Please define the terms anatomy and physiology. Explain the connection between anatomy and physiology within the human body; basically how do they influence one another? Then using the terminology of the anatomical landmarks/regions and directional terms, please write 2 example sentences with proper usage. For example, "the axilla region is superior to the cubital region of the body".Anatomy is the study of internal and external structure and the physical relationship between body parts (which means cutting open). Physiology is the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions ( Another word for Greek). The connection between anatomy and physiology within the human body is that structure and function are always presented. You can not have physiology without anatomy because physiology is the study of the function of anatomical structures. Two examples: 1.) “The Abdomen is located in the Epigastria region of the body.” 2.) “The calf is inferior to the hips.”
2.Compare and contrast the two feedback mechanisms our bodies use to maintain homeostasis. What would happen if our thermoregulation (temperature control) used a positive feedback to maintain homeostasis?
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There are two feedback mechanisms our body uses to maintain homeostasis, they are negative feedback and positive feedback. Both feedbacks signal a response to the situation. Negative feedback however will correct the situation where positive feedback drags the process on or exaggerates the situation. If our thermoregulation used a positive feedback to maintain homeostasis our system would start to fail, malfunction or even produce a disease. This is because homeostasis would not be able to fully compensate itself correctly.
3.Please define pH and briefly describe the pH scale. Do you think all of our body fluids (stomach juice or blood, as examples) are the same pH? Why or
why not? How do pH changes affect protein (enzyme) function? How could this interfere with the body's physiology?
pH is the negative exponent of the hydrogen ion concentration, expressed in moles per liter. The pH scale is a solution with a pH of 7 is neutral. pH above 7 is called basic or alkaline, pH below 7 is acidic. I do not think that all our body fluids are the same pH because some things have extreme acidic some are neutral and some are extremely basic. pH changes the shape and enzymes functions start to deteriorate. This is because the pH shifts out of normal limits. This could interfere with out body’s physiology by slowing down the reactions to support life. It could alter our chemical reactions to make them permanently change itself.
4.The plasma membrane (cell membrane) is a dynamic component of the cell. What is the plasma membrane composed (made) of? Compare and contrast active and passive transport.
Plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids, steroids, proteins and carbohydrates. Passive transport moves ions or molecules across the plasma membrane without any energy expenditure by the cell. Active transport is the high energy bond in APT provides the energy needed to move ions or molecules across the membrane. Both active and passive transport can provide for the Carrier-Mediated Transport.
5.What would happen to the cell and body function if there were damage to the mitochondria? Damage to the Ribosomes? Damage to the DNA? Damage to the receptors on the plasma (cell) membrane?
If there were damage to the mitochondria the cell and body function would lose energy. This is because mitochondrion is a organelles that provides energy to a cell. If there were damage to the Ribosome the cell and body function would lose manufacture proteins. If there were damage to the DNA the cell and body function would not be able to collect genes or hold the information needed to synthesize thousands of proteins. If there is damage to the receptors on the plasma membrane the cell and body function would lose the ability to bind materials together or trigger the cells activity.
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