Current Legislation and Guidelines for Safeguarding Children and Young People, Including E-Safety

Last Updated: 31 Mar 2023
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Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety.

Many children or young people are dying as a result of abuse or neglect every year, and it could bestopped if all the agencies work together and react to the clear signs that a child is at risk. Abusing a child by neglect or bullying in early life is affecting the children development, and I could make different right from the start of my working life in my setting.

The legislation for safeguarding and child protection, passed in Parliament it includes: The Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004. These Acts is to aim for simplifying to work together when child abuse is suspected and our duties to protect children and young people in our setting. Working together to safeguard children (1999) is guideline for me in England and Wales to help them work with children who are at risk of harm. The Children Act 2004is introduced after death of Victoria Climbie’s result of abused in hands of her carers, led by Lord Laming, in to her death in 2003.

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The Laming Report led to the Green Paper Every Child Matters, Which in turn led to the ChildrenAct 2004 in England and other four countries in UK. The Act includes:

  •  The introduction of local authority’s Children Directors with responsibility for education and children’s social service.
  •  Councillors for children’s services with responsibility for local child welfare.
  •  Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards (LSCB) with powers to make sure that social services, the NHS, education services, the police and other services work together to protect vulnerable children.

A common Assessment Framework to help agencies to identify needs of children. * Revised arrangements for different agencies to share information. Working together to Safeguard Children 2006 is to safeguard and promote the welfare of children to work individual and agencies together. The Vetting and Barring Scheme is for whoever works with children, young people or vulnerable adults must register with the independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA).

The ISA checks every person who applies by looking at their CRB (Criminal Records Bureau) check, any relevant criminal convictions, cautions, police intelligence and other appropriate sources before registering them. Policies and procedures I have a written policy for the protection under the age of 18 that states responsibilities and it been reviewed annually. I have direct contact number for Local Safeguarding Children Board, if there is a case of abusing concern in my care, which I have been ask to do so in the annually safeguarding training.

I have done CRB check for my over 16 year old child who is living with me. In my setting I have records of contact details of all the parent or carer for all children under my care. I do daily risk assessments to reduce the risk in my setting. E-safety As we are living in a technology wold which have benefits of learning as well as risk through, such in internet, mobile phone, video and game. The Byron Review (2008) reported on the risks to children from exposure to potentially harmful or inappropriate material on the internet and in video games, and issued guidance on how they should be protected.

However it is impossible to make internet completely safe but I have block access to unsuitable sites and content. The time spending on computer is limited in my house. I make children aware of the recognise dangers within the internet and inappropriate video games. I always help children to develop skills to deal with situation they are not happy with.

Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people.

In my setting the first responsibility for me is to discover if the child or young person in being harmed or abuse.

There are number of different organisation to help children. Such as Child line (08001111). Any setting a child attends, including a childminder, nursery, school, afterschool or holiday scheme, will have a role to play in safeguarding the child. The social service is employed to support vulnerable children and families in legal way. The Health visitors provide support and guidance to parents of young children and carry out assessment of children under five, development for their health.

The General Practitioners(GPs) is who identifies first possible abuse in the community. The Local hospital services, such as accident and emergency unit or minor injury unit, may see a child who has receive an injury. Probation servicesSupport people convicted of some offences to be rehabilitated in to the community. They monitor people convicted of offences against children to make sure they do not pose a threat to local children. The Policeare involved in the criminal proceedings that may result from safeguarding issues.

Children psychology services helps to support children who have experienced abuse or harm.

Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood illnesses.

Children have common injury and illness which I am familiar with in my setting. The minor illness appear on children in my care are raised temperature, feeling or being sick, diarrhoea, tiredness, loss of energy or loss of appetite. Thetable below shows some of the common signs and symptoms, treatments need and the incubation period.

Illness| Signs and symptoms| Treatment| Incubation period| Common cold| Sneezing, sore throat, runny nose, headache, temperature| Treat symptoms with rest, plenty of fluids Encourage child to blow nose| 1-3 days| Gastroenteritis| Vomiting, diarrhoea, dehydration| Replace fluids (encourage child to drink water), seek medical help| 1-36 hours| Tonsillitis| Very sore throat, fever, headache, aches and pains| Rest, fluids, medical attention as antibiotics may be needed| Varies| Scarlet fever| Fever, loss of appetite, sore throat, pale around the mouth, ‘strawberry tongue’, bright pinpoint rash over face and body. Rest, fluids and observe for complication| 2-4 days| Dysentery| Vomiting, diarrhoea with blood and mucus, abdominal pain, fever and headache| Medical attention, rest, fluids Strict hygiene measures, e. g. careful hand washing| 1-7 days| Chicken pox| Fever, very itchy rash with blister-type appearance| Tepid bath with sodium bicarbonate, and calamine applied to skin to stop itching. Try to stop child scratching to avoid scarring. | 10-14 days| Measles| At first high fever, runny nose and eyes; later cough, white spots in mouth, blotchy red rash on body and face| Rest, fluids, tepid sponging.

