps ESL to run into academically linguistic communication proficiency ( BICS and CALP ) Can you explicate it?

How make you assist them in avoiding jobs in their content schoolroom such as:

Manipulative-based math activities?

Mathematic word jobs without illustrations?

Science experiments?

Explanations of new constructs?

Maping undertakings?

Standardized testing?

What skills normally do ESOL pupils show first or survive? Reading, speech production, or composing?

Spradley, J. P. ( 1979 ) . The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart & A ; Winston.

Model for Analysis of Interview Data for pupils

Material

Questions

Concepts of ESOL

ESOL parts

ESOL plan plants in bettering communicative accomplishments ( BICS and CALP )

What is ESOL plan?

Why do you hold to fall in the plan?

Can you talk English now?

Make you understand when your friends or instructors ask you to make something? Or can you explicate to them what you want or what you mean?

Make you still have any jobs with English? Yes ( what is that? )

How ESOL plan helps you into English or what do you make in the plan? Can you depict it?

Now, do you hold any jobs in making:

Manipulative-based math activities?

Mathematic word jobs without illustrations?

Science experiments?

Explanations of new constructs?

Maping undertakings?

Standardized testing?

What can you make best? Reading, speech production, or composing?

Spradley, J. P. ( 1979 ) . The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart & A ; Winston.

Data Collection Procedures

The informations were obtained through schoolroom observation and interview. Classroom observation of ESOL 1 category was conducted for two months ( October to November 2006 ) . Classroom observation of ESOL 2 Class was conducted for two months ( January to February 2007 ) and classroom observation of ESOL3 category was conducted for besides two months ( April to May 2007 ) .The instructors ‘ activities refering on learning learning stuffs and activities were recorded and noted. The information of the instructors ‘ activities that could non be obtained through entering were noted on the field notes.

The informations could non be obtained through schoolroom observation were collected through interview. The interview were addressed to the three ESOL instructors and 6 ESOL pupils from grade one or beginner degree. The interviews of the three instructors were done after the schoolroom observation while the interviews for the six pupils were done from January 2007 to May 2007. The inquiries included in interview sheet were asked to all interviewees.

3.2. Datas Analysis

Data collected in this survey were analyzed by concentrating them into ESOL plan plants to accomplish academically linguistic communication proficiency of ESL that included learning larning scheme and attack, stuff and activities. In term of scheme and attack the informations were obtained to analyse what sort of schemes and approaches the instructors used to develop communicating accomplishments. In term of learning larning stuffs, the informations were obtained to analyse what sort of stuff s the instructors used to develop pupils BICS and CALP so that they can last in their societal interaction and following the lesson in the category or making the appraisal ( test ) , whether the stuffs were reliable, who provided the stuffs, and troubles of acquiring the appropriate stuffs experienced by the instructors. In term of learning larning activities, the informations were used to depict schoolroom speech production, reading and composing activities promoted by the instructors

Chapter IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY

In this chapter, the information analysis and the consequence of the survey will be presented in order to reply the research inquiry of the survey: How does ESOL plan work in assisting ESL pupils at JIS to run into the school demand of academic linguistic communication proficiency? What schemes and attacks, stuffs and activities instructors use and do in the plan?

The information collected will analyzed by categorising them into three concerns of instructors ‘ activities which are learning larning scheme and attack, learning larning stuff and activities. The information besides involves the exposure and the treatment of the ESOL course of study and model.

4.1. Datas Analysis

4.1.1. The Activities of Teacher 1 ( ESOL 1 )

Teaching Learning Material

In ESOL 1 category, when the instructor was learning a group grade one ( beginner degree ) , she merely focused on reading, but when she taught progress novice degree, she applied assorted activities for assorted linguistic communication accomplishments. From the interview she said that assorted activities for assorted linguistic communication accomplishments applied for all categories she taught.

I: How do you develop your pupils ‘ BICS and CALP? And what stuff do you utilize for your category?

ESOL 1: My category was non merely concentrating on reading accomplishments. To develop BICS, I gave cardinal words of the twenty-four hours. It bridged them in to basic societal interaction linguistic communication. Sometimes I gave them an synergistic board games or words games to do them pattern their societal interaction and normally I end the twenty-four hours with composing a diary.

