An Archery Test Rig Made Using Computer Aided Design

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Last Updated: 26 Mar 2020
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University Malaysia Pahang Faculty Of Mechanical Engineering Project Work Report Subject : Computer Aided Design Code : Bmm2613 Lecturer : Mohd Azrul Hisham Bin Mohd Adib Azrul@Ump. Edu. My Session/Semester : 2012/2013 Semester 1 Groupname : Group 3 'the Expendables' Project Submission Date : (Week 13) Report Due Date : (Week 13) Group Members : Siti Nursoleha Binti Mohd Rosdima12060 Poo Suk Sengma11067

Amirah Fatin Binti Amranma12057 Nur Shamimi Binti Shahirolmc12033 Lee Sing Soonmg11008 Subject : Computer Aided Design Code : Bmm2613 Lecturer : Mohd Azrul Hisham Bin Mohd Adib Azrul@Ump. Edu. My Session/Semester : 2012/2013 Semester 1 Groupname : Group 3 'the Expendables' Project Submission Date : (Week 13) Report Due Date : (Week 13) Group Members : Siti Nursoleha Binti Mohd Rosdima12060 Poo Suk Sengma11067

Amirah Fatin Binti Amranma12057 Nur Shamimi Binti Shahirolmc12033 Lee Sing Soonmg11008 Lecturer’s Declaration

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We hereby declare that we have checked this project and in our opinion this project is satisfactory in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering. Signature: Name of Supervisor: Mohd Azrul Hisham Bin Mohd Adib Position: Lecturer in Computer Aided Design of Universiti Malaysia Pahang Date: 11 December 2012 STUDENT’S DECLARATION We hereby declare that the work in this project work is our own except for quotations and summaries which have been duly acknowledged.

The project work has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted for award of other degree or even been used by other industrial or non-industrial company associated. Signature: Name: Siti Nursoleha Binti Mohd Rosdi ID Number: MA12060 Signature: Name: Poo Suk Seng ID Number: MA11067 Signature: Name: Amirah Fatin Binti Amran ID Number: MA12057 Signature: Name: Lee Sing Soon ID Number: MG11008 Signature: Name: Nur Shamimi Binti Shahirol ID Number: MC12033 Date: 11 December 2012 ABSTRACT This project work is about creating a strong design based on the topic given to us which is archery test rig.

To achieve the project objective, the test rig structure must be design and suitable for place the archery testing apparatus. We need to develop tools that can test the efficiency in archery equipment. The arrows were made of pine and consisted of a main shaft and about 15–20 centimeter (6–8 inches) long fore shaft with a flint point. This led the commercial development of new forms of bow including the modern recurve and compound bow. These modern forms are now dominant in modern Western archery while traditional bows are in a minority.

In the 1980s, the skills of traditional archery were revived by American enthusiasts, and combined with the new scientific understanding. As we know, test rig machine that is use in industrial is very expensive in the market and some way need to be build by engine performance analysis based on functionality of power supply. Hence, our test rig been replaced with modern one where its materials very cheap and easy to find in market. Some sketches software had used like Solidworks to draft out the shape of our archery test rig.

Materials selection also included in this designed process. Variable height and angle will be given at various speed by the stretch of bow’s string to see whether performance of archery will decrease or increase. Here, we can analyze at which arrow speed is the optimum of performance from this small mechanical. So, some losses like power and fuel can be decrease. AKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, the Most Benevolent and the most Merciful. All the praise and blessing be upon Prophet Muhammad S. A. W.. Every sincere appreciation and gratitude is only to God.

Only by His Kindness and Guidance that this project work report is finally completed . In preparing this report, we have in contact with many people and academicians. They had contributed toward my understanding, thought, and also guidance. In particular, we wish to express my sincere appreciation to our main lecturer, Mr. Mohd Azrul Hisham Bin Mohd Adib for his valuable guidance, advice and continuous encouragement, constructive criticism and suggestion throughout this project. Without his continued support and interest, this project work would not have been the same as presented here.