Medical attention to check for complication. | 7-15 days| Mumps| Pain and swelling of jaw, painful swallowing, fever. May be swollen testes in boys | Fluids (may need a straw to drink), warmth to swelling, pain relief. | 14-21 days| Rubella (German measles)| Slight cold, sore throat, swollen glands behind ears, slight pink rash. | Rest, treat symptoms Avoid contact with pregnant women. | 7 -21 days| Pertussis (whooping cough)| Snuffled cold,

Spasmodic cough with whooping sound and vomiting| Medical attention, rest, fluids, feed after a coughing attack| 7-21 days| Meningitis| Fever, headache, drowsiness, confusion, dislike of light, very stiff neck. May be red rash that does not disappear with pressure. | Immediate urgent medical attentions such as taking the child to a hospital. | 2-10 days|

Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured. The child who doesn’t feel unwell they feel the same as an adult feel when they are unwell.

Such as going to bed, being made a fuss of,someone to look after you or being told you will be ok. A Child with illness needs to do the exact same attention comforting and reassuring until a parent or carer can come and collect them. I keep that child in quiet area and contact to parents and the medical service if necessary. As the many illnesses have a cold or fever as their first signs; and I do not exclude all children with these symptoms from my setting, because it is not have much effect on spreading.

But I always ask parent to bring confirmation note from GP if the illness is contaminated. However to minimize the illness I always make sure that children and myself wash our hands and clean the toilet areas. For medicines I have a policy that requires parents to give written consent for their child and the medicine which must be Doctor proscribe with date in it. As a practitioner I have no permission to give medication to children without written permission under any circumstances.

Identify circumstances when children and young people might require urgent medical attention.

The children may need urgent medical attention if the illness or injury is serious, the condition can get worse by time if it not treated urgently. TheChild may need seen by doctor as soon as possible if condition is urgent such as: Continuing high temperature, severe headache, persistent or strange crying, breathlessness, very pale and lifeless appearance, rash that does not disappear when pressed with a glass, rash that does not disappear when pressed with a glass, persistent vomiting or persistent diarrhoea.

If it is too urgent I would call ambulance (999) without waiting for parent or carer to arrive. The regulations for Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 the policy cover for if five or more staff work in any setting, which does not need for my premises, because it is only me and my husband that work. There are many different types of emergency can be happen in my work place, such as event of a fire, accident or other emergency, there for it is important for me to know how to deal with different event.

The emergencies can be cause by: illnesses, accidents, fire, missing children, security incidents or other serious threats. In my setting I have clear arrangement for emergency situation with other childminder who live near to me, where I could live other children with in such a situation. When I take children out I have parent contact number on back of child’sphotograph, in case of emergency. I have kept other emergency contact number to use if I am unable to contact parent e. g. close friend or family.

Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including: fires security incidents

Missing children or young people. Evacuation procedures * * Evacuation procedures * For event of a fire, gas leaks I am responsible for evacuating the house with the children, there for I do evacuation practice with children every three months. * Fires * I always keep the exits clear and for fires escape practice I close doors and windows and get all children out of the premises by the normal routes. I do not leave any children in unattended.

I would not try to stop fire unless very small, I will call the fire brigade by telephone (999) as soon as possible and I will give the clear address to operator. * Security incidents * I do not allow unauthorised (CRB check)people in my setting; also I donot release children without parent’s permeation. I always ask for identity card of the person. I would call the police if I feel anyone is a serious danger to children. * Missing children or young people * I do not leave the pram when I am out and about and also keep older children next to my pram with hand harness on.

However if I experience a missing child I would look around first and make sure all other children are safe and occupied, also call police and the child’s parents. Me and my assistant have done safe guarding training and have clear line of responsibility within the organisation for dealing with the situation. Disclosure of abuse of child can occur at any time and that can be shocking to me. The way a disclosure is responded to can be very important in the outcome to a child; even many years later such as if I do not believe the child at that time the result could be serious problem later.

I always listen carefully what the child say and try not to shock or disbelief, I will accept what is child says and I will let the child talk freely without pressure. However I well support the child also never promise to keep a child’s disclosure a secret. I value children filling and thoughts.

Identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse.

The abuse not necessarily mean by any present of signs. The child who always appear a bit grubby and maybe smell a little, but are happy and loved by parents.

