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Body – Traffic Jam

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1Origin of the report This report has been prepared following the instruction of our course teacher Pro. Ali Akkas as a part of our course “Business Communication” under the EMBA program of Dhaka University. 1. 2 Objective of the report 1. Broad objective To discuss traffic jam, it’s causes and remedies 2. Specific objective -To discuss the effects of traffic jam on environment and social life, -To be introduced with the way of relief from traffic jam. - To find the way of upgrading the traffic systems . 3 Scope and Limitations of the report This report could have even more wealth and information. But, due to limited time, few information could be collected. More budgeting on this report could have given it a aristocratic look. In spite of these limitations, it has been tried to enrich this report by proper and authentic information. It has been tried to be rational with the real figure of traffic jam. It is believed that this report will help the follower to go for further analysis. Chapter 02: Methodology 2. Population Parameters A parameter is a numerical summary of a population; because populations have so many members, these can never be known except if a census is taken. 2. 2 Sampling Design In the theory of finite population sampling a sampling design specifies for every possible sample its probability of being drawn. Mathematically a sampling design is denoted by the function P(S) which gives the probability of drawing a sample. 2. 3 Variables Covered Here we have included -urban traffic problems -suburban traffic problems high way traffic problems 2. 4 Methods of Data Collection There are four main methods of data collection. • Census. A census is a study that obtains data from every member of a population. In most studies, a census is not practical, because of the cost and/or time required. • Sample survey. A sample survey is a study that obtains data from a subset of a population, in order to estimate population attributes. • Experiment. An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships.

The study is "controlled" in the sense that the researcher controls (1) how subjects are assigned to groups and (2) which treatments each group receives. • Observational study. Like experiments, observational studies attempt to understand cause-and-effect relationships. However, unlike experiments, the researcher is not able to control (1) how subjects are assigned to groups and/or (2) which treatments each group receives. 2. 5 Data Analysis Plan The appropriate methods of data analysis are determined by data types and variables of interest, the actual distribution of the variables, and the number of cases.

Different analyses of the same data set may reflect or represent different aspects of the underlying data structure. Once a plan has been established, it could contain any combination of the following types of data analysis strategies: • Exploratory: This type of data analysis often occurs when a program is new, and it is unclear what to expect from the data. • Descriptive: The most common type of data analysis, this approach will summarize your findings and describe the sample. • Inferential: Inferential statistics allow us to draw conclusions about the larger population from which the sample is drawn.

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These powerful techniques may be able demonstrate if a change has occurred as a result of your program. PDA's Statistics Division specializes in many sophisticated data analysis techniques. Chapter 3: Traffic Jam, It’s Causes, Effects and Remedies 3. 1 Causes of Traffic Jam “During experiment, it has been found that human error is a major cause of most frustrating kinds of traffic jams”. ( Annexes – I) In generally the traffic jams are causes by following reasons- -Dishonesty of traffic polices -Insufficient roads and highways. Poor communication system. -Too many vehicles -Low price fuel ( CNG) and available motor cars. -Traffic jams are usually caused because there must be an accident. -Most often, traffic jam are caused by - those who drive too slow always end up compacting the faster drivers behind them -In rush hours when too many people start for destination. -Free parking here and there causes hindrance on traffic way -Some drivers tries to drive faster than the flow of traffic. -Some times drivers stop on the highway and causes a traffic jam. . 2 Traffic Jam Affects Society and Environment Traffic jam affects the society in some of the ways below: • creates mental stress in the motorists • paves way for wastage of fuel and wear & tear of vehicle parts which ultimately waste the money of the motorists • becomes a cause for rash driving and road accidents involving loss of lives • makes the motorists to inhale lot of vehicular smoke emissions in a short period of time causing many diseases • wasting time of motorists and passengers

Traffic jam affects the environment in some of the ways below: • efficiency of fuel usage by idle running of vehicle engines in low speed is very low leading to wastage of fuel which ultimately results in over exploitation of fossil fuel reserves • vehicles at low speed emit lot amount of carbon monoxide, unburnt fuel particles, suspended particulate matters and other pollutants into atmosphere causing air pollution more grave • when vehicles start to move slowly, noise pollution is created by blowing horns by the motorists. 3. 3 Remedies to Traffic Jam

Increased regulation would not work in practice. Regulation either requires more cops, which are an expensive kind of work force, or automated systems, which are sketchy from a legal point of view. Technological solutions aren’t the way to go, either. They are predicated on the assumption that all (or enough) drivers would adopt this technology, which will be expensive and error-prone, and possibly encourage risky behavior. Traffic jams are a symptom of more vehicles than the planned carrying capacity of the roads. In order to prevent traffic jams: -one method is to reduce the number of vehicles. Imposing disincentives (taxation, congestion fees) is one way, but offering sensible alternatives (mass transit, a functional passenger rail system, telecommuting) is smarter. -no hand held cell phones while driving. -controlling Speed of traffic more efficiently during rush hours (points to one idea, the classic “slow down and keep a constant speed” method). Chapter 4 : Conclusion and Recommendation 4. 1 Conclusion The present problem of traffic jam has not created by one day. For long unawareness and long time plan and booming number of traffic cause this.

As Bangladesh is a developing country, it should be more aware of time and money. Not only this, as Bangladesh is a low land country, so it should be aware of green house gas. Traffic jam is killing time, wasting money, causing more green house gas. If we can’t reduce traffic jam significantly we will be great looser. Our development may slow down due to traffic jam. 4. 2 Recommendation: -We will have to go for long time plan to improve our roods and high way communication system. -Withdraw of old and slow vehicles. -Trained driver -Maintain LAN during driving -Use of divider

Annexes-I |Bottlenecks (traffic demand  exceeds roadway capacity) |50% of total traffic jam | |Traffic incidents |25% of total traffic jam | |Work zones |15% of total traffic jam | |Bad weather |10% of total traffic jam | |Poor signal timing | 5% of total traffic jam | Fig :- On an average major causes of traffic jam References: 1.

Text books: Giltow, C. & Oppenhein, R. (1995). Management: Tools and methods for improvement. Boston: Irwin-Mcgraw-Hill. 2. Websites: -HYPERLINK http://statisticssolutions. blogspot. com/2008/09/what-is-included-in-data-analysis-plan. html -http://wiki. answers. com/Q/What_causes_traffic_jams -http://wiki. answers. com/Q/What_are_some_ways_a_traffic_jam_affects_the_society_and_environment - http://freakonomics. blogs. nytimes. com/2008/03/10/what-causes-traffic-jams-you/ http://www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0931283. html#axzz0wBBDMA5L

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