My sincere also extends to all our beloved family especially our parents, because if it’s not of their prayer and support we would not be here and done this project work. Moreover, we would like to thanks for all our colleagues and other who has provides assistance at various occasions. Their view tips are useful indeed in helping us to achieve doing this project. Because of their courageous, we can still stand to complete this project. Hence, to all people that direct or indirectly involve accomplishing our project that we were been sincerely thankful. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATIONii STUDENT’S DECLARATIONiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSv ABSTRACTvi TABLE OF CONTENTSvii CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION I. Objective II. Literature Review III. Market Survey IV. Comparison between Our Design and Current Design CHAPTER 2METHODOLOGY I. Plan to Design the Product II. Conducting the Solidworks III. Gantt Chart IV. Flow Chat CHAPTER 3RESULTS AND DISCUSSION I. Isometric View II. Assembly Part III. Orthographic View i. 1st Angle ii. 3rd Angle IV. Sectional View V. Discussion of Every Part VI. New Design Part CHAPTER 5CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES I.

Design Scratching LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVITIONS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I. OBJECTIVE i. To design small test rig for archery’s equipment game. ii. To test a performance of the test rig of the archery’s equipment efficiencies that is the bow and arrow. iii. Survey to mechanical engineering laboratories and also to shop market. iv. To design small mechanical test rig using Solidworks software. v. To collect and select cheapest components and materials of test rig. vi. Trying to think of a cheap material and good quality to be used as the primary material in test rigs. vii.

Design a multifunction test rig structure, means that, there are other components can be added in the future because of the extra spaces. viii. To conduct a simple analysis of the design of the test rig and to set up the full design in Solidworks. II. LITERATURE REVIEW i. INTRODUCTION This chapter will briefly explain about basic concept of archery’s test rig, foundation of test rig performance testing, the importance of test rig performance testing, development of test rig performance testing, principle of jack and a few related studies and journals that have been done by current researchers.

All this information is important before furthering to the analysis and study later. ii. BASIC CONCEPT OF TEST RIG PERFORMANCE Archery test rig performance characteristics are convenient graphical presentation of archery test rig performance. They are constructed from the data obtained during actual test runs of the test rig and are particularly useful in comparing the performance of one bow and arrow with that of another. In this section some of the important performance characteristics of the test rig are discussed.

It is to be noted that there is a certain speed, within the speed range of particular length of string stretched, at which force applied that is the length of string stretched will be the maximum. At this point, the maximum speed can therefore be exerted on the bow. For all practical purpose, the spring constant or bow capacity to do work also will maximum at this point. As the speed of the arrow is increased above this speed the quantity of the indicated time will decrease. However, the work output of the test rig increases with the speed due to longer length is executed per spring stretched.

It should be note that the external air resistance will continue to increase with increased arrow speed until some point is reached where the air resistance almost can be negligible due to rapid movement of speed per second. Test rig are so designed that the maximum speed applied point is reached within various angle and height of the test rig. Increase in speed applied means that the increased targeting can be added per unit time increasing the work output. iii. FOUNDATION OF TEST RIG PERFORMANCE TESTING

Test rig performance is really a relative term. Normally it is represented by typical characteristic curves which are functions of testing at some variable of some situation and for our case is archery game. The term performance usually means how well a system designed is doing its job in relation to the input energy or how effectively it is provides useful work in relation to some other comparable industrial test rig machines. Most of the testing of test rig for their performance characteristics takes place under laboratory condition.

The test rig is connected to a mechanical-based devices such as jack, spring and usual lift up mechanism by lifting the height of the steel in particular joint part. However, the performance characteristics of work, speed versus string stretched, degree of angle, height of devices of bow and arrow are recorded. There are so many types of industrial test rig used but using automation to quickly perform measurements and evaluate the test results. Principle that we used is mainly just simple mechanism that involve physics law and design it using Solidworks software.

Our design of test rig operation is to allow the casing the arrow to swing freely with various variables that we figure out in this evaluation. The reaction string stretched various length, L, which is exactly equivalent to the speed measured on a level speed per time, ? , from the line section of the bow there are angle elevated, ?. The height of the test rig also can be organized. This restrains the attach casing of bow’s holder from revolving, or the speed and work would not be affected. Then, there are several factors that must considered in evaluating the performance of the test rig.