Some physical signs such as darkened area can be birthmarks and not hurting, for Example, some infants of Asian or African heritage can have a dark bluish area on their lower back and/or buttocks. This is calling Mongolian Blue Spot. Abuse is the improper usage or treatment for a bad purpose, often tounfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, sexual assault, violation, rape, unjust practices; wrongful practice or custom; offense; crime, or otherwise verbal aggression. Physicalabuse

Physical abuse is when a child’s physical hurt or injured. Hitting, kicking, beating with objects, throwing and shaking are all physical abuse. They can cause pain, cuts and bruising, broken bones and sometime even death. The signs and symptoms of physical abuse include unexplained recurrent injuries or burns, unexplained bruises, wearing clothes to cover injuries even in hot weather, refusal to undress for games, bald patches of hair, repeated running away or fear of medical examination. In some case child with fear of physical contact such as; shrinking back if approached or touched. The igns of physical abuse sometimes is confusing because it could be genuine accidental injuries so I always ask parents for explanations, which if it does not fit and the outline of belt buckle or cigarette burn will make me suspicions of abuse. In other hand If parent do not take medical advice soon after the injury occurs, which will make me suspicion too. There are many other indication whichcould make me suspicion, such as:

  • runaway attempts and fear of going home
  •  stilted conversation, vacant stares or frozen watchfulness, no attempt to seek comfort when hurt
  •  describes self as bad and deserving to be punished cannot recall how injuries occurred, or offers an inconsistent explanation
  •  wary of adults or reluctant to go home * often absent from school/child care
  •  may flinch if touched unexpectedly
  •  extremely aggressive or withdrawn
  •  displays indiscriminate affection-seeking behaviour
  •  abusive behaviour and language in play
  •  overly compliant and/or eager to please
  •  poor sleeping patterns, fear of the dark, frequent nightmares
  •  sad, cries frequently
  •  drug/alcohol misuse
  •  depression
  •  poor memory and concentration
  •  suicide attempts Emotional abuse

Examples of emotional child abuse are verbal abuse; excessive demands on a child’s Performance; penalizing a child for positive, normal behaviour (smiling, mobility, exploration, Vocalization, manipulation of objects); discouraging caregiver and infant attachment; penalizing a child for demonstrating signs of positive self-esteem; and penalizing a child for using interpersonal skills needed for adequate performance in school and peer groups. In addition, frequently exposing children to family violence and unwillingness or inability to provide affection or stimulation for the child n the course of daily care may also result in emotional abuse. How is it identified? Although emotional abuse can hurt as much as physical abuse, it can be harder to identify because the marks are left on the inside instead of the outside. Not surprising, there exist few well-validated measures of childhood emotional abuse. Clinicians can use a revised version of the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) which targets measures for emotional abuse. Caregivers can also closely observe children’s behaviours and personalities.

Children suffering from emotional abuse are often extremely loyal to the parent, afraid of being punished if they report abuse, or think that this type of abuse is a normal way of life. The Emotional abuse is the child not given love. The signs and symptoms of emotional abuse include:

  • delayed development
  • sudden speech problems, such as stammering
  •  low self-esteem, such as saying I’m stupid/ugly/worthless
  •  fear of any new situation
  •  neurotic behaviour, such as rocking, hair twisting or self-mutilation
  •  Extremes of withdrawal or aggression. Neglect

The parents or others do not provide the child proper food, warmth, shelter, clothing, care and protection. The following signs may signal may show me the presence of child abuse or neglect. If the Child:

  •  Shows sudden changes in behaviour or school performance
  •  Has not received help for physical or medical problems brought to the parents' attention
  •  Has learning problems (or difficulty concentrating) that cannot be attributed to specific physical or psychological causes
  •  Is always watchful, as though preparing for something bad to happen
  • Lacks adult supervision Is overly compliant, passive, or withdrawn
  • Comes to school or other activities early, stays late, and does not want to go home I get suspicions of neglect if the parent shows little concern for the child, denies the existence of—or blames the child for—the child's problems in school or at home.

If parentask me to use harsh physical discipline if the child misbehaves. If I feel thatthe child is entirely bad, or burdensome towards the parents. Demands a level of physical or academic performance the child cannot achieve and looks primarily to the child for care, attention, and satisfaction of emotional needs.