But on mundane observation of the ESOL 1 category for beginner degree ( rate one ) did non demo that phenomenon because the activities were ever the same.

The stuffs that the instructors used merely taken from one beginning that was flat books from ESOL 1class library and there was non from any beginnings such as newspaper, magazines or cyberspace.

Teaching Learning Activities

The ESOL 1 instructor did different activities for progress novice degree, but for the novice degree she merely focused to reading. In novice degree she has 6 pupils for about 45 proceedingss. She opened the category with Silent reading. Students took the book base on their degree and read it by themselves for two times while ESOL 1 instructor merely working on her computing machine. This activity occurred approximately 5 to 7 proceedingss. Their degree book criterion was introduced by their schoolroom instructors.

After that, the instructors announced Reading to Friend. Here they read each others for two times. At this clip, the instructor maintain working on her computing machine and in approximately 2 proceedingss she start joined the pupils and name one pupil to read it to her while her spouse joined to the other group. Then she asked approximately chief thought, plotting, characters, how the narrative begins and how the narrative terminal, who the favourite character in the narrative is and why do they like it, and sometimes she asked to recite the narrative.

The activities so continued to the following phase that was Show and Tell. Here the pupils have to state a narrative about anything. It can be about an interesting journey, favourite plaything, an interesting thing that they merely bought or got, or everything that made them desire to portion with others while the instructor listens attentively and helps for some hard words. This activity focused on speech production. The point of hiting was how they told the narrative, confidently or get downing to be a confident talkers. This activity besides can non be applied to all pupils since the restriction of the clip.

The findings show that ESOL1 teacher frequently assigned the pupils to work in braces foremost before inquiring them to work separately and the activities in this category show that the instructor merely focused on reading accomplishments and small spot to talking country. From the interview with 2 novices flat pupils ( rate one ) from ESOL1 category show that:

I: what make you make in ESOL category?

ESOL 1 s1: It so deadening, you know? Everyday we have to read and read after that Show and Tell. That ‘s all.

I: nil else?

ESOL 1 s2: No, nil else, every meeting like that. It ‘s so deadening. I hate to travel to the ESOL category.

The Activities of Teacher 2 ( ESOL 2 )

Teaching Learning Material

In ESOL 2 category, the instructor used many sorts of stuffs. For Discuss the Book, the stuff was from the degree book from her category library. For the Morning Words, she used the hard words from the book discussed. In Language Room, she wrote some sentences to bridge them in their societal interactions To Your Schoolmates, To Your Teacher and Teacher To you, such as ‘do you haveaˆ¦ ( capable ) aˆ¦today? ‘ , ‘what doesaˆ¦ ( word ) aˆ¦ mean? ‘ , ‘I do n’t understandaˆ¦ ( word ) aˆ¦ ‘ , ‘hand in your prep tomorrow ‘ . For Language Deductions, she introduced some words that taken from the subject in their content schoolroom. For illustration the subject was about World of Work from Social Studies subjects in class one, after that she asked them to compose about the same subject on their writing diary and some of the board games.

Teaching Learning Activities

In ESOL 2 category, the learning acquisition activities were assorted. The instructor used different activities on different meetings ( 2 yearss a hebdomad ) . This was a little category with merely 3 or 4 pupils each session. Different with the ESOL category 1 the figure of pupils some times 6 individual ( 2 category of class one together ) .

The ESOL 2 instructor opened the lesson with soundless reading for two times and so she called them one by one to show their book in Discuss the Book. Here the instructor sat together with the pupils and so she asked them about the chief thought, the character, how the narrative Begin, how the narrative terminal, plotting, the best portion of the narrative, and the hard words. Students worked separately. From here, she developed the hard words into Morning Word. She asked another pupil to construe the word and eventually she told them the significance. After Morning Word the lesson moved to Language Room. The instructor introduced some of the conversation linguistic communication that normally used in their societal interaction to their schoolmate or instructor. Students worked together and discussed the words ‘ significance and the instructor so when she found that her pupils reply was non right straight explained the significance. For the following lesson was Show and Tell, but sometimes they did Writing Journal or played a board game such as Parachutes and Ladders, Candyland, Uno, Yatzee, Clue, Sorry, Leggos, cards games, draughtss and cheat. Sometimes in some juncture she taught different activities than it was such as in for UN Day, Earth Day or Indonesian Week.

