Comparative Study Of Styles And Patterns Of Code Switching
Code-switching is known as the switch from one codification ( linguistic communication ) to another within the same context. It is besides known as a state of affairs where a individual is able to jump between two or more linguistic communications in his or her discourse. In her book, Myers-Scotton ( 1993 ) said that code-switching is a conventional method of communicating in any bilingual or multilingual society.
Hence, in a multilingual state like Malaysia, it is customary for us to see a merger of one or more linguistic communications, idioms and manners in spoken and besides written signifiers.
The promotion of the epoch of multimedia and engineering agencies that code-switching is no longer restricted to talk signifier but it can be observed in written signifier excessively. With a more developed communicating system, code-switching can be observed in changing interaction such as chat rooms, forums, web logs and web sites like Myspace, Friendster and Facebook. ( Montes-Alcala , 2007 ) . Therefore, different forms and manners of code-switching are emerging and people code-switch more frequently in written signifier of linguistic communications and this includes one of the ill-famed medium, web log.
Blood ( 2000 ) and Werbach ( 2001 ) stated that John Barger was the first individual who came about with the term “ weblog ” in his web site on 17th December 1997 where the term was used to mention to a web site where an single updates on a regular basis ( Branum, 2001 ) .
With the tendency of having a web log traveling ballyhoo over the state in recent old ages, we can somehow notice in each web log, code-switching in different spheres takes topographic point. These switches in term of forms and manners differ from people of each age group.
Sometimes, it crosses our head to utilize merely English as our manner of communicating but under certain fortunes, we tend to code-switch accidentally. This state of affairs happens particularly in a multilingual society. There are times when we realize that merely the usage of certain codification in a peculiar sphere can do linguistic communication meaningful.
Over the old ages, in our state, we frequently face the quandary of taking the ‘appropriate ‘ codification to do a linguistic communication meaningful in different spheres. The codification or linguistic communication choice is dependent on the communicator ‘s age group every bit good. Sometimes, it confuses us whether or non a individual of a peculiar age group web logs utilizing same or different manners and forms of code-switching in web logs every bit good as the critical parts that domains play in finding which codification to take to exchange to.
Significance of Study
Montes-Alcala ( 2007 ) noted in the yesteryear, there have been a batch of researches done on code-switching in spoken signifier but merely a minority of research workers focus their findings in written signifier. Hence, she conducted a survey on code-switching in the web logs of English-Spanish bilinguals to happen out the frequence of code-switching within their web log entries.
Similarly, in our state, a figure of surveies on code-switching have been done on spoken discourses but so far, merely a minority of researches has been carried out to analyze code-switching in web logs in Malaysia.
Therefore, this survey is important because it provides a new comprehensiveness for code-switching in written discourse by integrating the usage of CS in web logs. The ground is because different manners of communicating on the cyberspace such as confabs, web logs and chirrups are quickly catching traditional signifiers of communicating for both professional and leisure activities ( Norizah & A ; Azirah, 2009 ) . Therefore, surveies on CS in written signifier should be taken into history.
This survey aims to look into the ground why a individual code-switch from one chosen standardized linguistic communication, English, to another in his or her web log, taking into history bloggers of different age groups. At the same clip, it besides serves to find in which spheres do these bloggers tends to code-switch the most every bit good as their manners and forms of code-switch.
Simultaneously, it besides focuses on the factors that initiate and act upon code-switching in their web logs every bit good as the grounds why they chose a specific linguistic communication to code-switch to from English, for illustration, from English to Mandarin or from English to Malay.
Scopes of Study
This survey focuses on code-switching which involves more than two linguistic communications in the most sought-after on-line diary, web log. It focuses on bloggers from two age groups and how the bloggers from this age group web log, taking into consideration the frequence of code-switching within selected entries. Furthermore, different forms and manners they use in different spheres while blogging are highlighted.
