Emergence of Communicative Language Teaching
Discuss the three terms “Approach”, “Method” and “Technique” and describe one Approach which provides the basis for a Method and subsequently some Techniques under that particular Method.APPROACH Theories about the nature of language and language learning Theory of language Structural Functional Interactional METHOD Objectives Organization of Content Syllabus Design Roles 1.Learner2.
Teacher3. Materials Types of Interaction Types of activities
Content Based TECHNIQUEImplementation of the design Classroom Practice Activities behavior’s In English language teaching process, there are terms that teachers need to know. They are approach, method, and technique. About four decades ago (1963) Edward M. Anthony gave us a definition that has admirably withstood the test of time. According to Edward M. Anthony an approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of the language and the nature of language teaching and learning. In other words the word ‘approach’ in ELT refers to different theories about the nature of language and how languages are learned.
Let us move on to our second definition – of method. Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based on selected approach. It consists of a number of techniques, arranged in an order. When we talk about techniques we mean specific activities which take place in a classroom. Using flash cards in the classroom is a technique. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach too. According to Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics, Approach refers to different theories about the nature of the language and how languages are learned.
Method refers to a way of teaching a language based on systematic principles. It is an application of views on how language is taught and learned. Technique refers to what takes place in the classroom. The forthcoming analysis focuses on the behaviourist approach, the audio lingual method and different drilling techniques. The Audio-Lingual Method The Audio-lingual method is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory. Behaviourist theory professes that certain traits of living things could be trained through a system of reinforcement.
The Audio-lingual method was widely used in the United States and other countries in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The theory underlying Audio-lingual method is that ‘language is primarily speech’. If listening and speaking skills were developed, they would form the foundation for developing reading and writing skills. As learning a language is acquiring a certain set of habits, this method recommends that the teachers of English should take up pronunciation practice, pattern drills and conversation practice in their classroom regularly.
Another principle that has become the basis for this method is that all of us have learnt our languages by listening to the language spoken by others and speaking it starting with monosyllabic disyllabic sounds. According to ELT experts a second language can be learnt in this way. The Audio-lingual method is a method that deals with a behaviorist theory that uses stimulus, response, and reinforcement. STIMULUSRESPONSEREINFORCEMENT Here are some psychological foundations of the Audio-lingual method. Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit formation.
Good habits are formed by giving correct responses rather than by mistakes. By memorizing dialogues and performing pattern drills the chances of producing mistakes are minimized. Language is verbal behaviour. Language skills are learned more effectively if they are presented orally first, then in written or printed form. An analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis. Analogy involves the process of generalization and discrimination. Explanation of how language functions under certain rules is not given by the teacher.
Students should practice a pattern in different contexts and arrive at the analogy between the first and the second language. The teaching of grammar is best done inductively rather than deductively. The meanings that the words of a language have for the native speaker can be learnt only in a linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation. Teaching a language thus involves teaching aspects of the cultural system of that people who speak the language. Dialogues and drills form the basis of Audio-lingual classroom practices.
The use of drills and pattern practice is a distinctive feature of the Audio-lingual method. Various kinds of drills are used. Types of Oral Drills Repetition: where the student repeats an utterance as soon as he hears it Teacher: This is the seventh month. Student: This is the seventh month Inflection: Where one word in a sentence appears in another form when repeated Teacher: I ate the sandwich. Student: I ate the sandwiches. Replacement: Where one word is replaced by another Teacher: He bought the car for half-price. Student: He bought it for half-price. Restatement: The student re-phrases an utterance
Teacher: Tell me not to smoke so often. Student: Don’t smoke so often! Completion: where the student repeats the utterance in completed form. Techer: I’ll go my way and you go. Student: I’ll go my way and you go yours. Instruction materials in the Audio-lingual method assist the teacher to develop language mastery in the learner. •Tape recorders •Audiovisual equipments •Language laboratory In the late 1950s, the theoretical underpinnings of the method were questioned by linguists such as Noam Chomsky, who pointed out the limitations of structural linguistics.
Despite being discredited as an effective teaching methodology in 1970, audio-lingualism continues to be used today. REFERENCES ?Richard. C. Jack and Rodgers. S. Theodore. 2003. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. ?Rao Venugopal, K. 2002. Methods of Teaching English. Neelkamal Publications. pvt. ltd ? Allen, B. Teaching English as a Second Language. 1965. ?http//www. mindmeister. com ?http://en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/audio-lingual-method