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A Difference between Children and Adults

Essay Topic: ,

The topic is about of fears and phobias. It talks whether a phobia is genetic or learnt. It also describes the most common phobia:claustrophobia,and how best to treat phobias by gradually exposing the patien to their fear,and teaching them relaxation techniques. It then goes on to talk about the difference between a fear and phobia,and finally, it describes the strangest phobia of all,in which patients have fear of long words. It is certainly true that the children of phobics are more likely to be fearful and anxious, but it’s difficult to say whether this is genetic or learnt.

As the capacity to be anxious or fearful depends on a chemical balance in the brain, it is possible that this chemical imbalance is passed down from parent to child,. Children learn by watching how their parents, and other adults, react to the world around them.

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Parents need to be careful not to be too cautious or overemphasize danger, otherwise their children may be prone to developing phobias as they grow older. Claustrophobia – the fear of enclosed spaces. Sufferers’ basic fear is not of the enclosed space itself, but that they are not going to be able to escape from it.

Even at home they often need to sit next to an open door so that they know that they’ll be able to get out if they need to. Claustrophobics need to feel that they can get out of the car at a moment’s notice, otherwise they suffer severe panic attacks. This can be very difficult on a motorway! And of course, they never take a lift, just in case it breaks down. Yes, of course they can. A phobia is a conditioned reflex, so the best treatment is to reverse the conditioning. In order to do so, sufferers of this phobiamust try to establish positive associations .

This can be a very long and painful process and is based on gradual exposure to the object, linked to the practice of a range of relaxation techniques. One of the weirdest is hippopotomonstros esquippedaliophobia: the fear of long words. You can’t help thinking that the name was chosen so that sufferers couldn’t talk about their problem! People who suffer from this phobia often use abbreviations and acronyms. The structure of the present simple:Subject + VInfinitive We use the present simple: to talk about facts things that always true and permanent situations. Ex: She lives in a small flat.

To talk about habits and actions that happen regularly. Ex: She drives the kids to school every day. The past simple tense is sometimes called the “preterite tense”. We can use several tenses and forms to talk about the past, but the past simple tense is the one we use most often. The structure of the past simple tense is:Subject + VERB+ed Examples:You called Debbie. We use the past simple: When we ask when the event happened. Ex: When did she arrive at Alice Springs? When we say when the event happened with time expressions like yesterday,last week, one night,that indicate a finished time.

Ex: She got there two weeks ago. Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefers only to sleep in their leisure time, but most of us prefer to do a great number of interesting things. It may be reading, various types of sport games, watching TV, listening to music and so on. If we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive places. Many people think that pupils and studients have too much liesure time, but in my opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many pupils have six or seven lessons a day and go to school five or six days a week.

Even during weekend we learn our lessons. And we just have no time to go somewhere. Oldest of us are working after school or institute. As for me, a large part of my free time is devoted to reading. I like to read books about another countries, another times and another worlds. Also I read books about history of our country. Besides reading I like to do physical exercises. Me and my school friends often gather after school and play basketball, football or other active games. But my favorite hobby is travelling. Usually I travel in summer and often it is a trip to the south, to the warm sea.

I think all people must have other occupations besides their basic work, because it extends the bounduries of the familar world and teaches us something new about people and things. N2 This article is about the life and work of the French artist ORLAN. It talks how she has become an internationally famous artist with performances aimed to shock her audience. Orlan. the star of the video, is probably the world’s most well-known performance artist. She has had dozens of exhibitions around the world, she appears in fashion magazines and TV talk shows and collectors pay high prices for her pictures.

She is a professor of fine arts at a prestigious college in Dijon and her work is supported by the French Ministry of Culture. She was bom in central France in 1947 and did her first performances at the age of eighteen. She later became a teacher but lost her job in 1977, as a result of a work that she had performed at an art fair in Paris. In the work, The kiss of the artist’ she had sat behind a life size photograph of her body and sold kisses to the audience. At the end of each kiss, an electronic siren deafened the gallery. The work succeeded in shocking the public but Orian was out of a job.