The Activities of Teacher 3 ( ESOL 3 )

Teaching Learning Material

In ESOL 3 category, the instructor used many sorts of stuffs. For Discuss the Book, she used book from the degree book in her schoolroom library. She used the hard words from the book discussed for the Morning Words. In Language Room, she discussed some sentences on the white board. For Language Deductions, she introduced some words that taken from the subject in their content schoolroom. For subject of the twenty-four hours, she prepares a brochure, light brown colour, tan colour, ruddy, tap, black and white of manilla documents, gum, markers, and scissors.

Teaching Learning Activities

In ESOL 3 category, the learning acquisition activities were about the same with instructor ESOL 2. ESOL 3 category merely taught progress novice to intercede degree, so that the category activities were small spot higher than the other categories. The activities more about public presentation words such as public presentation verbs that based on the six Aspects of Understanding. They are: explain, interpret, apply, position, empathy, and self-knowledge.

The instructor opened the lesson with Discuss the Book. Here the instructor asked them about the chief thought, the character, how the narrative Begin, how the narrative terminal, plotting, the best portion of the narrative, and the hard words. Teacher sat together with her pupils and helped them when they found any troubles. From here, she moved to topic of the twenty-four hours. They made A Rain cervid Puppet. She asked the pupils to do like the sample on the white board. After they finished the occupation, they are asked to make the brochure. The brochure was about how to do a Rain cervid Puppet. They have to compose the procedure of doing a caribou marionette, but they besides have to compose the ground why they have to make that activity.

Teaching Learning Activities

Activities

Nightly Reading

Discuss Book

Morning Wordss

Show & A ; Tell

Language Room

Language Deduction

Analogy

Board Games

Writing Journal

Novice

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

Advance Beginner

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

Consequences of the Study

The findings showed that in ESOL plan ESOL squad works together with schoolroom instructors. In ESOL squad there are ESOL instructors, specializers, frailty rule and parents. The ESOL plan ends can be achieved because of this solid coaction and schemes, attacks and activities that are used in learning learning activities.

In Using the plan ESOL 1 instructor, taught less assorted activities so that her pupils felt that ESOL 1 category was non fun, but tiring. It was supported from the interview with 2 of her pupils. When the research worker asked her about it in illegal interview that was at the terminal of the observation twenty-four hours, she answered that it was based on the demand of the schoolroom instructors.

I: Ma’am, why do you learn beginner degree with less assorted activities and merely concentrate to one or two accomplishment?

ESOL1: Oo, that was non as what I want. The schoolroom instructors ‘ required this. I merely followed to what they want. Make you understand?

I: Sooner state, I got it ma’am. Thank you.

And when the research worker asked about this to the schoolroom instructor, the schoolroom instructor said that she did n’t necessitate anything from the ESOL instructor. If the manner ESOL 1 teacher taught like that the schoolroom instructors feel disagree as pupils have had that sort of activities in their regular schoolroom.

ESOL 2 and 3 instructors look like more manageable. They applied about all schemes, attacks and activities of ESOL plan. The consequence from the interview to their pupils besides the same, that they feel happy for this category and the plan truly helped them in making the trials and appraisals in their regular schoolroom.

The consequence for ESOL1, ESOL 2, ESOL 3 category in pupils betterments in their advancement study were about the same. The different merely showed on their day-to-day public presentation. ESOL 1 pupils in their regular schoolroom still met some jobs in making some topics. They still have n’t improved their cognitive accomplishments because less of pattern in ESOL category before it besides means that they have n’t truly avoided from the struggle in the schoolroom. But ESOL 2 and ESOL 3 pupils can make it swimmingly. They can avoid from the struggle in the schoolroom.