Most of them are maximum work or speed available at each length string stretched within the useful particular of variable. iv. THE IMPORTANCE OF TEST RIG PERFORMANCE TESTING Today the most common power source is the well-known in industrial test rig machine. This type of test rig machine has been the choice due to efficient and accurate result in testing equipment for an example. For out invention may become natural choice due to low cost and portable properties. The portable characteristics shown may be easy because does not any electrical supply due to mechanical works only use in our test rig and easy to moves by just man-power.

Industrial test rig machine as we know it today is not able to comply with future emission demands due to its massive cost and power used not very appropriate for some minority field. However, in the future manufactures must come up with new cost-efficient test rig technologies that still deliver the same or improved performance for customer satisfaction. III. MARKET SURVEY Test rig is an apparatus used for assessing the performance of a piece of mechanical or electrical equipment. In our case is to assessing the performance of archery’s equipment that is the bow and arrow.

The experiment can be undergoing when we test how far the arrow can shoot in such length per time in particular length of string stretched. Example of test rig used in industrial field: * Aircraft Research Association - Wind Tunnel Testing Facility at Bedford, UK. Detail design for the upgrade of their existing transonic wind tunnel. * Rolls Royce – Aero Engine Test Facility at Derby, UK. Design, supply and site installation of a range of specialist fabricated gas catchers for use while testing jet engine reverse thrust. * Babcock Marine – Devonport Naval Dockyard at Plymouth, UK.

Provision of test facilities to allow training of key personnel involved in the nuclear submarine decommissioning programmed. As an addition, from a long-term perspective, the most important sector linking Turkey to the global economy is manufacturing. The share of manufactured goods in the total exports of Turkey increased from 37% in 1980 to 93% in 2009. Increase in the volume of foreign trade between 2002-2008 is also remarkable. $87 billion volume of foreign trade in 2002 rose at an annual rate of 25%, to reach $334 billion in 2008, $243 billion in 2009.

This shown that test rig machine is very important to test some equipment. In archery manufacturing, the efficiencies for the bow and arrow to working simultaneously to shoot the longest with accurate moment and high speed is required for an excellent product. Platts is a leading global provider of energy and metals information and the world’s foremost source of price assessments in the physical energy markets. Since 1909, Platts has enabled the markets to operate with transparency and efficiency, and helped traders, risk managers, analysts, and industry leaders make better trading and business decisions.

Platts Report: The aluminum alloy market – strong but beset with uncertainty – examines in detail activity throughout the sector and beyond, in Europe, the US and Asia over the past few months and helps bring focus to the outlook of Q1 2012. Comparison of Al and steel Global Aluminum Market to Reach 71. 2 Million Tons by 2018, According to New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. GIA announces the release of a comprehensive global report on the Aluminum markets. The global market for Aluminum is forecast to reach 71. 2 million tons by the year 2018.

Major factors driving growth in the Aluminum market include increasing demand for the metal in developing countries, lower per capita consumption of Aluminum in emerging markets, increasing applications of Aluminum in various sectors, increasing regulations in the automotive sector that are driving use of Aluminum, and recovery in demand from end-use segments post-recession. Asia-Pacific represents the largest regional market for aluminum worldwide, as stated by the new market research report on Aluminum. China and India are emerging as the major drivers of global growth in consumption of aluminum.

Europe represents the second largest regional market worldwide, followed by the US. Growth in the global aluminum market is projected to be driven by the Rest of World market, which includes the Middle East and Africa. The regional market is projected to post a compounded annual growth rate of 11. 1% during the analysis period. Extruded Products represents the largest market segment for aluminum. However, Rolled Products are projected to spearhead growth in the global aluminum market. Our suggestion is strongly to use Aluminium alloy as a material for our test rig. The characterized by a relatively low density (2. g/cm3 as compare to 7. 9g/cm3 for steel), high resistance to corrosion in some common environments. Our test rig is showing portable properties that allow this to be use even in hot field, including the ambient atmosphere it can resist form corrosive oxygen content in natural environment. Many of this alloys are easily in the process of fabrication virtue to high ductility. The mechanical strength of aluminium can may be enhanced by cold work and by alloying with another metal or non-metal. Aluminum Alloy Product Description Specifications: Tensile Strength(psi): 83000 Yield Strength(psi): 72000