Orlan was getting more and more attention, but art lovers were unprepared for what came next. Her next major work – a video – was shown at the Lyons Centre of Contemporary Art. An ambulance had rushed the video to the Centre from the hospital where Orlan had just had an emergency operation. She had installed a video camera in the operating theatre, and the film became the first of her surgical performances. By the mid-1980s, her fame had led to work for the Ministry of Culture and a teaching position at Dijon, but international stardom came later, in the 1990s, after changing her appearance.

Returning to the operating theatre, she began a series of plastic surgery operations that continued for the next ten years. In each operation, a part of Orlan’s body was changed, so that it looked like a beautiful bit of her favourite paintings – the forehead of Leonardo’s Mona Lisa or the chin of Botticelli’s Venus, for example. Galleries around the world showed films of the operations and Orlan’s fame grew. Her self-portraits are her most recognizable paintings, but her work is conceptual, rather than figurative She describes herself as a feminist and says that her intention is to challenge traditional ideas of beauty.

In the tradition of Marcel Duchamp, her work is designed to shock and provoke, not simply to be admired With the present simple, we often use adverbs of frequency to say ‘how often’ we do something. Here’s a list of common adverbs:Always,frequently,generally,hardly ever ,infrequently, never, normally occasionally, often, rarely ,regularly, seldom, sometimes, usually We usually put these adverbs in the middle of the sentence, between the subject and the verb: I often go to the cinema. She sometimes visits me at home. We usually drink coffee. We can also put them at the very beginning or end of the sentence.

This makes them stronger: Often I go to the cinema. I go to the cinema often. But never: I go often to the cinema. Here are some other expressions we can use to say ‘how often’. All of these longer phrases go at the beginning or the end of the sentence but not in the middle. once in a while: I go to the cinema once in a while. every now and again: She drinks wine every now and again. from time to time: From time to time I visit my mother. N3 He was looking at a book and did not notice as I slipped into my chair. I arranged myself as 1 had been sitting before.

As I turned my head to look over my left shoulder, he glanced up. At the same time the end of die yellow cloth came loose and fell over my shoulder. ‘Oh’ I breathed, afraid that the cloth would fall from my head and reveal all my hair. But it held – only the end of the yellow cloth dangled free. My hair remained hidden. ‘Yes,’ he said then. ‘That is it, Griet. Yes. ‘he said then. That is it great yes. ate in the evening, Van Ruijven managed to comer me in the hallway as I was passing along it with a lighted candle and a wine jug. \Ah, the wide- eyed maid,’ he cried, leaning into me. ‘Hello, my girl.’

He grabbed my chin in his hand, his other hand pulling the candle up to light my face. 1 did not like die way he looked at me. ‘You should paint her,’ he said over his shoulder. You must wear the other one as well,’ he declared, picking up the second earring and holding it out to me. For a moment I could not speak. 1 wanted him to think of me, not the painting. ‘Why? ‘ I finally answered. ‘It can’t be seen in the painting. ‘ ‘You must wear both,’ he insisted. ‘It is a farce to wear only one. ‘ ‘But – my other ear is not pierced,’ I faltered. ‘Then you must tend to it. ‘ He continued to hold it out.

I reached over and took it. I did it for him. I got out a needle and clove oil and pierced my odier ear. I did not cry, or faint, or make a sound. Then I sat all morning and he painted the earring he could see, and I felt, stinging like fire in my other ear, the pearl he could not see. He had been working on the painting for almost two months, and though I had not seen it, I thought it must be close to done. He wafc no longer having me mix quantities of colour for it, but used tiny amounts and made few movements with his brushes. As I sat, I thought I had understood how he wanted me to be, but now I was not so sure.

Sometimes he simply sat and looked at me as if he were waiting for me to do something. Then he was not like a painter, but like a man, and it was hard to look at him. •One day he announced suddenly, as I was sitting in my chair, ‘This will satisfy van Ruijven, but not me. ‘ Make negatives by putting not after the first auxiliary verb. I haven’t been doing it for that long. If there is no auxiliary verb (ie present simple and past simple) add do/does/did. Ex:I didn’t know such a thing existed. Make questions by putting the subject between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.

