Communication Skills

Having the resources, information, and attitudes that lead to action in achieving a desired goal is
empowerment
What skills learned in a public speaking course are the most sought after by an employer?
ethically adpating information to listeners, organizing ideas, persuading others, and holding listener’s attention
According to several recent studies quoted in your text, the most important skills employers are seeking in college graduates are
good speaking and presentation ability
An example of how the nonverbal communication of public speakers is more formal than nonverbal behavior in ordinary conversation is that people engaged in ordinary conversation
gesture spontaneously
One way public speaking and conversation are similar is that both are
audience centered
In his speech about volunteering for the American Red Cross, Jacob used a lot of slang words, sat and leaned on the table in front of the class, and was dressed very casually. Which of the following statements best describes this situation?
Jacob ignored the rule that public speaking is more formal than conversation
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Translating ideas and images in the speaker’s mind into verbal or nonverbal messages that an audience can understand is termed
encoding
During a speech, an audience member stands up and asks a question, to everyone’s surprise. According to your text, it the audience member behaving appropriate?
No; the audience member did not maintain the clearly defined roles of speaker and listener
An audience member is worried about an upcoming exam and is unlikely to remember much of what the speaker says. this is a type of
internal noise
a speaker transmits a message through two channels:
visual and auditory
If you have had previous experience in public speaking, you tend to be less sensitive to apprehension, and you have a lower heart rate when speaking, what is likely to be your style of communication apprehension?
insensitive
With this style of communication apprehension, you have the highest heart rate when speaking publicly; some people use this high level to enhance their performance and use the fear to motivate them to prepare and be at their best
inflexible
What style of communication apprehension do you have if, like many people, you have a very high heart rate as you begin presenting a speech, and then your heart rate tapers off to more average levels?
confrontation
Most speakers who procrastinate in preparing their speeches:
will feel more speaker apprehension
Which one of the following is NOT a true comment about the introduction in relation to managing nervousness and anxiety?
you should memorize the introduction word for word
when speakers tense and relax their muscles while waiting for their turn to speak, without calling attention to what they are doing, this reflects a strategy of coping with nervousness your text refers to as
channeling your nervous energy
Looking over her speech, Wendi was pleased with her topic, how well the speech was outlined and organized, and the number of sources she had to share. Should these items be the central focus of this speech?
No, in public speaking the central focus should be the listeners
The primary objective of class lectures, seminars, and workshops is to
inform
After-dinner speeches and comic monologues are mainly intended to
entertain
In a speech about voting trends, Michael cited recent statistics, but made no attempt to appeal to the audience’s sense of patriotism or to encourage them to vote more regularly. What is Michael’s general purpose in this speech?
to inform
At the beginning of his outline, Ambrose wrote, “Changing a flat tire can be accomplished in five simple steps.” This statement is an example of
a central idea
What aspect of speech preparation contains the one-sentence summary or the essence of your message?
the central idea
If the central idea is “There are three ways to interpret the stock-market page of your local newspaper,” and you organize your speech into three parts, which method are you using to generate main ideas?
logical divisions
The process of relating abstract concepts or statistics to something concrete
will help communicate the ideas more clearly to the audience
the purpose of an introduction is
to get the audience’s attention and provide an overview
Reggie had a speech to prepare. He selected a topic, did his research, and sat down to draft the speech. He outlined the main points first and added the introduction and conclusion later. Is this a “textbook” way to organize a speech?
Yes; your text suggests to start with the body of the speech first, then do back and draft the intro
Jason had thoroughly research his speech on the art of tattooing. When presenting his speech to the class, he had to read from his outline and became nervous and anxious. Which of the following statements best pertains to his situation?
Jason didn’t rehearse his speech aloud and on his feet
Our beliefs, values, and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong are our
ethics
According to the National Communication Association, this is fundamental to responsible thinking, decision making, and the development of relationships and communities within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media. This is
ethical communication
This type of speech or speech act is legally protected
free speech
When a person decides not to overestimate or falsify an insurance claim just to have the extra money, this action is based on the individuals
code of ethics
The U.S. Constitution states “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech.” This is part of the
First Amendment
In the 1950’s, Senator Joseph McCarthy convinced the American public that Communists were infiltrating every aspect of their lives by
distorting the truth and manipulating emotions
Speakers who bring in false claims and tug at the emotions of the audience, instead of sound evidence and logical arguments, are examples of
unethical speakers
While researching, Gabe found a tragic story about a young girl who died from a drunk driving accident. In presenting his speech, Gabe told the story as if this girl was his sister. The speech was quite moving and afterward everyone told Gabe how sorry they were for his family. At this time, he told them it wasn’t really his sister but thought that telling it that way was more effective for his speech. Why is this unethical?