Elongation(%2"): 11 Hardness: 158 IV. COMPARISON BETWEEN OUR DESIGN AND CURRENT DESIGN In Figure above that is the advance industrial test rig machine for testing the car door system. Basically our design is inspired by above design but more less cost and in simplify form. We eventually make a portable test rig that can be brought to any places. Testing facilities and test rigs come in many forms and are used within a broad spectrum of industries. They perform a variety of key functions from product validation through to the training and development of operators. The benefits from our design of test rig: ) The material used is easy to find in market and very popular in making of industrial machine. We are suggesting aluminum alloy due to high strength that is more mechanical properties shown in steel. b) Complete bespoke design and supply of unique test rigs to suit individual archery player specified requirements. c) Modification and upgrades to existing test facilities. d) Specialist components for integration into new test equipment. e) Shop assembly and proving of specific test rigs. f) In recent years we could have successfully completed a number of high profile projects involving test equipment. g) Globalization. ) Ongoing liberalization of international financial and commercial system. i) Foreign investors’ being directed to the fields accelerating technological-social dynamics in archery. j) Rapid development and increase in effective use of information technologies and innovation. k) Technological developments. l) Increase in the size and purchasing capacity of domestic market. m) Richness of renewable and alternative energy sources. n) Development of competitive new business models. o) Development of institutionalization and corporation culture. p) Coming into prominence of the partnerships between countries. ) Increasing importance of added value product production, quality and efficiency of archery’s bow and arrow. r) Increasing of the information based (producing and utilizing information) competitive advantage. s) Increasing demand for new, high-quality and different products in the global markets with low cost. t) Contribution of the positive developments related to environment and climate changes to the competitiveness. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY I. PLAN TO DESIGN THE PRODUCT The actual construction was very similar to the preliminary design. The end test rig, when fully assembled.

The mechanism is the height can be change by requirement of user. There are two blocks that are used for joints of supporting another holder of the arrow as well as the traction rope length u bow in the spring in the valve use to draw and release the bow string when want shoot. The angle of the bow can also be changed by using the ball and socket as our knees. There is another part that supports the ball and socket is attached to one of the blocks that support the horizontal position of the bow string pullers. The height of this test rig can be changed under by jack at the bottom part of the test rig.

Jack with rotor will be rolled over by man-power only and it will lift the top part of the test rig. In the preliminary design two supporter were described below in our drawing, master spring switch length and a socket and ball joint in that can joint the bow with the spring switch length . In the actual design, these 2 parts were combined into a single part switch that also has a pull/push holder- feature. Many features were added to aid in the setup and tear down of the test stand. The upper part and the lower part both have straight plane that come in contact with the base, and at each of these points there is a single ? n bolt. At the base of each upper 2 block supporter and after the jack assembly there are plane quick that can be disconnects which allow them to be separated from the rest of the structure. The electrical connection is not exist at all in this test rig. All these features allow for the test stand to be assembled and disassembled in approximately 10 minutes. Actual Test Rig Picture shown below: Door testing for its joints and locking setup Testing. Small testing setup installed on seats for complete cycle testing of all for doors of the car.

Calculation of door closing and opening speed with the accurate door displacement by servomotor. Reports and data can be visualized on remote PC outside Car. The torsion fatigue test rig (TFTR) was constructed to experimentally characterize the fatigue behaviour of materials that fail due to oscillating shear stresses. It consists of a base, hydraulic rotary actuator, and torque cell. Given the horizontal configuration of the rig, light weight mechanical adapters were designed to interface with the torsion bar specimens to minimize the interference of bending moments on the tests results.