Structure:(auxiliary verb) subject verb. Ex:What was it used for in the first place? If there is no auxiliary verb (ie present simple and past simple) add do/does/did. Ex:Did he hart anybody? In questions with be put the subject after the verb. Are you a bit sensitive about it. If the question word who is the subject of the verb, do not use do/does/did with the present or past simple. Put the verb after the subject as in a normal statement. What happens if someone gets killed one day? In 1893, New Zealand \ took the historic step of becoming the first country in the world to grant the vote to all adult women.

The decision came after a fifteen-year campaign led by Kate Sheppard. Sheppard became a well-known historical figure in her own country where she can be seen on a ten-dollar bilL. She also travelled to Canada, the United States and Britain where she met other suffragettes who were fighting for the right to vote. By the time of her death in 1934, women in nearly twenty countries around the world had won the right to vote. New Zealand had its first woman prime minister in 1997 and ten years later, women had been elected heads of state on all five continents.

N4 This article is about Ginny who sought help from a life coach to change her life style and stop smoking. In the article, Brian, Ginny’s life coach, describes what they do at the session, how Ginny has reacted to the coaching so far, and how successful he thinks she will be in giving up smoking. Ginny then describes her experience of attending the life coaching sessions, what successes she has had in trying to stop smoking, and when,in her opinion,she thinks she’ll stop smoking. Time adverbials show a relationship between one event and another.

They help a speaker or writer to show the sequence of events in a native. To show the first in a series of actions:initially, at first,at the beginning,to begin with. To show that one action happens after another: afterwards,subsequently,after a wile,later on. To show the last in a series of actions: eventually,finally, in the end. The Man Booker Prize for Fiction is one of the world’s most important literary prizes. It is awarded each year for the best original full-length novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in the English language.

A panel of judges choose a short list of six novels from over 200 entrants. The short list is announced in September, and then a month later the prize is awarded in a special, televised ceremony. The winner of the Man Booker Prize receives ?50,000. In addition, both the winner and the short-listed authors are guaranteed a worldwide readership and a dramatic increase in book sales. N5 We can expect to see major changes in the home, too, and some rooms will look rather different. The kitchen and the bathroom, to name but two, will be unrecognizable. In the kitchen, for example hi-tech appliances will be revolutionized.

Automatic waste disposal and a water purification system, among other things will become standard features of most kitchens. The new intelli-kitchen is already making our lives easier by looking after some of the dirtier jobs. Self-cleaning ovens, for instance, are already available in some shops. Cooking accidents, such as burnt toast or undercooked pasta, will be a thing of the past with self-timing appliances. And with a fridge that orders food direct from online home-delivery companies, you’ll never run out of essentials like milk or orange juice.

The changes will transform the lives of everyone, housewives in particular. In the bathroom of the future, … English Idioms An idiom is a set expression which has a meaning different from the literal meanings of its components. Idioms present a great variety of structures and combinations that are mostly unchangeable and often not logical and may not follow basic rules of grammar. Idioms can be quite clear (in general; come out; at first; the root of all evil) or pretty unclear (on end; pack it in; high and low; hard cash).

Some idioms have proper names in them (a Jack of all trades; Uncle Sam); some other idioms are comparisons (as clear as a bell; as the crow flies). Proverbs and sayings may also have idiomatic character (every cloud has a silver lining; still waters run deep). It is pointless to ask why idioms have such unusual structure or choice of words, or why they don’t follow basic grammar rules. Let’s just accept as fact that idioms are a difficult peculiarity of English. N6 This text is about how to exploit having a heavy cold, in order to get maximum attention and sympathy from work colleagues,family and friends.

It goes through the different stages of having a cold from exaggerating the symptoms and getting sick leave from work, to what to do while you have the cold, and finally what happens when you goback to work. Use simple past, used to + infinitive and would + infinitive to talk about past habits. The earl liked dogs. His dogs used to have dinner with him. The servants would tie a napkin around their necks. Use used to to talk about both states and actions. Use would to talk about actions only. His family used to have a house in Hertfordshire. Not His family would have a house in Hertfordshire.