Gabe violated an ethical principle that requires speakers to be honest
Lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is an unethical practice known as
plagiarism
When citing your sources orally in a speech, you should
state briefly the author, title, and year
With regard for those “gray areas” of ethics pertaining to the use of sources in a speech, your text suggests
When in doubt, document all of your sources in a speech
Marty is having problems coming up with an idea for a speech. He knows his fraternity keeps files of old tests, papers, and speeches and decides to look through these for an idea. He finds a great speech about bats, their value to ecology, and their habitat. He likes this speech so much that he decides to use it largely intact but goes to the internet to update the sources. Which of the following statements best describes this situation?
this is an ethical violation known as plagiarism
In a speech on breast cancer, you decide to use the latest information from the National Breast Cancer Foundation website, www.nationalbreastcancer.org. What is the proper way to cite this source in your speech?
“The National Breast Cancer Foundation in 2004 stated…”
The first step in an introduction is
to get the audience’s attention
In an introduction, proximity is
the degree to which the information affects the audience directly
Dana opens her speech against abortion by putting up a transparency that shows a graphic image of an aborted fetus. Is this an effective opening?
No; this type of graphic material may disgust and repel the audience
According to the authors, the most obvious purpose that you must accomplish in a speech introduction is
to get the audience’s attention
Credibility is
the attitude the listeners hold toward a speaker
In the introduction, a good way to establish your credibility is to
be well prepared and confident
This signpost may enumerate the ideas and points that will be presented in the speech. This signpost is known as a(n)
preview
A speaker who describes his/her main points as part of the introduction is utilizing a(n)
specific purpose statement
In an introduction, you may ask a question that doesn’t require a response but makes the audience think about your topic. This type of question is a __________ question
rhetorical
This statement, “This is a great day, because so many people from so many walks of life have gathered in this place to celebrate the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.” is an example of an introductory device called reference to
a historical event
In the speech just before Jerome’s, the speakers covered some of the same material that Jerome was going to use in his speech on golf. Instead of letting this throw him, Jerome acknowledged the overlap in his introduction. Was this a wise thing to do?
Yes; Jerome used an attention- getting, credibility-building device known as a reference to a preceding speech
What should a speech conclusion do?
It should summarize the main ideas
Terms like “finally,” “in conclusion,” and “in closing” are examples of devices
that provide closure for a speech
Reemphasizing the central idea in a memorable way, moving an audience to action, and providing closure are all functions of the
speech conclusion
In introduction to her speech about eating disorders, Sheila told the story of her friend who almost died of anorexia. In her conclusion she reminded her audience of what her friend went through and explained that her friend was currently doing well in her battle against the disease. Was this an appropriate strategy for her speech?
Yes; this is a concluding strategy known as reference to the introduction
Writing down your main ideas, sub points, and supporting material, then using geometric shapes and arrows to indicate logical relationships is a technique known as
mapping
The speaker’s outline which contains the specific purpose, the introduction, all main ideas with supporting material, and a conclusion is the
preparation outline
Conventional use of numbered and lettered heading and subheadings to indicate the relationships among parts of the speech is known as
standard outline form
What is the major benefit of using a standard outline form?
It points out relationships between ideas and supporting material
In an outline, Roman numerals are used to indicate the
main ideas
When using indentation in an outline, indent to
the first word under the point above
Before presenting your speech in front of a full audience you practice and discover that your speech is too long. What should you do?
Edit the speech by reviewing the specific purpose- you may be trying to accomplish too much in the speech
When should a speaker edit his/her speech?
As the speaker is practicing from the preparation outline and discovers that there is too much information
The delivery outline should
be brief and have speaking notes
Bernard is rehearsing a class demonstration speech that he has to present in two days. As he rehearses from his delivery outline, he continues to revise the outline. He changes the order of some points, deletes some extraneous detail, and reworks his conclusion. Is this kind of revision advisable?
Yes; this kind of revising is expected and helpful during rehearsal
What tip does your textbook suggest regarding the use of speaking notes?
Type or print information so that it can be read easily
When it comes to public speaking, above all else, people expect good
delivery
What is most important when a speaker is communicating emotional feelings, attitudes, likes, and dislikes to an audience?
nonverbal communication
In a public speaking situation, the speaker should pay attention to how emotions are communicated when delivering a speech because the emotions are catchy. This is explained by the
emotional contagion theory
In a crowded arena, you notice that when others laugh, clap, or cheer on the speaker, you are more likely to follow their actions. This is an example of
emotional contagion theory
Which of the following presidents delivered his first State of the Union address as an impromptu speech because the wrong speech was on the teleprompter?