The adapters are essentially custom designed collet fixtures with base flanges for mounting, and they use off-the-shelf collets and clamping nuts to retain the specimen and transmit torque. Tests are generally carried out in torque controlled mode and the prescribed torque levels/amplitudes are controlled through commercial software. In this case of our test rig, the speed can be evaluated by the length of string stretched in such angle specified. The height also can be determined in such way by jack illustrated mechanism.

Our design of test rig operation is to allow the casing the arrow to swing freely with various variables that we figure out in this evaluation. The reaction string stretched various length, L, which is exactly equivalent to the speed measured on a level speed per time, ? , from the line section of the bow there are angle elevated, ?. The height of the test rig also can be organized. This restrains the attach casing of bow’s holder from revolving, or the speed and work would not be affected. Then, there are several factors that must considered in evaluating the performance of the test rig.

Most of them are maximum work or speed available at each length string stretched within the useful particular of variable. V. FLOW CHART Report is for draft and design. While Presentation is about the whole work Report is for draft and design. While Presentation is about the whole work List the needed material List the needed material Study and gather information Study and gather information Design & Sketching Concepts Design & Sketching Concepts YES YES NO NO MODIFICATION MODIFICATION SOLIDWORKS SOFTWARE SOLIDWORKS SOFTWARE FINISH FINISH

PRESENTATION PRESENTATION FINAL REPORT FINAL REPORT FINAL DISCUSSION FINAL DISCUSSION ANALYSIS ANALYSIS BRIEF DISCUSSION BRIEF DISCUSSION MARKET SURVEY MARKET SURVEY DESIGN & SKECTHING DESIGN & SKECTHING LITERATURE STUDY LITERATURE STUDY START START VI. GANTT CHART ACTIVITIES| WEEK 1| WEEK 2| WEEK 3| WEEK 5| NOTES| Group division| v| | | | 3 Design must be prepared| Briefing about project design| v| | | | -| Re-do design and lecturer’s approval| | v| | | Get lecturer approval| Do some literature review| | v| | | -| Gather information| | v| | | -|

Start doing Solidworks| | | v| | 3 part is separated| Progress report| | | v| | -| Make presentation slides| | | v| | Slides for final presentation| Finish final report| | | v| | -| Present project| | | | v| -| VII. CONDUCTING SOLID WORKS 3 persons assigned to handle this Solidworks. Our design is also divided into three phases. The first phase is the jack, the second phase is the ball and socket that is used to change the angle position of the bow, and the third phase is parking bow string, pull and position of the spring in the valve.

Isometric view, orthographic view, and sectional view is provided in our report. Assembly part is use to sketch this design. There are about more than 15 parts that have been assembly together in this design. The overall view we put it together in isometric vie. All the dimensions is in mm with the scale of 1:50. Information about the assembly and its components is limited in Large Design Review. Most of the capabilities in Large Design Review mode are limited versions of existing SolidWorks capabilities. Snapshots are available only in Large Design Review.

While an assembly is open in Large Design Review, it can make changes to its components. The uses Filter Modified Components to visually indicate which components have been modified. Selective Open and related tools are available on the Large Design Review tab of the CommandManager. These tools let to set some or all components to resolved or to lightweight. The Large Design Review tab of the CommandManager provides access to commands so can be use when open an assembly in Large Design Review mode. Parameters refer to constraints whose values determine the shape or geometry of the model or assembly.

Parameters can be either numeric parameters, such as line lengths or circle diameters, or geometric parameters, such as tangent, parallel, concentric, horizontal or vertical. Numeric parameters can be associated with each other through the use of relations, which allows to capture design intent. Features refer to the building blocks of the part. They are the shapes and operations that construct the part. Shape-based features typically begin with a 2D or 3D sketch of shapes such as bosses, holes, slots, etc. This shape is then extruded or cut to add or remove material from the part.

Operation-based features are not sketch-based, and include features such as fillets, chamfers, shells, applying draft to the faces of a part, etc. Building a model in SolidWorks usually starts with a 2D sketch (although 3D sketches are available for power users). The sketch consists of geometry such as points, lines, arcs, conics (except the hyperbola), and splines. Dimensions are added to the sketch to define the size and location of the geometry. Relations are used to define attributes such as tangency, parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity.