Signs of Sexual Abuse Consider the possibility of sexual abuse if the child occurs to forced or persuaded in to sexual act or situations by other. The child encouraged to look at pornography, be harassed by sexual suggestion comments, be touched sexually or forced to have sex. I wouldsuspicion if I see the Signs and symptoms like:

  • Has difficulty walking or sitting
  •  Suddenly refuses to change for gym or to participate in physical activities
  •  Reports nightmares or bedwetting
  •  Experiences a sudden change in appetite Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual sexual knowledge or behaviour
  •  Becomes pregnant or contracts a venereal disease, particularly if under age 14
  •  Runs away
  • Reports sexual abuse by a parent or another adult caregiver

In my setting I would consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the parent or other adult caregiveris unduly protective of the child or severely limits the child's contact with other children, especially of the opposite sex. If I feel that the child is secretive and isolated or jealous and controlling with family members. Bullying and harassment

This affects older children particularly if the bully and harassment paper in their life for long time. The signs and symptoms of bullying and harassment are:

  • Emotional bullying including not speaking and excluding (‘being sent to Coventry’), tormenting, ridicule and humiliation.
  •  Physical bullying including pushing, kicking, hitting, pinching and other forms of violence.
  •  Verbal bullying including name-calling, threats, sarcasm, spreading rumours and persistent teasing.
  •  Racist bullying involving racial taunts, writing graffiti and gestures.
  •  Sexual bullying involving nwanted physical contact or abusive comments.
  •  Homophobic bullying including hostile or offensive action against lesbians, gay males or bisexuals, or those thought to be lesbian, gay or bisexual. Bullyingcan be carried out by groups of people or by one person. However bullying is not always a personal, face-to face attack, but can be also through technology such as mobile phones and the internet, Which known as cyber bullying. The persistent bullying can result in
  •  Threatened or attempted suicide
  •  Low self-esteem
  • Shyness
  • Running away from the place of bullying Poor academic achievement
  • Isolation and depression

Describe the risks and possible consequences for children and young people using the internet, mobile phones and other technologies

The internet and mobile network is good for research and learning, but it can be fraught with danger for children expose them to threats to their safety and well-being. The risks for young people and children by internet, mobile phone and video game pose to cyber bullying, which are access to unsuitable sites, exposure to commercial sites and danger from adult seeking to abuse children.

The independent Byron Review 2008 informed that how we should be protect our children from expose to potentially harmful or inappropriate material on the internet and in video games. It is impossible to eliminate the risks in my setting for young people or children from internet and mobile phones as people are constantly inventing new ways of misusing it, but I resilience to the material to which they can be expose so that children have the confidence and skills to use the internet more safely.

To protect children I use Byron Report to reduce availability and restrict access. Also increase resilience to harmful and inappropriate material on line. I make children aware of the danger and supporting them in dealing with situation they are not happy with. I supervise children and make sure that they use the internet for enjoyable and educational.

Describe actions to take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self-harm) or bullied, or maybe at risk of harm, abuse or bullying.

Children Act 1989this Act identifies the responsibilities of parents and professionals who work must ensure the safety of the child. There are different type of bulling can paper in children and young people’s life which I need to be concern of. I always ask children question if I am suspicions or value children’s filling and thought by insuring everything will be fine. I have range of policies which ensure the safety for children and well-being, these set out the responsibilities procedures that I following my setting.

If I feel the child is abused or bulling in their parent care, I always write it down in a confidential book with date and information about what I sow, what I heard from child or If I have concerns. I work with parents closely to help them develop better skills to look after their children, and I look out for child and parent behaviour closely. If I think the child’s health and safety issue involve in parent‘s care, I would contact to my local social services immediately or country, inspectorate without their knowledge.

Describe the actions to take in response to concerns that a colleague may be: failing to comply with safeguarding procedures

Harming, abusing or bullying a child or young person. I am self- implode and I am responsible for my own setting, however if I was working for other and I was worried that the safeguarding procedures is incorrect and it is harming a child or young person, I would speak to the designated person for safeguarding in the setting. But if have concern about that person I would go to senior person in that setting.

However if I have concern there I would contact my local social services emergency or country’s inspectorate which has a legal responsibility for complains about providers. Even in my setting I know that I have a responsibility to protect children and young people from harming, abusing or bullying.

Describe the principles and boundaries of confidentiality and when to share information.

As a practitioner I have clear understanding of the principles and boundaries of confidentiality, and when I need to share information.

If a child tells me something exciting happened in the play area I keep it as a secret, but in case of upset about needs treating with care I do not keep as a secret. If there is a safety issue in child’s life in their word I do not keep it to myself always share to bind of professional confidentiality. But if I was working with others I would tell anything to do with safeguarding in my setting named person and would not share with others unless asked to by the name person.

Also I do not promise the child that I will keep the information secret as their trust will break. I would not share the confidential information with other then parents and other staff or professional who need to know the results for example, psychologists or speech therapist. I keep all records about a child in the child’s file. I do not put anything on paper or file that is not true or not base on evidence as the Data Protection Act and Freedom of information legislation give parents access to written information of their child.

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Current Legislation and Guidelines for Safeguarding Children and Young People, Including E-Safety. (2017, Jan 06). Retrieved from

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