Applied Linguistic And Language Learning
Today, linguistics is developed rapidly. Another aspect related to the fields of language study is also growing. Studies on language not only covers one aspect only, but has extended to areas or aspects outside the language associated with the use of language and human life.
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Linguistic theory is a branch of applied linguistics that focuses on the general theory and methods common in language research. Branches of linguistics can be divided into phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
Therefore, applied linguistics can be applied in any field. One is education related to language learning. According to Bloom & Lahey (Owen, 1992:14), language is very complex systems that can be well understood with elaborate an element or component functions. Language can be divided into three principal, though not equally important components: patterns, content, and usability. When people use language, it encodes the ideas (semantics), ie, it uses a symbol of sounds, words, and so represent an actual incident, object, or relationship.
To communicate these ideas to others, the use of certain patterns, which include such an important part together with the corresponding sounds (phonology), the appropriate word order (syntax), and the prefix and suffix appropriate word (morphology) to clarify more specific. Speaker uses components to receive certain communications purposes, such as searching for information, get information or to get a response (pragmatics). To discuss more in depth the relationship of applied linguistics and language learning, the following is mentioned several things that become problems in this study. The question is as follows: 1. What is the applied linguistics?
2. What are the objects of study that applied linguistics?
3. How is the relationship between applied linguistics with language learning?
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Definition of Applied Linguistics
The words applied/ apply, worthily to apply, which means Wearing or Using could also be interpreted tread, use, and deploy. Word meaning Applied = put to practical use. Word applied derived from compounding of applied linguistics. There are also linguists who disagree with the term applied linguistics, for example, Spolsky (1978) in Pateda (2011), he is more likely to agree with the terms of educational linguistics. The reasons of it, the scope of applied linguistics are broader than linguistic education, because applied linguistics also related to the translation, lexicography, language planning and other aspects.
The term applied linguistics refers to a variety of activities that involve some aspects related to the language problem solving or addressing some of the concerns related to language. The object of applied linguistics study is not another language, that are the human language that serves as (1) communication systems that use speech as a medium, (2) human language daily, (3) the language that is used daily by humans as members of a particular community, or in English is called with an ordinary language or a natural language. This means the spoken language as the primary object of linguistic, whereas written language as a secondary object of linguistics, as written language can be considered as “derivative” of spoken language.
The following is mentioned several sciences related to applied linguistics as the object of his studies that are: (1) Applied Linguistics or the sciences of language aspects, and in this case the language used in the literal sense. This is called pure linguistic, (2) the sciences of language, and in this case, the term language used in a figurative or metaphorical sense. Examples of science that category is kinesic and paralinguistic. Kinesic is the science of body motion/ gesture/ body language, such as head nods, hand signals and others. Paralinguistic is a science that focuses on specific activities that accompany the pronunciation of the language, such as wheezing breath, clicking sound, laughing, small coughing, astonished forms such as ehm, anu, apa itu, apa ya and so forth, (3)
Science on the opinions of the language. Metalinguistic, for example, the science that discuss the ins and outs of “language” used to describe language that is reflected in terms of linguistic theory studies, linguistics methods study, etc., (4) The sciences of the language sciences. Which belong to this category are studies that specialize in linguistics itself, just as the study of the history of linguistics, linguistic studies in the twentieth century and others. The four types of knowledge mentioned above, the only number (1) who could be called as a purely linguistic knowledge because it’s really language, while the others are not a science of language in daily terms. It could be argued that the language be applied linguistics object studied from various aspects.
Those include aspects of sounds, morphemes and words, phrases and sentences as well as meaning. Branch of linguistics which studies of sound is phonological. Morpheme or word level studied in morphology. Phrases/ sentences discussed in syntax. Whereas meaning studied in separate science called as semantics. Thus, it can be said that linguistic branches in terms of “tataran” consist of phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Based on the above, it appears that applied linguists focused more on the application of linguistics in language teaching.
This means that the applied linguistic closely related to: (1) the application of linguistic in the field of a practical use, (2) not applied linguistic theory, but the application of the theory that is linguistic theory, (3) the goal of improving the practical tasks with focusing on language.
2.2 Definition Language Learning
According Degeng (1997), Learning is an attempt to learn student. Teachers should be able to select appropriate learning strategies in any kind of learning activity, so it will be the actual achievement of learning objectives. Gilstrap and Martin (1975) also stated that the teacher’s role is more closely related to the success of learners, especially with respect to the ability of teachers to define learning strategies. Learning a language is essentially a study of communication.
Therefore, learning the language is directed to enhance the learner’s ability to communicate, both orally and in writing (Department of Education, 1995). This is relevant to the curriculum in 2004 that the competence of language learning directed into four, sub-aspects namely reading, speaking, listening, and listening. Brown (2000:7) suggested reconsidering some of the traditional definitions. Dictionary ‘ present ‘ reveals that learning is the acquisition of knowledge, (acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction).