Bill Clinton
When asked to deliver a speech at the last moment, the type of delivery style you will use is called _______ speaking
impromptu
Delivering a speech in a conversational style from a well-developed and researched outline is termed as a(n)
extemporaneous speaking
The ability to monitor your audience’s response and adjust your message accordingly is a benefit of good
eye contact
A minister pounds his fist on the podium when he says the words “sin” and “evil.” What function does this form of nonverbal communication serve?
emphasizing
Several studies have determined that the most effective teachers in North America
are the ones who who stand closer to their students
The way you carry your body in front of the audience is called
posture
Words such as “dint,” “mornin,” “gunna,” and “wanna” are all examples of poor
articulation
A consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region is
dialect
An attitude that one’s own cultural approaches are superior to those of other cultures is termed as
ethnocntrism
In a speech with the general purpose “to inform,” a speaker’s goal is
to teach new information
When trying to help the audience make sense of the information being presented, the goal of the speaker should be to
enhance understanding, gain interest, and ensure that the audience will remember what was said
When a speaker shows the audience that the information presented will affect them directly, he or she is fulfilling which goal of information speaking?
to maintain interest
An informative speech that discusses anything you can see or touch is a speech about
objects
An informative speech that discusses how something works, or describes a process with a particular outcome, is a speech about
procedures
Phyllis presented an informative speech on how to fix a flat tire. What type of informative speech was this?
a speech about a procedure
Roberto gave an informative speech about the life and artistic accomplishments of Andy Warhol. What type of informative speech did Roberto deliver?
a speech about people
Seth decided to present his informative speech on the origins and development of the Mardi Gras parades. What type of informative speech did Seth present?
a speech about an event
An informative speech about an event typically follows this arrangement
chronological
When previewing your speech on Islam, you say, “the best way to understand Islam is to look at some of the beliefs and practices of this religion.” You will be giving a speech about
an idea
The art and science of teaching children is called
pedagogy
This term means “comparisons” and is usually good for giving listeners the big picture before going into great detail.
analogies
David decided to present his informative speech on “how to give the Heimlich maneuver” He opened his speech by recounting a story on how he saved his younger brother’s life when his brother choked on a gum that was accidentally swallowed. David was targeting which of the goals of informative speaking with this statement?
motivating the audience to listen by telling them a story
Montriece stood before a room filled with high school seniors and their parents. In his introduction he stated, “I come before you today, not as a financial consultant, but as a former college student myself. It has been some time since I’ve been in a college classroom as a student, but I can clearly remember the financial struggles of being a student. Today, I’m going to present to you five ways you can cut costs for a college education.” Why would this be a good opening for this audience?
Because he established motive for the audience to listen further
In an informative speech to a group of high school juniors, Tori talked about how college changed her life, about the change in her confidence level from her first year to her senior year. Although college seemed a long way off for her audience, they listened intently. Tori made her speech interesting by
telling a story that had conflict and suspense
The audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism is termed
credibility
What is Aristotle’s term for speaker credibility
ethos
As a roman teacher of public speaking, Quintilian felt that effective public speakers should be
people of good character
The type of credibility established by giving careful thought to your appearance, establishing eye contact, and having your credentials as well as accomplishments presented to the audience is know as
initial credibility
The term that Aristotle used to refer to using evidence and reasoning to reach a conclusion is
logos
The process of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior is
persuasion
Our likes and dislikes are represented by our
attitudes
With an informative speech the speaker informs about potential options available to the audience; persuasive speakers on the other hand
ask the audience members to make a explicit choice
Persuasion is the process of
changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, and values
In the process of persuading your audience, the most difficult to change is your listener’s
values
The underlying internal force that drives us to achieve our goals is
motivation
Matt is listening to a persuasive speech on assisted suicide. He begins to feel uncomfortable but then decides the speaker didn’t know what she was talking about. Matt is using which dissonance coping strategy?
He is discrediting the source
The personal need to achieve our highest potential is
self actualization
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs asserts that basic human needs must be satisfied before listeners can be motivated using any higher needs. These basic needs are
physiological
Although Betsy lives in a state where carrying concealed weapons is legal, she wants to persuade her listeners that stricter handgun legislation should be passed. According to Maslow, which need is she addressing?
safety
Brendan argues, in his persuasive speech, “What starving people need first is food and clean water- not counseling about the sad state of their governments, not advice about ways to attract new industry, and not pity over the loss of their self-esteem.” What principle of persuasive speaking is Brendan effectively utilizing?
the principle that basic needs must be satisfied before higher-leveled ones
Knowing what your listeners value or need and appealing to those values or needs is known in persuasion as
positive motivation
When Jeri tries to persuade listeners to take action against corporations who pollute community waterways, she is appealing to
listeners security and safety needs
Tiphani, in her persuasive speech, says the following, “So, by using these simple steps, you will save time, money, and energy.” What form of persuasive appeal is this?
an appeal to positive motivation
The statement “Osama bin Laden was responsible for the September 11th tragedy,” is a proposition of
fact
Janet saw on the news where a family of seven children perished in a house fire- it was also revealed that the house did not contain smoke detectors. As a result she developed a persuasive speech statingthat this tragedy can be avoided in everyone’s home with the simple installation of a smoke detector. Janet was using which kind of proposition as her central idea?
proposition of policy
In a persuasive speech, the speaker explicitly asks the audience to make a choice, rather than just informing them of the options
true
Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
true
Beliefs are the most deeply ingrained of the three dispositions: attitudes, beliefs, and values
false
Trying to change an audience’s attitude is easier than attempting to change its values
true
Beliefs and/or values are easier to change than attitudes
false