Last Updated 28 Jun 2021

Character of good research

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The following guidelines are taken from a series of editorial viewpoints In Research Quarterly for Exercise In Sport authored by Dry. Maureen Weiss (1993, 1994, 1995). You should consider these your "bible" for assessing articles you read and for writing research proposals and eventually, manuscripts for publication. If you follow these guidelines you will become a better reader, writer, and reviewer of research!


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  1. Is a theoretical or conceptual rationale provided for the study?
  2. Is there an adequate review and discussion of the pertinent empirical literature on the topic? Any key references omitted?
  3. Is there an explanation or justification for the selection of key variables in the study?
  4. Is there a logical progression and presentation of ideas that lead to the purpose of the present study?
  5. Do the hypotheses emanate logically from the theory and research presented?
  6. Is It specified how the research question extends the current knowledge base In the research topic?


  1. Is the sample described thoroughly (age, gender, skill level, race, ethnicity) as well as the criteria for selection?
  2. Is the design clearly stated and Is it appropriate to the search questions? Are the relevant independent and dependent variables clarified?
  3. Are the measures described adequately (validity, reliability, item and scoring format)?
  4. Are the procedures described completely and clearly enough so that they could be replicated by others?
  5. Is a road map provided for how the data are to be analyzed to address key study issues (e. g. , reliability of measures, each of the key research questions)?


  1. Is the results section readable?
  2. Are subheadings appropriately used to enhance readability and the "road map"?
  3. Are the appropriate statistics used to answer key study questions?
  4. Is all relevant Information associated with a particular statistical procedure reported?
  5. Are the statistical findings Interpreted accurately?


  1. Is the study purpose briefly recapped for the reader?
  2. Are the results summarized in relation to the study hypotheses (support, did not support)?
  3. Are the study results compared to pertinent studies mentioned in the introduction?
  4. Are theoretical implications provided?
  5. Are practical implications provided, if appropriate?
  6. Are future research directions outlined briefly? Is there a concluding paragraph that brings closure to the article by ensuring that readers "get" the take-home message?

Other issues

  1. Is the manuscript written clearly and understandably?
  2. Do all aspects of the manuscript conform to PAP style?

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