2.3 The Relationship between Applied Linguistics and Language Learning The link between applied linguistics and language teaching, Soenardji explained as follows: a scientific analysis of the various symptoms formulated into rules phonologic, morphological and syntactic processing into instructional materials in language teaching. According Basiran (1999) purpose of language learning is to improve the communication skills of learners in a variety of communication contexts. Capabilities developed are comprehension of meaning, the role, the power of interpretation, assess, and express themselves with language.
All of them are grouped into language, understanding, and use. To achieve the objectives above, language learning should recognize the principles of language learning that is then manifested in their learning activities, as well as make these aspects as a guide in their learning activities. Principles of language learning can be summarized as follows: (1) Learners will learn best when treated as individuals who have needs and interests, (2) Learning is given the opportunity participated in communicative language use in a variety of activities, (3) Learning is when he intentionally focused learning to shape, skills, and strategies to support language acquisition process, (4)
Learning is deployed in the data socio-cultural and direct experience with being part of a culture of the target language, (5) If aware of the role and nature language and culture, (6) If given appropriate feedback regarding their progress, and (7) If given the opportunity to manage their own learning (Aminuddin, 1994). In language teaching there are terms and concepts need to be understood in the proper sense, for example, approaches, methods, and techniques. The approach is a set of assumptions regarding the nature of language, and language learning. The method is an overall plan in a systematic presentation of language based approaches is determined. While the technique are specific activities that are implemented in the classroom, in harmony with the methods and approaches that have been. Thus the approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural, and technique is operational.
III. PROBLEM & DISCUSSION
Generally, it can be stated that linguistics is the science of language, or the science that makes language as an object of its study, as stated Martinet (1987:19) study of the science of human language. Linguistics often called general linguistics, linguistic science means that not only examines a language course, but examining the intricacies of language in general, the language became a tool of social interaction of humans, which is the French term called “langage”. For example, words in Indonesian “Perpanjang” can be analyzed into two morphemes, namely the “per-“ and “panjang”. Morpheme per- referred to as the causative morpheme because it gives the sense of ‘ caused so ‘ extended meaning ‘ caused something to be long ‘.
As a means of human communication, language is a system that is at once systematic and systemic. What is meant by systemic is that language is not a single system, but also consists of several subsystems of phonology, morphology, and syntax. As a science, linguistics also has a long history. Language learning activities result in an attempt to learn the language learners with effective and efficient manner. Efforts can be made and the purpose of analysis and study of the students’ characteristics, analysis of learning resources, establish a strategy of organizing, learning content, learning delivery strategy set, set a learning management strategy, and establish procedures for the measurement of learning outcomes.
Therefore, every teacher must have skills in choosing learning strategies for each type of learning activity. Thus, selecting appropriate learning strategies in any kind of learning activity, the expected achievement of learning objectives can be met. A language learning program that is comprehensive and integrated cannot escape from giving input linguistic and cultural aspects at the same time. This is necessary so that students can apply their linguistic skills and language skills in a cultural context, as embraced by the community. In the process of language learning, there are a number of variables, which is both linguistic and nonlinguistic nature, which can determine the success of the learning process. Variables it is not a thing apart and stand on their own, but is interconnected, related, so it is a system network.
Language learning successes namely called principles of learning, which can be grouped into the principles of psychological students, and the nature of linguistic material. Psychological principles include motivations, their own experience, curiosity, analysis and synthesis of individual distinction. Thus, it can be concluded that applied linguistics is associated with both Indonesian language learning and second language taught to students. One study applied linguistics is contrastive analysis is very useful for educators in determining what material will be delivered in the language learning, which is adapted to the similarities and differences between the native language of students with second language students will learn.
In the error analysis, easier for students to use second language and to correct any errors that may occur in the use of the second language, so that minimize the occurrence of errors in language. Analyzing language also helps in determining the method to be used in language learning..
Applied linguistics is the utilization of knowledge about natural language produced by students of language that is used to increase keberhasilgunaan practical tasks that use language as a core component. The object of study of applied linguistics is not another language, the human language that serves as a communication system that uses speech as a medium; human language daily, a language that is used daily by humans as members of a particular community, or in English is called with an ordinary language or a natural language.
For the purposes of language learning, applied linguistics focused on: (1) theoretical grains that have strong validity in linguistics, and (2) a wide range of possibilities and alternatives to guide the implementation of language teaching. Possibilities and alternatives were sought to be consistent and in line with the theoretical point in linguistics. Based on the above, it can be said that applied linguistics is associated with both Indonesian language learning or second language is taught to students.
One study applied linguistics is contrastive analysis is very useful for educators in determining what material will be delivered in language learning that is adapted with similarities and differences between the native language of students with second language students will learn. I the error analysis, easier for students to use second language and to correct any errors that may occur in the use of the second language, so that minimize the occurrence of errors in language. Analyzing language also helps in determining the method to be used in language learning.