The policy of any country or individual or group of individuals to conduct business and induce growth in the GDP is known as its economic conduct- it has global impact by way of international trade, foreign exchange and fiscal policies too. Nowadays economic policies are increasingly governed and shaped by global factors and imperatives.
So the overall situation is dynamic and ever changing Political conduct essentially means what ideologies determine the policies and the leadership of any country, and how the representatives who form the leadership or Government interpret the ideologies and run the country- e.
g. democracy, monarchy, communist state, fascism, etc. Political conduct determines loyalties and groups, collective developmental activities and global initiatives, and the overall growth of a country or state. Existentialism Defines the thought processes of those who believe and profess that it is we ourselves who create the essence and raison d etre in our lives, and not people above us or before us, or religious dogmas or deities. It is a school of thought which believes in finding things out in its own way, and do not believe in traditions, or what is already there and proved.
They refuse to conform to any one school of thought. Existentialists like to set out and find their own way. They believe that there is surely a reason to exist and that existence precedes consciousness. Some of them even think that the concept of having a God is obsolete- that’s not what they need! As a result of the wide approach, they seldom agree with each other as well on various things. But they all seek a meaning in their lives by their beliefs in existence. Jean Paul Sartre was an existentialist. (you could read more through Googlesearch)
Machiavellian Politics. Machiavelli a political thinker propounded the view that the ‘ends justifies the means’- so if you have used arbitrary or unacceptable means and achieved whatever you had set out to achieve, in his view, it is justified. As long as the end result is in the interest of the majority of the people, its fine. This form of politics is not very ethical, in fact quite radical, often used by the very ambitious, and quite often successful! It has an element of shrewdness and negative connotation. Not very favourable with the conservatives.
You could go to the Net and read his book ‘The Prince’ in its translated version. Platonic Justice In his book, The Republic, written in 360 BC, Greek philosopher Plato has defined every conduct and every action required to govern a country. In short, the elements which contributed to creating and running of an effective Government at that point in time are all defined by him. It is another matter that over the centuries, transformations have happened, and though the basic aspiration of the government (to take care of its citizens/ public) stays the same, the rules of the game have changed dramatically.
Platonic justice is the name given to his version of justice, as also propounded by Socrates before him- how a shoemaker must continue being a shoemaker because it is only fair that he does what he is good at, etc. (Please Googlesearch ‘The Republic by Plato’ and read on the Net for more) Monetarism Milton Friedman, the father of Monetarism, says that money supply (the amount of money in any economy at a given point in time) is the chief determinant of the level of economic activity at that point in time, especially with regards to the demand side.
) Capitalism Capitalism is a form of liberal economic policy and governance where private entrepreneurship is given priority over government intervention in economic activity (all activities which contribute to a country’s GDP), because it has been seen and believed that private sector tends to be more progressive and efficient as a result of ensuing competition- each capitalist entrepreneur tries to be better than his competitor because that way he can earn higher profits, have a higher market cap, and prosper better.
US is one of the very early capitalist countries, which explains the leadership position, while other countries were still being conservative and trying out a mixed economy model, or a communistic model. Communism Communism is a political term used to describe the ideologies of Karl Marx, the father of Communism. He firmly believed that the state or country should be run totally by the government, where everyone is equal- there is no blue collar and white collar demarcation and there is no private sector or capitalist aspirations.
The Government is supreme and all people are equal in the eyes of the government. ‘From each according to his ability to each according to his need’ was his rule for governance. We owe May Day to Communism- it is Labour Day. His famous words: “Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains- you have a world to win! ” You could read his treatise ‘Das Kapital’(translated version) – its available quite easily. Communist ideologies are exactly the opposite of Capitalist thinking.