Alternative medicines include a wide range of treatments and practices. Some stem from nineteenth century North America, such as Chiropractic and Naturopathy, some, mentioned by Jutte, originated in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Germany, such as homeopathyand hydropathy,[56] some have originated in China or India. The following examples include some of the more common methods in use. Most therapies can be considered as part of five broad classes; biological based approaches, energy therapies, alternative medical systems, muscle and joint manipulation and mind body therapies.

Indian Dhanvantari, an incarnation of Krishna[111] and the Lord of Ayurveda worshiped at an ayurveda expo, Bangalore In Japanese Reiki, it is believed that supernatural energies flow from the palms of the healer into the patient near Chakras, influencing disease. Alternative medical systems are complete health systems with their own approaches to diagnosis and treatment that differ from the conventional biomedical approach to health. Some are cultural systems such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine, while others, such as Homeopathy and Naturopathy are relatively recent and were developed in the West. [103]

Writing as a historian Matthew Ramsey has asked whether some counter-hegemonic medicines are better understood as manifestations of more general developments in the larger society, or as the product of a coherent alternative world view. N7 This article is about Office Doctors, a company with spezializes in using alternative therapies to reduce the amout of stress-related illnesses in the workplace. With stress-related illness on the increase, and workers starting to sue their companies for chronic back pain, more and more companies arc turning to alternative therapies to help reduce the levels of stress in their workplace.

The Office Doctors is one of a growing number of companies which claim they can reduce work related stress by making workplaces healthier and happier. They talked us through one of their makeovers. A small accountancy firm had been experiencing problems with staff illness and low morale. When a new office manager was appointed she decided to call in the Office Doctors. The offices were housed in an old building, there were a number of basic stress factors that needed immediate attention: the light, the colour scheme, the furniture. ‘There was an enormous amount of work to do.

But we had to make sure that we didn’t disrupt the day to day work of the office. ‘ The only solution was to j work at weekends. It meant we had to work fast but it also meant we could work in peace and we didn’t have to worry about getting in the way of the staff. ‘The colour therapist, Liz, w? as the first in. She chose a range of calming blues and greens for the offices and reception area. ‘Blue is a particularly calming colour and ideal in counterbalancing high levels of stress,’ she explained,. In the staff rest area she decided to use colours that stimulate and energize. ‘Yellow heightens motivation and orange stimulates creativity.

The rest area doesn’t just provide a break from work, but helps the staff go back to their desks with renewed energy and enthusiasm. ‘. Being an old building the windows were small and let in very little natural light. As she couldn’t install new windows, Liz installed full spectrum fluorescent lights instead. ‘Full spectrum lights have all the colours and wavelengths of natural light and studies show that they have a very positive effect in lighting stress and depression. ‘ Next came the aromatherapist, Jules. ‘Chosen with care, essential oils can o reduce stress and boost immunity,’ he explained.

He chose a blend of lemon, bergamol. and lavender for the central diffusion system. ‘Recent tests have shown that the use of lemon can reduce typing errors by more than 50%, so we’re not only fighting stress and promoting health, we’re also increasing productivity. ‘ Finally Clara, our massage expert, came in and assessed the ergonomics of each work station. These people have to sit at their desks for up to eight hours a day. Very often they aren’t allowed to get up except for short coffee breaks. So they really must make sure that they are looking after their backs as well as they possibly can.’ \Back pain is the second most common reason for visits to the doctor. She helped each member of staff find the correct desk and chair height, and showed them the best position for their computer screen. She also persuaded the company to invest in ergonomic keyboards and cordless mouses as well as cordless phones. The phones mean that staff don’t have to take their phone calls at their desks. Now they can get up and stretch their legs. In addition, each member of staff can request a massage at their desks once a week. ‘Everybody should have regular massage sessions.

Not only does it help ease back pains, it also relieves built up tensions and revitalizes. ‘ The changes have made a huge difference/ said the Managing Director, Absenteeism has gone down by a staggering 30% and everyone seems to be much happier. ‘ Use the present perfect to talk about actions and states that started in the past and continue in the present. I’ve worked here for over three years now. She’s been really stressed since she started her new job. to talk about actions that happened during a period of time which is unfinished. I’ve seen him at least three times this week. to talk about past actions when the time is not stated.

