Population is all the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define the population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border.
Ecosystem which consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight.It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment. The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a community. ] In a typical ecosystem, plants and other photosynthetic organisms are the producers that provide the food. Ecosystems can be permanent or temporary. Ecosystems usually form a number of food webs species • A taxonomic rank (the basic rank of Biological classification) or • a unit at that rank (in which case the plural is “species”.This is sometimes abbreviated: “spec. ” or “sp. singular, or “spp. ” plural). There are many definitions of what kind of unit a species is (or should be). A common definition is that of a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring of both sexes (except in the case of asexually reproducing species), and separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not normally happen. Other debatable definitions may focus on similarity of DNA or morphology. Some species are further subdivided into subspecies, and here also there is no close agreement on the criteria to be used Biotic means relating to, produced by, or caused by living organisms.Abiotic Nonliving, as in abiotic factor, which is a nonliving physical and chemical attribute of a system, for example light, temperature, wind patterns, rocks, soil, pH, pressure, etc. in an environment. PRODUCERS An autotrophic organism that serves as a source of food for other organisms in a food chain. Producers include green plants, which produce food through photosynthesis, and certain bacteria that are capable of converting inorganic substances into food through chemosynthesis. Compare consumer. Consumers An individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture or resale.A consumer is someone who can make the decision whether or not to purchase an item at the store, and someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements. Any time someone goes to a store and purchases a toy, shirt, beverage, or anything else, they are making that decision as a consumer. Carnivore meaning ‘meat eater’ (Latin carne meaning ‘flesh’ and vorare meaning ‘to devour’), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are considered obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are considered facultative carnivores. Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore, or an omnivore from a facultative herbivore, for that matter. A carnivore that sits at the top of the foodchain is an apex predator.Omnivore An organism that eats both plants and animals. An animal which is able to consume both plants (like a herbivore) and meat (like a carnivore). Decomposer An organism, often a bacterium or fungus, that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter, thus making organic nutrients available to the ecosystem. Food chain Linkages of organisms within an ecosystem, in which each link feeds on the one before it and is fed on by the one after it. Only the first link in the chain (called herbage) is a producer and all the rest are consumers.Different food chains intertwine with one another and form the intricate networks called food webs. Food web Network of food chains or feeding relationships by which energy and nutrients are passed on from one specie of living organisms to another. Competition Stage in project financing where (after the completion test) the cash flows from the project itself become the primary source of repayment of the loans. Before completion, the sponsors of the project or its turnkey contractor is the primary source. SymbiosisClose association or relationship between two or more living organisms, where at least one receives some sort of benefit from the relationship. Common examples in the animal kingdom include certain species of birds who eat parasites or bugs off the skin of elephants, and a bee which eats the nectar of flowers and in turn spreads the pollen which allows the flower to reproduce. Predation describes a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of its prey and the eventual absorption of the prey’s tissue through consumption. The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic material (detritus). It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviors, for example where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse.The key characteristic of predation however is the predator’s direct impact on the prey population. On the other hand, detritivores simply eat what is available and have no direct impact on the “donor” organism(s). parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the host. In general, parasites are much smaller than their host, show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life, and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts.Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms, flukes, the Plasmodium species, and fleas. Parasitism is differentiated from parasitoidism, a relationship in which the host is always killed by the parasite such as moths, butterflies, ants, flies and others. The harm and benefit in parasitic interactions concern the biological fitness of the organisms involved.Parasites reduce host fitness in many ways, ranging from general or specialized pathology (such as castration), impairment of secondary sex characteristics, to the modification of host behaviour. Parasites increase their fitness by exploiting hosts for food, habitat and dispersal. Although the concept of parasitism applies unambiguously to many cases in nature, it is best considered part of a continuum of types of interactions between species, rather than an exclusive category.Particular interactions between species may satisfy some but not all parts of the definition. In many cases, it is difficult to demonstrate that the host is harmed. In others, there may be no apparent specialization on the part of the parasite, or the interaction between the organisms may be short-lived. In medicine, only eukaryotic organisms are considered parasites, with the exclusion of bacteria and viruses. Some branches of biology, however, regard members of