The parametric nature of SolidWorks means that the dimensions and relations drive the geometry, not the other way around. The dimensions in the sketch can be controlled independently, or by relationships to other parameters inside or outside of the sketch. In an assembly, the analog to sketch relations are mates. Just as sketch relations define conditions such as tangency, parallelism, and concentricity with respect to sketch geometry, assembly mates define equivalent relations with respect to the individual parts or components, allowing the easy construction of assemblies.

SolidWorks also includes additional advanced mating features such as gear and cam follower mates, which allow modeled gear assemblies to accurately reproduce the rotational movement of an actual gear train. Finally, drawings can be created either from parts or assemblies. Views are automatically generated from the solid model, and notes, dimensions and tolerances. CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS I. Isometric View II. Assembly Part III. Orthographic View i. 1st Angle ii. 3rd Angle IV. Sectional View V. Discussion of Every Part The body part is main part of the test rig. The body part is the support side of the test rig and as a connector.

It holds the baton together with joint so that that joint clamp can hold it together stable. The joint is very important is in this test rig also because it is the main part that contains spring that will stretched inside it when baton is pulled by its holder that stuck the bow string in it. Joint clamp is functional in changing the position of the arrow angle. It can be measured 0o until 180o. This is may suitable for some player that plays with their bow arrow in such rare angle. The baton is part that joint in with the joint and the joint clamp. At the surface of the baton there is a hook that is used for the string to be put.

The spring is used for the pulling the baton when want to launch the arrow in such speed and length the string being put in particular section hook. There are 4 section of hook that can be put the bow string. The base is eventually for the supporting the whole structure especially the jack. Link is used for linking with the hydraulic jack. Support part is for the hydraulic jack and as a base to put the body of the test rig. Connectors used in this test rig is just screw rod, side supporter screw, base screw, and long screw. This act as same function that is to connects part tightly. Free Body Diagram (FBD) VI. New Design Part

SINGLE CAM TUNING: Arrow spine can affect the high/low ripping of the paper test for one-cam bows. In 2007 World Target Champion instructed us that weakspined arrow shafts out of his Mathews bow, the name of the bow will tend to tear nockhigh when paper testing. The stiffer spined shafts will tend to show a low nock tear through the paper. That’s one reason why some bow setups continue to tear nock high no matter where you adjust the nocking point location – the arrow is acting weak and needs to be switched for a stiffer shaft. This is why our test rig can produce many variable and can be added in improvement plan in future.

ADJUSTING FOR LEFT AND RIGHT ARROW TEARS: Correcting arrow flight for nock-right and nockleft tearing traits through the paper is more difficult than correcting for up and down. An arrow tears left or right because its spine is not properly matched to the bow system. (Remember, we already eliminated arrow rest contact. ) These adjustments are numerous and don’t always get results if the arrow isn’t the proper spine or something major is wrong with the bow system. I remind you again that this is not a perfect world and you should not beat your head against the wall trying to get a perfect hole.

Close is good especially if the vane slices through the paper are crisp and all test shots produce the same hole. A little high-left or a little high tear, less than a half inch from 8 yards, is very acceptable and tells you that the arrows are flying well. All that remains is to shoot for groups from some distance that matches the archer’s ability level. Our design that has 4 section of hook is very useful because force is very important in shooting the arrow. Furthermore, no power supply is used by our machine makes us tend to do it different section to differentiate how far can the arrow go when it is shoot form different section.

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS There is a significant volume of literature covering methodology and approaches to selecting indicators of sustainable development. There is certainly no shortage of suggested ‘criteria’ for indicators and it has been possible to combine the oft-quoted lists to form a comprehensive overview (box 3). Similarly, several engineers mutually advocate adopting a framework to provide a coherent, consistent and structured process to indicator selection. However, there is an apparent gap in the literature in terms of the actual application of indicators, successfully or otherwise.

