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Africa During Colonialism

Africa of course, would be colonized by the many Europeans. However, a lot of African groups/colonization would start too. They would start and older ones would be expanded.

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The slave trade had decreased due to British pressures and so Africa started trading more of other items with the rest of the world. This same thing was happening in Asia and the Middle East too. In South Africa, the Zulu kingdom would be formed, and in Western Africa, an Islamic caliphate, Sotto Caliphate would be formed. Many of these civilizations were being formed by a bunch of African peoples around the continent.

At first, In Southern Africa, there were the Unsung people, Just farmers and cattle herders that existed for a very long time. Soon, however, a drought would strike, hurting their agriculture. This caused the end of the Unsung people. A military genius and leader, Shake Zulu would take control and create a new civilization, the Zulu people, who, compared to all other tribes In Southern Africa, was the most powerful and formidable, because of its strict military drills and practice and they even used ox-hide shields. The Zulu warriors expanded their kingdom, by attacking many other tribes and

Invading them, taking their cattle, children and women. Parts of the Zulu, they split off making their own military bands and they too did the same thing as the Zulu. Soon, this made so many new kingdoms going up all the way to Lake Victoria. As this increased, so did the number of refugees and terrified, depressed people from these To stop the Zulu tribe’s growth and power, two kingdoms formed, Swaziland to the north and Lesotho to the east, which was made up of many refugees who came to those mountains there. Both Lesotho and Swaziland exist today.

Shake successfully made a national identity and a nation in just 10 years of rule. He took all the young people in the nation and split them into deferent groups, called regiments, based on age. These people of the regiment lived with each other and they all celebrated Shake. Etc. They celebrated his rule and they were all heavily disciplined. Cow herds were a measure of wealth in this kingdom. Meanwhile, in the Western Savannah of Africa, there was a big religious struggle. Islam was prevalent over there. However, that was only In the cities and trade areas, ND not in the rural areas.

The rural areas still followed regular customs. At first, Islam allowed people to mix their older beliefs with Islam. Now however, Psalmists started denying this idea of allowing them to have their customs and wanted them to follow pure Islam. They made a “holy war”, called Jihad, which made Assaults take over many rural and other new lands where they enforced Islamic laws and spread the religion. These Islamic retorts first took place in the Hausa states to northern Nigeria. A leader in the Hausa states, Susann Dan Food, called a lot of the kings there, unbelievers of religion or Islam and led people away from god.

He led a Jihad on the King of Gobi, overthrowing him. A lot o f Muslims Joined to gather to spread Islam and spread it all around Hausa. All this Islam would come together to make a caliph under the capital city of Sotto, called the Sotto Caliphate. The Sotto Caliphate became a center for teaching Islam and reform. It added many new centers, quickly, to teach Curtain and Islamic subjects to boys. Many people were attracted to it because of the Sotto library, which was pretty huge. Muslims ere allowed people to follow their own religion but had to pay a special tax.

They were not allowed to do their tribal dances and rituals and any who opposed the spread of the Jihad were killed, slaved or converted. The Sotto caliphate sent off tons of slaves for the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, mainly women and children. Slaves mainly farmed, and so this allowed women to actually leave the home this time. Sotto not only sent a lot of slaves, but it also had a lot of slaves in itself too. In fact, it had more slaves than any other American commonly. Napoleon would come and fight in Egypt. This would last in Egypt as a great triumph for the Europeans and a great loss for the Egyptians.

After Napoleon left Egypt from his losses, Muhammad All took rule. Muhammad All took rule of Egypt. He modernized and industrialized Egypt, making it follow a lot of the Western styles. He increased trade of Egypt. He brought a lot of education to Egyptians, and allowing them to replace the old aristocracy. He replaced all the European experts and sellers of products with Egyptians. However, one bad thing was, that he made a burden on the peasants to give military and labor service. The army and Egypt was making its own textiles, paper, weapons, military uniforms.

Seeing this western movement, many groups in Egypt, of Islam mixed with this Western Culture. For example, European technical manuals were translated to Arabic. Small was the grandson of Muhammad All. He was more keen on westernizes than All. But his efforts, in the end, would Just create a bunch of Egyptian debt to French and British banks. At first, in his first 10 years of rule, it was all good with a lot of wealth thanks to increased trade, more exports, new irrigation annals, railroads 800 miles, postal service and Cairo.

However, after the American Civil War, exports went down again and debt would be one of the reasons for French and British partial occupation of Egypt. Ethiopia was Christian for 1 500 years. They too were trying to modernize themselves. Ethiopians Emperor, Terrors II of Ethiopia was the one who first started Westernizes and ordered a lot of weapon purchases from Europe and also encouraged some local maturating. One time, they even made cannon that could shoot a half ton shell with the help of Protestant missionaries.

However, they tried to get some more weapons by holding British officials hostage and demanding for weapons, but the British would end up actually invading Ethiopia. Terrors would commit suicide to prevent capture. Then the British would withdraw, and then King Haynes would take the throne. King Haynes took over a lot of the lost land of Ethiopia, except for one major land part, Shoo Kingdom, ruled by King Moonlike. The beginning events of Rupee’s scramble for Africa were when France took over Algeria. Algeria originally was a major supplier of olive oil and grain to France.

They even gave them grain to Napoleon to take over Egypt. Now, France still owed them for this and several disputes took place. The new French government wanted to show nationalism with an easy overseas victory. However, the struggle for Algeria would go on for 18 years, even after French government would be overthrown again. Bad al- Qatar was an Algerian holy man who led them against France but he would die, weakening and nearly ending their 18 year struggle. However, conflict in the mountains would take place for 30 years. Settlers would then come in and kill off 140,000 people.