I’ve been to Rome twice before. The structure of the present perfect tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb have past participle You have eaten mine. We use the past perfect simple to talk about what happened before a point in the past. It looks back from a point in the past to further in the past. Ex:I hadn’t known the bad news when I spoke to him. I checked with the supplier and they still hadn’t received the contract. The past perfect simple is often used when we report what people had said/thought/believed. Ex:He told me they had already paid the bill. He said he believed that John had moved to Italy.

N8 This text is about a condition called Celebrety Worship Syndrome in which people have an unhealthy obsession with celebrities. The text gives an example of this obsessive behavior by talking about the fans who attended the first showing of the final instalment of the Star Wars series in Britain. The article also states that being interested in celebrities could have a positive effect on people,if it doesn’t become an addiction. Use the present perfect to talk about actions and states that started in the past and continue in the present. I’ve worked here for over three years now. She’s been really stressed since she started her new job.

To talk about actions that happened during a period of time which is unfinished. I’ve seen him at least three times this week. to talk about past actions when the time is not stated. I’ve been to Rome twice before. The structure of the present perfect tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb have past participle You have eaten mine. The past simple tense is sometimes called the “preterite tense”. We can use several tenses and forms to talk about the past, but the past simple tense is the one we use most often. The structure of the past simple tense is:Subject + VERB+ed Examples:You called Debbie.

We use the past simple: When we ask when the event happened. Ex: When did she arrive at Alice Springs? When we say when the event happened with time expressions like yesterday,last week, one night,that indicate a finished time. Ex: She got there two weeks ago. Whether you’re just starting your career or you’re looking for a job change, it can be helpful to review a list of “good jobs” – the jobs where a lot of openings are projected and the jobs where openings are increasing faster than for other occupations. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) lists jobs in both categories.

Some jobs require significant training, but other don’t. For example, food service workers, home care aides, and landscapers are all on the list of jobs with the greatest number of openings and short-term on-the-job training is provided for these types of jobs. You don’t need a college education or additional training beyond high school. with projections from the BLS, for jobs where the outlook is good as far as potential job opportunities. To find these types of job openings, use the job search engines to search by keyword or job title i. e. retail sales and the location where you want to work.

Here’s how to search for jobs by location Largest Number of Projected New Jobs Registered nurses Home health aides Customer service representatives Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food Personal and home care aides Retail salespersons Office clerks, general N24 The text is about the history of the Cocos Island, which was,in the past,a hiding place for pirate treasure,and how this island still attracts treasure hunters to it,who are hoping to find buried treasure. Below we have a list of Phrasal verbs that begin with LOOK and then an explanation of each one with some examples.

Look after,Look away,Look for,Look into,Look out,Look through,Look up,Look up to This is not a complete list. We will add more Phrasal Verbs with LOOK when we can. Look after (someone or something) 1. = to take care of. 2. = to make sure that someone is safe and well. Make sure you look after yourself. I don’t want you to be ill due to this weather. I have to look after my son tonight. Look away1. = to turn your eyes away from someone or something that you were looking at. The accident was so horrible that I had to look away. She looked away in embarrassment. Look for (someone or something)

  1. = to search for something or someone. 2. = to try and find something or someone Can you help me look for my brother, he was meant to be here 20 minutes ago. I am looking for my black shirt have you seen it? Look into Normally – Look into (something) 1. = to find out more about something in order to improve the situation. 2. = to investigate or examine. The manager promised to look into my complaintI will look into this matter and see what I can do about it. Look out 1. = to be careful. 2. = to avoid imminent danger. Look out! An angry dog is coming your way. Look out! There is a broken bottle near your foot.

Look through 1. = to examine something, usually quickly. I must look through this report to establish the full story. I will look through my email to see if I can find your request. Look up 1. = to search for information (usually in a book) I need to look that word up in the dictionary, I have never heard it before. I will look up your number when I get to Santiago. Look up to 1. = to respect or admire someone. I really look up to my father. She will always look up to her father as he had such a positive effect on her youth. Alex li Tandem sells autographs- a small blip in a huge worldwide network of desire.