Restriction of Study
The country of survey for this research is restricted to those bloggers who use merely English as their chief medium of blogging over a declared period of clip. Merely five bloggers of two different age groups will be selected to take part in this research.
Group 1 – 20 to 30 old ages old
Group 2 – 50 to 60 old ages old
In add-on, merely bloggers from an English instruction background will take part in this research. However, the Numberss of bloggers selected to take part in this research do non stand for the whole.
This survey is guided by the old work from assorted research workers such as Montes-Alcala ( 2005 & A ; 2007 ) and Norizah and Azirah ( 2009 ) in their surveies of the code-switching in written discourses.
What are the spheres and grounds that influence the bloggers of different age groups to code-switch?
What are the differences in the forms and manners of code-switching between bloggers of these two different age groups?
Blom and Gumperz are considered the innovator research workers in code-switching as they did an early survey in the twelvemonth 1972 on the linguistic communication used in a Norse fishing small town through observation and analysis of tape recordings of the society. Through that, they discovered the society used and code-switched in several different linguistic communications when they were pass oning to each other. As the affair of fact, it was dependent on who the talker was turn toing to every bit good as the sphere both addresser and addressee was in.
On the other manus, Valdes-Fallis ( 1976 ) , Poplack ( 1981 ) , McClure ( 1981 ) and Gumperz ( 1982 ) in the article, “ Blogging in two linguistic communications: Code-Switching in Bilingual Blogs, ” introduced the categorizations of code-switching maps – direct citations, accent, elucidation or amplification, contextual switches, lexical demand switches, triggered switches and others in support of the grounds why people code-switch.
Montes-Alcala ‘s ( 2000 ) research merely to happen out that that most of those maps typically manifested in the literature of unwritten code-switching were besides present in the written signifier. Hence, it explains why she did a survey on code-switching jumping between English and Spanish in web logs.
Qualitative method is chosen as the design as it is able to supply factual informations needed to back up the theory that linguistic communication does transform. On the other manus, with qualitative method, a comparative survey on the manners and forms of code-switching in two different age groups in selected spheres can be reasoned with the presence of sufficient informations.
Data will be obtained through analysis of web logs to find the spheres of code-switching in selected entries. In add-on to that, a set of questionnaire will be distributed to the selected bloggers to get information of their backgrounds and experiences in blogging. The ground is to acquire to cognize the grounds why they want to code-switch and besides if there is any cause that influences them to code-switch from English to another linguistic communication, be it Mandarin, Malay or others.
For this survey a entire Numberss of five bloggers from each age group as stated below are selected to take part in it:
Group 1 – 20 to 30 old ages old
Group 2 – 50to 60 old ages old
These bloggers have to be bi- or multilingual in order to be selected, maintaining in head that English must be their chief medium of blogging. Lone entries with existent code-switching for illustration, alternation of different linguistic communications within the same entry are considered entries without incorporation of other linguistic communications is non considered as code-switching. The ground of restricting the range of the survey is to put a criterion and besides to homogenise the findings so that the informations collected can be more precise to peculiar age groups being studied.
The continuance for informations aggregation of this survey runs from September 2009 to March 2010. Therefore, in the period of six months, the entries posted by these 10 bloggers will be selected indiscriminately and analyzed, foregrounding the differences in forms and manners of code-switching in different spheres.
At the same clip, questionnaires with consent signifiers will be distributed to these bloggers in the hope of happening the grounds why they code-switch from English to other linguistic communications and besides to detect the frequence of code-switching among them.
The information in this survey is analysed by utilizing the work of Montes-Alcala ( 2000 ) as a guideline. The spheres of which code-switching takes topographic point are noted from the entries of web logs collected. Then, the frequence of code-switching will be tabulated before analysis of findings.
On the other manus, the distributed questionnaires will help in happening out under what fortunes or spheres does the bloggers code-switch? Thereafter, these spheres will be categorized and account for code-switching in each sphere will be included.
Finally, a comparing of differences in manners and forms of code-switching among these bloggers will be drawn and analyzed.