The consequences described that the plan was non truly effectual if the instructors can non transform the accomplishments really good. Activity is one of the ways to pattern the accomplishments, so when a instructor used less assorted activities for some accomplishments, the learning accomplishments can non run into the instruction mark.

In ESOL plan instance ; there was a solid coaction between ESOL instructors and schoolroom instructors in bettering communicative accomplishments of ESL pupils. Even though ESOL 1 category consequences were non truly good, it is still helped by the schoolroom instructors. Here, the schoolroom instructors were more active than the ESOL instructor. They used assorted activities and stuffs to hike their pupils ‘ accomplishments, but it does n’t intend that the ESOL instructors can trust on them.

Chapter V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Decision

In ESOL plan, ESOL instructors and schoolroom instructors have to do a good coaction in bettering their pupils ‘ accomplishments that is communicating accomplishments without it the plan end can non be achieved. The ESOL methods and attacks that are used at JIS to better Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills ( BICS ) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency ( CALP ) are Natural Approach is used for learning basic conversation. CALLA attack is used to learn content direction and linguistic communication construction. Functional Notional attack is used to learn linguistic communication map that is focused on communicating. Community Language Learning Circle attack is used to learn the importance of turn toing pupils ‘ single demands and feelings. Inquiry-Based Learning attack is used to construct pupil ‘s motive in larning when they find activity per se interesting and prosecuting. And Multiple Intelligence is used to promote the creative activity of effectual acquisition environments through interdisciplinary surveies.

Their coaction was non merely in placing the pupils ‘ failings, but besides the pupils advancement in some mark accomplishments. The ESOL instructors record their pupils ‘ advancement and study it to the schoolroom instructor. Here the schoolroom instructor supervised their pupils ‘ advancement and betterment. If under her supervising the pupils showed different from ESOL instructors ‘ study, the schoolroom instructors will discourse it once more with the ESOL instructors.

All the stuffs that pupils got or learned in ESOL category were utile in their societal interaction and in making their undertakings, lessons and appraisals in their regular schoolroom. The subjects of the lesson in ESOL category followed the regular schoolroom course of study, so it is coherency between learning and the application.

In Jakarta International School Pondok Indah Elementary all the ESOL instructors use assorted activities to better ESL pupils ‘ communicating accomplishments, but merely one ESOL instructor who was non making the same activities as the other ESOL instructors for all her categories. For beginner degree in ESOL 1, pupils merely faced reading and reading in all session at every meeting. Different from the other ESOL categories that are used assorted activities and stuffs in their instruction acquisition activities, these categories were more merriment than ESOL 1 category that the pupils felt deadening and did non enthusiast to travel to ESOL category and fall in the plan.

All instructors promoted BICS and CALP betterment, but it can non be achieved with all ESOL instructors without working together with the schoolroom instructors. The mark learning accomplishments focal point for every instructor was besides different. Based on the category room observation, ESOL 1 instructor merely focused her learning larning on reading and talking accomplishments while the remainder focused on all accomplishments that are required more activities and stuffs in their instruction acquisition activities.

Unfortunately, instructor who ever gives less assorted activities and stuffs does n’t desire to open her head and repair her instruction scheme and attack. So at this clip, the ESOL plan ends can non successfully be achieved.

5.2 Recommendation

The methods, schemes, attacks, stuffs and activities that are used in ESOL plan truly improved the ESL communicating accomplishments, and this is supported by the schoolroom instructors and the activities. It will ever be coherency because the ESOL course of study followed the regular schoolroom course of study. So that all the ESOL instructors have to use them in their instruction acquisition activities.

The coaction between ESOL instructors and schoolroom instructors must be supported by the coaction among ESOL instructors. To accomplish the instruction mark, all instructors have to work together. The plan that are already applied and win for along clip, have to be supported.

The ESOL instructor who did non use all the ESOL instruction methods, schemes and attacks have to repair her public presentation, so that the plan end of ESL pupils proficiency in BICS and CALP can successfully be achieved.

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English For Speakers Of Other Languages Program Education Essay. (2018, Aug 23). Retrieved September 19, 2019, from https://phdessay.com/english-for-speakers-of-other-languages-program-education-essay/.