It is his business to hunt for names on paper, collect them, sell them end occasionally fake them,end all to give people what they want a little piece of Fame. But what does Alex want? Only the return his father,the reinstatement of some kind of all powerfull benevolent Godtype figure, something for his headache,three different girls,and the rare autograph of forties movie actress,Kitty Alexander. N25 Nominated for three Oscars when it was released in 2003, Girl with a Pearl Earring tells the story of the Dutch painter, Vermeer, and the creation of one of his most famous paintings.

It is an adaptation of a novel by Tracy Chevalier of the same name. The subject of the portrait, Girl with a Pearl Earring, is Vermeer’s servant, Griet, who gets to know the artist while sitting for the picture. The role of Griet is played to perfection by Scarlett Johansson, who also starred in the memorable Lost in Translation of the same ) year. Colin Firth (Bridget Jones’ Diary, Love Actually and Nanny McPhee), is excellent in the role of Vermeer, and Tom Wilkinson is convincingly revolting as Vermeer’s patron, Van Ruijven, who wants to buy Griet.

What is most memorable about Girl with a Pearl Earring is its 3 hypnotic beauty. The scenes are shot in lovingly recreated Delft of 1665 and the light and the detail come straight out of one of Vermeer’s paintings. The cast are dressed in lavish costumes by the Dutch designer, Dien van Straalen, and the camerawork of Eduardo Serra is exquisite. Girl with a Pearl Earring received ) mixed reviews, but it has stood the test of time well. The film appeals to more adult tastes and carries a PG 13 Sertificate We use unreal conditional sentences to talk about imaginary, impossible or improbable situations.

We use a past tense (simple or continuous) to describe a present or future situation. If we had more time, … (= But we don’t have more time. ) We use the past perfect to describe a past situation. If we had arrived earlier, … (= But we didn’t arrive earlier. ) We use would/could/might + infinitive to describe a present or future result of our hypothesis. If we had more time, we’d sit in the park/we could visit the museum. We use would/might/could + have + past participle to describe a past result of our hypothesis. If we’d arrived earlier, we would have paid less/we might have got a better seat.

Conditional sentences can begin with either the condition or the result. If I were yoiz, I wouldn’t do that. I wouldn’t do that if I were you. In unreal conditions, was and were are both used as the past form of be. Some people think that were is more correct. If I were you/If she were here/If he were alive A present situation can have a past result, and a past situation can have a present result. If I had more money (ie now/in general), I wouldn’t have walked (ie in the past). If she had tried harder (ie in the past), she wouldn’t be where she is today.

Conditionals are sometimes described in the following way: Type 1: If + simple present, will + infinitive Type 2: If + simple past, would + infinitive Type 3: If + past perfect, would + have + past participle Wildlife traditionally refers to non-domesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi and other organisms which grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. [1] Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative.

Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, forests, rain forests, plains, grasslands, and other areas including the most developed urbansites, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors,[2] most scientists agree that wildlife around is affected by human activities. Humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal, social, and moral sense. Some animals, however, have adapted to suburban environments.

This includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs, mice, and gerbils. Religions have often declared certain animals to be sacred, and in modern times concern for the natural environment has provoked activists to protest the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. N23 Only 150 years ago, the San Fernando Valley in North Hollywood was a rural farming area, but it is now home to some of the world’s most famous film studios: Walt Disney, NBC TV, Warner Brothers and Universal. California’s year-round good weather, natural light and a wide variety of locations made it ideal for early film-makers.

As a result, the scenery of Los Angeles and Southern California is better-known than anywhere else in the world. Universal Studios has become a major tourist attraction, although some of the other studios give a better idea of how films are made. The time clauses in the English language are introduced by conjunctions such as after, as soon as, before, till, until, when, whenever, while or time expressions such as the minute, the moment etc. We do not use the future tense (will) in a time clause to describe future activities (in this respect, it it similar to if clauses).