This suggests that more often than not the process of selecting indicators - from deciding which indicators to adopt, to how many and whether/ how to aggregate and communicate the results - can become so lengthy and complex that the implementation and reviewing of indicator data is never achieved. It seems all too easy to get hung-up on finding the ‘perfect’ indicator, but as Bakkes (1997) describes, indicators compromise between relevance, scientific validity and measurability and will often have to be ‘optimally inaccurate’.

Therefore, aspiring to achieve the best available indicator is far more efficient in practice. Whilst the process of selecting indicators is intrinsically important to successful implementation, and indeed a valuable learning experience in itself (Bell and Morse, 2003), it is important not to lose perspective. Indicators are not an end in themselves but a means for communication and to assist the policy and planning cycle. Bell and Morse (2003) explicitly argue that to date, very poor, if any relationships between indicators and policy change have been demonstrated.

They quote Reid’s (1995 in Bell and Morse, 2003: 50) analysis of why: a lack of awareness of the issues; political unacceptability of many actions; opposition from entrenched interests; and inadequate institutional responses. Therefore, it is important to be aware of these potential barriers when designing indicators and to ensure that monitoring them is seen as an integral part of the planning cycle, rather than a routine data collection that is not part of the institution’s decision making and learning cycle; hence ensuring that “energy [is] directed towards achieving sustainability, not just measuring it” (DSCWG, 2001).

Furthermore, the cyclical, ‘feedback’ nature of indicator selection and implementation should be upheld. Just as policy needs to react to indicator data, the indicators also need to be flexible to adjust to possible changes in policy priorities and objectives. Developing a reliable and useful set of indicators that truly reflect the multidimensional nature of sustainable development is clearly a complex task.

However, “if sustainable development is one of the tourism industry’s major contemporary objectives, then the industry needs to be able to measure its performance and impacts in this area” (Ko, 2005:432); undertaking this process, through adopting a framework to selecting indicators and acting upon their results, is worth the time and effort required to get it right. The implementation of the Annotation project has clearly demonstrated the concepts underlying the system to be entirely feasible, with, of course, the previously mentioned alterations and reservations.

The Moderation subsystem required the use of authentication methods, currently under investigation within the JISC project umbrella at this time, in order to be realistically implemented. Several authentication projects under development will soon become available; using any such suitable project, it is possible to enable an implementation of the moderation system in the real world. Amongst other applications, annotation could also be considered as searchable metadata. This would permit a wider reach for site or content searching mechanisms. During this roject, the idea was considered, but constraints due to the design made it impractical —the definition of the project stated clearly that, as a completely independent service, its existence or otherwise should not in any way influence the operation of the resource finder. As such, it would have been inappropriate to link the Resource Finder’s operation to the annotations. As an example scenario, one might imagine a researcher who reads a paper in a given context and, whilst annotating the document, drops a reference to several other resources r concepts. A researcher searching on one of these associated concepts may therefore be referred to this article as a consequence of the annotation; in this way, one might imagine that searching ’backwards’ from annotation information may provide, perhaps surprising, and perhaps useful associations. While doing this project we realize that potentially it came from us the developing our strength to become more knowledgeable in this real-life world. We are exposed to the market survey, the material used and the important thing is to design something.

At last, to wrap up this conclusion with a question, introduced as a statement; the possibilities provided by the storage of annotation metadata are certainly wide enough. Annotation metadata alone is a potentially rich resource; when combined with other information, such as contextual background information, the possibilities are endless. Applying contextual information, for example, could help the sorting through search terms to locate more relevant resources. What other metadata exists that could contribute to the usefulness of an annotation? REFERENCES

I. Global Industry Analysts, Inc. , (GIA) http://www. strategyr. com/Aluminum_Market_Report. asp II. “Commission on Growth and Development. 2007. “The Growth Report,” Washington, D. C. III. Rodrik, D. 2007. “What does China export? China and the World Economy IV. www. disability. wa. gov. au V. Learning Guide © 2009 The University of Adelaide VI. DavyMarkham - Products - Test Rigs VII. NaRec – Wind Turbine Test Facility at Blyth, UK. Design study VIII. End of Project Report, by Gregory J. L. Tourte, UKOLN,The University of Bath, August 2003 IX.

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