Brief Literature Review

Pelvic examination is an important component of the primary care of women especially by internists. This study conducted an internist-run education program that consisted of 4 weekly patient-care sessions with 2-3 patients under a resident internist. They supervised each pelvic examination and gave real-time feedback and used a skills-assessment checklist during the first and last exam of the program to yield a comprehensive and formative feedback.

Number of questions used in the questionnaire was not distinctively discussed, though it was stated the questionnaire was administered twice, first prior to the program, then the second questionnaire was administered after 3 months. With regards to the questionnaire, a 5-point Likert Scale was used in this study to asses results. Based from the results, the patient’s self-assessed competencies have improved and it may help increase the likelihood of residents performing pelvic examination in primary care.

(Goldstein C. E. , 2005) The second study evaluated the effects of an in-service program on the perceptions, knowledge and concerns of nursing faculty members about students with disability. 112 faculty members were trained in 8 nursing programs. The number of questions utilized in the study was not specifically stated, though it a definite Likert Scale of 6-point was used.

The areas aspects which the Likert Scale dealt with were legal issues, classroom strategies, clinical teaching strategies and accommodations Likert Scale was administered to the faculty members to rate their awareness of whether people with disabilities could succeed as nursing students or professionals. The results of the questionnaire were reported in terms of an average value or the mean ratings, which was defined or found out to be approximately 4.

From this result, it was concluded that there was a big significance on the faculty members’ perception before and after the training. The results of this study suggest that faculty members’ perceptions, knowledge and concern can be positively affected through training. (Sowers J. A. , 2004) The third study utilized a modified Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) to assess the teaching of medical communication skills. First year college students completed a CEQ that would be potentially useful in evaluating innovative programmes and securing support for their development.

In this study, a course experience questionnaire (CEQ30) having 30 questions was used, which was an innovation of the course experience questionnaire (CEQ25) (Broomfield & Bligh, 1998) having 25 questions only. In this questionnaire, five items were devoted specifically to on medical communication skills teaching. The questionnaire which was administered used a Likert Scale of 5-points. The developed questionnaire was employed to test whether it’s applicable or not in evaluating the medical communication skills teaching Measures: In 1997 to 1998.

Results were reported using average values, stating the number of principal components factor analysis of responses equal to 165. From the results, it was found out that the CEQ30 was a reliable instrument to evaluate a course design. (Steele G. , 2003) The fourth study is about the perceived efficiency of teaching methods used for health services management education. The study was conducted to bring into consideration the challenges of establishing an experimental link between teaching methods and the outcome of education in a classroom.

Program directors from the AUPHA graduate programs were surveyed in 1998 regarding the supposed success of a wide range of teaching methods employed. No definite number of questions or items in the questionnaire was mentioned, and it the Likert Scale used was not specifically mentioned, only that its range varies from very effective to not very effective. The results were not reported quantitatively, but rather qualitatively, whereas the highest and the lowest ranked teaching method was elaborated.

Based from the results, the authors they suggested a research agenda for measuring the education outcomes in a classroom. (Hilberman D. W. , 2000) The fifth study is about the participation in continuing nursing education programs by staff development specialists. Staff development specialists were surveyed regarding their reasons for their participation in continuing nursing education programs. Hospital-based staff development specialists from the American Hospital Association member facilities responded to the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS).

No definite number of questions was mentioned in the study, though it was mentioned that a Likert Scale with a rating of 1 to 7 was used. The Likert Scale was used to determine if it was effective or not, where results were presented in terms of mean scores. It was found out that the average scores of the Hospital-based staff development specialists in the Likert Scale was 3. 52 to 6. 40. Results were also reported that there were significant differences in the responses. Furthermore, the results showed a statistically significant difference in the responses of certified and noncertified staff development specialists.

It was stated that the result scans help continuing education professionals make decisions and programming, though further studies were still recommended. (Aucoin, J. W. , 1998) The last study investigated whether physiotheraphy students’ attitudes towards physiotheraphy changes during training in what way. Literature and studies on this topic is limited and there is controversy about the process of professional socialisation and attitude changes that occur during the training in health care professions. In the study, no exact number of questions used in the questionnaire was stated.

Though in it was mentioned that there were 52 respondents, wherein a Likert Scale, of no definite scale mentioned, was used. The results were presented using frequencies of respondents on a particular aspect or subject which the questions tackled. The result showed no significant difference in the attitudes of the first, second and third year students. This study provides useful information which could be used to help in the selection of students and in the planning of the future courses. Also, recommendations for further studies are made.

(Wadsworth, S. J. , 1991) References Goldstein C. E. , H. I. , Foldes C. , et al. . (2005). Internists training medical residents in pelvic examination: impact of an educational program. (Publication. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Library and Information Services: http://www. csp. org. uk/director/libraryandpublications/libraryandinformationservices. cfm Hilberman D. W. , D. P. L. , Andersen R. M. , et al. . (2000). Perceived effectiveness of teaching methods for heath services administration education.

(Publication. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Library and Information Services: http://www. csp. org. uk/director/libraryandpublications/libraryandinformationservices. cfm J. W. , A. (1998). Participation in continuing nursing education programs by staff development specialists. (Publication. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Library and Information Services http://www. csp. org. uk/director/libraryandpublications/libraryandinformationservices. cfm S. J. , W. (1991).

A study to show changes in physiotherapy students’ attitude to physiotherapy during training Addenbrookes Hospital Cambridge School of Physiotherapy. (Publication. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Library and Information Services: http://www. csp. org. uk/director/libraryandpublications/libraryandinformationservices. cfm Sowers J. A. , S. M. R. (2004). Evaluation of the effects of an inservice training program on nursing faculty members’ perceptions, knowledge, and concerns about students with disabilities. (Publication.

Retrieved August 22, 2007, from The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Library and Information Services: http://www. csp. org. uk/director/libraryandpublications/libraryandinformationservices. cfm Steele G. , W. S. , Simeon D. . (2003). Using a modified course experience questionnaire (CEQ) to evaluate the innovative teaching of medical communication skills. (Publication. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Library and Information Services: http://www. csp. org. uk/director/libraryandpublications/libraryandinformationservices. cfm