Ex: When I finish writing the reports, I will go out with my friends. Murat will visit all his relatives before he joins the army. What will you do after you finish the French course? They will go to the beach as soon as they have their breakfast. Paintball is a sport[2][3][4] in which players compete; in teams or individually, to eliminate opponents by tagging them with capsules containing water soluble dye and gelatin shell outside (referred to as paintballs) propelled from a device called a paintball marker(commonly referred to as a paintball gun).

Paintballs are composed of a non-toxic, biodegradable, water soluble polymer. The game is regularly played at a sporting level with organized competition involving major tournaments, professional teams, and players. [5][6] Paintball technology is also used by military forces, law enforcement, para-military and security organizations to supplement military training, as well as playing a role in riot response, and non-lethal suppression of dangerous suspects. Games can be played on very hard floors in indoor fields, or outdoor fields of varying sizes.

A game field is scattered with natural or artificial terrain, which players use for tactical cover. Game types in paintball vary, but can include capture the flag, elimination, ammunition limits, defending or attacking a particular point or area, or capturing objects of interest hidden in the playing area. Depending on the variant played, games can last from seconds to hours, or even days in scenario play. The legality of paintball varies among countries and regions. In most areas where regulated play is offered, players are required to wear protective masks, and game rules are strictly enforced.

Sometimes masks are not required. N22 This article is about a webpage which gives information,news and advice environmental issues. It also gives advice and encouragement to people to try and adopt a lifestyle that isn’t so damaging to the environment. A type of noun clause (or a free relative clause) that begins with the word what. In a declarative sentence, a what-clause may serve as the subject (usually followed by a form of the verb be), a subject complement, or an object. (See Examples and Observations, below. “Money was what I wanted. Other people’s money.

What I wanted was impossible. It was a wish for the whole affair to have been imaginary Ian was born in London some time after the Second World War. Father was a brewer, mother a housewife, and maternal grandmother a Duck (her maiden name), who cooked for a wealthy family of Russian furriers in a large London house. He thinks he got his culinary flair from Mrs Duck via his mum – though didn’t learn to make borscht until some years later. Moved to Belgium at age 9, where he began cooking. Went to an early Montessori School – he thinks it was the second that Maria Montessori founded.

He was exiled to England for schooling while parents continued living in Brussels. Concurrently educated and bullied at King’s School, Rochester, Kent – Britain’s second oldest school. (It seems ‘second’ was his thing. ) He learnt acting, cunning and survival. Undistinguished academically, he won a drama award and was captain of fencing and shooting. He also threw the javelin in the athletics team. He eschewed ball games for sports with a point to them – or a bullet. He was expelled from school for partying and, after a spell making false teeth for a Polish refugee’s plastics company, he became a journalist. (This is all true, by the way).

Ian worked on magazines and thrived in Fleet Street’s wine bar and pub scene, before moving to Australia in 1971, working as a PR consultant then joining the ABC in 1973 as a Publicity Officer. He survived ABC TV’s rigorous Producer Training Course and became a producer/director in 1974. He mostly worked in News/Current Affairs, music and sport. His first production was Fats and Figures – a five-minute food programme! He started Rock Arena and Talking Pictures, and won Penguin Awards for two Leeuwin Estate Concerts (with Dame Kiri Te Kanawa and James Galway, and Dionne Warwick.)

He was producer of AFI Awards, America’s Cup coverage, World Swimming Championships, among other major multi-camera productions. He started Consuming Passions in 1992, his first on-camera appearance. Ian has now done 10 series – 450 shows – which have screened in Australia and several other countries including the UK, Singapore and Ireland. He has produced 11 recipe collections and two ‘serious’ books, Cooking with Passion (ABC Books) and Sheer Bottled Bliss – A Margaret River Memoir (HarperCollins), won an Australian Award for Literary Excellence in 2004.

