Barriers Iin Communication
The Grapevine Grapevine is Informal Communication in general is exchange of information, a discussion that adheres less to the rules and standards. it is on the dimension of the Project Communication Management.
For example, a Project Sponsor might have a meeting with the Project Manager to discuss about the progress of the project and can give much better feedback that another type of communication (other types may include emails, hard copy reports etc.
). Informal Communication is more effective for discussing sensitive information in a project.Four types of informal communications have been identified: (i) Single strand: In single strand network the individual communicates with the other individual through intervening persons. In other words each person tell s the other in sequence, one tells one. (ii) Gossip: In gossip one individual tells others on a non-selective basis, one tells all. (iii) Probability: In probability the individual tells other individuals randomly according to the law of probability.
(iv) Cluster: In cluster type network the individual communicates with only those individuals whom he trusts.Research shows that out of the four, cluster chain is the most popular form of informal communication. It is not possible to establish a particular type of informal communication in an organisation. However attempts may be made indirectly to influence the result of informal communication. Keith Davis has found certain predictable forms of informal communication which can be of great use to the management in this respect. For instance individuals talk most when news is recent they talk about things which affect their work, and they talk about people they know.In addition people who are working with each other and who contact each other in the formal chain are likely to be on the same grapevine.
It should be recognised that informal communication is as important as the informal organisation and that it is not identical with false rumour. Therefore, the management can profitably utilise the informal system in the attainment of organisation goals. According to Robbins, the grapevine in an organization has three significant characteristics. ? It is not controlled by formal management. ? Most employees perceive it to be more believable and reliable than formal communication issued by top management. It is largely used for the self-interests of the people within the organization. 17 Answer 8.
(e) Guide to Effective Listening 1. Listen patiently to what the other person has to say even though you may believe it to be wrong or irrelevant. Indicate simple acceptance (not necessarily agreement) nodding your head or perhaps interjecting an occasional “um-hm” or “I see. ” 2. Try to understand the feeling the person is expressing as well as the intellectual content. Most of us have difficulty talking clearly about our feelings. So careful attention is required.
3.Restate the person’s feelings briefly but accurately. At this stage you simply serve as a mirror and encourage the other person to continue talking. Occasionally make summary responses such as you think you are in a dead-end job but in doing so keep your tone neutral and try not to lead the person to your pet conclusions. 4. Avoid direct questions and arguments about facts refrain from saying, “That is just not so,” “Hold on a minute let’s look at the facts,” or “Prove it. ” You may want to review the evidence later, but a review is irrelevant to how the person feels now.
. Allow time for the discussion to continue without interruption and try to separate the conversation from mere official communication of company plans. That is, don’t make the conversation any more “authoritative” than it already is by virtue of your position in the organisation. 6. When the other person does touch upon a point you do want to know more about, simply repeat statements as a question. For instance, if he remarks, ‘nobody can break even on his expense account’, you can probe by replying, and “You say no one breaks even on expenses?With this encouragement he will probably expand on his previous statement. 7.
Listen for what is not said evasions for pertinent points or perhaps too ready agreement with common cliches. Such an omission may be a clue to a bothersome fact the person wishes was not true. 8. If the other person appears genuinely to want your view point, be honest in your reply. But at the listening stage try to limit the expression of your views, since these may condition or repress what the other person says. 9. Don’t get emotionally involved yourself.
Try simply to understand first and defer evaluation until later. 0. Listen “between the lines. ” A person does not always put everything that is important into words. The changing tones and volume of his voice may have a meaning. So may his facial expression the gestures he makes with his hands and the movements of his body. 11.
Better results can be achieved if the superior gives less emphasis to explaining and more emphasis to listening. 18 Answer 8. (f) Communication Feedback When individuals work together and interact the need to communicate effectively their feelings, impressions and views on various matters becomes important.Equally important is how these are received. When we communicate our reactions and perceptions to a person, especially regarding his behaviour, style of working. We call it feedback. Feedback, in simple terms, is the communication of feelings and perceptions by an individual to another individual about the latter’s behaviour and style of working.
Such interpersonal feedback is involved in everyday life in various situations; for example, the boss sits with his subordinate and gives him necessary counselling about his achievements his strengths as well as areas in which he can improve further.We tell our peers what we think about their style and ways of behaviour so that they may be able to benefit from such communication. A subordinate may also do the same. If his boss pulled him up in the presence of others he may go and tell him how bad he felt about such a happening. This may help the boss to improve his ways of communicating such matters to his subordinates. The main function of giving feedback is to provide data about a person’s style of behaviour and its effect on others.Such data can be verified by the individual by either collecting more data from other sources or by checking some aspects with others.
The feedback also provides several alternatives to the individual out of which he can choose one or two to experiment on. Interpersonal feedback contributes to the improvement of communication between two persons involved in feedback through the establishment of a culture of openness and promoting interpersonal trust. Continuous feedback will help in establishing norms of being open. Similarly, receiving of feedback fulfils several purposes.It primarily helps the individual (one who receives feedback) to process behavioural data he has received from others (the perceptions and feelings people have communicated to him about the effect of his behaviour on them). It helps him to have better awareness of his own self and behaviour. Getting information about how his behaviour is perceived and what impact it makes on others, increases his sensitivity, his ability to pickup cues from the environment that indicate what perceptions and feelings people have about his behaviour.