In 1995 Ian won the Presenters’ Prize at the Festival de la Telegourmande in France, and the following year won the Festival Grand Prix for best TV food show. He has been a columnist with The Sunday Age newspaper and has contributed to Australia Today magazine and the West Australian. He is a regular contributor to Delicious magazine. With colleague David Evans, Ian launched the Tasting Australia food and wine festival in Adelaide in 1997. The festival takes place every two years. Ian and David received a Jaguar Award for Excellence in 2001- in association with Australian Gourmet Traveler – for Tasting Australia.

His company, Consuming Passions Pty Ltd also works in Los Angeles on Australia Week, a major promotion of Australian food, wine, film, fashion, business and investment, tourism and travel. Ian lives in Margaret River, Western Australia, where he and his partner Ann produce a highly regarded Chardonnay (Artamus) from grapes that they grow. He plays piano, guitar and blues harmonica in his spare time, draws and writes; loves dining and wine tasting, comedy; mowing the vines, travel and British crime on TV. He believes in Slow Food and in supporting Australian producers in their efforts to create and market the best foods in the Universe

N21 Someone found a priceless hoard of 3,000 Saxon coins yesterday as a woman was digging in her back garden. 2Someone had packed the coins into a wooden box which broke as 3she was digging it out of the ground. The coins are in the care of a local museum where 4 museum workers are cleaning them in a special laboratory. (5) Someone will then take them to the museum in York for further examination. A legal expert said that even though Mrs Barrett found the coins on her property, (6) the local authorities could still rule them as the property of the state. so & such

We use so and such to make adjectives, adverbs and nouns stronger or more emphatic. So + adjective big, small, cheap, expensive + adverb well badly; nearly, s/ouly so + many/few/much/little many/few people, much/little advice so + (a/an) noun a pity, luck, friends such , , * . so+ (a/an) adjective + noun a nice day, happy memories If we want to express a consequence, we follow the so/such phrase with that + clause. We can omit that in informal situations. They were so cheap (that) I bought ten. (= I bought ten because they were very cheap. ) He drives so slowly (that) well never get there.

It was such a nice day (that) we decided to go to the beach. Kevin Costner, a famous American actor, was born in Los Angeles. He spent his childhood often on the move, changing schools frequently, owing to his father’s job at the regional electricity company. As a teenager, he developed a keen liking for football, baseball and basket-ball and was also interested in singing and writing poetry. He married his college sweetheart Cindy whilst still at California State University and came out with a business degree in marketing. In his spare time he appeared in local theatre.

Theatre became increasingly important to him and after having worked six weeks in a marketing company, he gave the job up to become an actor. He played in many small part roles before his principle role which was not a success. However Costner himself was given good reviews. In 1987 his starring role in “The Untouchables” and “No Way Out” really introduced him to international fame. Indeed, he won the Star of Tomorrow prize from the U. S. National Association of Theatre Owners. Then in 1988 came “Bull Durham” which was a huge hit movie in the States about baseball.

His subsequent film “Field of Dreams” was also a success and touched baseball again. Then came the violent drama movie “Revenge” followed by his first directorial debut film “Dances With Wolves” in which he also starred and which won 7 Oscars. His movie “Robin Hood, Prince of the Thieves” was also a great success. I like this actor because the characters he plays are strong personalities, wise people who are worthy of my admiration. In my opinion, this is the reason of his growing popularity in many, countries. He is not only a talented actor, whose acting draws your attention the very moment you see his face on the screen.

But he is also a successful producer and continues working at his new films which are certain to amuse the people. N20 Harrison Ford flies to the rescue Harrison Ford volunteered to fly his own helicopter to rescue a boy scout who had got lost on a camping expedition in Yellowstone National Park. After a search with dogs failed to find the boy scout, two air rescue teams were called in. Harrison Ford, better known for his heroics as the archaeologist, Indiana Jones, was piloting one of the helicopters which searched the Wyoming forest throughout the night. Harrison Ford and his team eventually found the boy scout early the next morning.

He was cold and tired but very excited when he found out that not only was he going to ride in a helicopter, but that he had been rescued by Harrison Ford. The use of articles with geographical names has certain patterns. For example, the name of a river is used with the definite article, and the name of a lake is used without any article. The name of one mountain (or one island) is used without any article, and the name of a mountain chain (or a group of islands) is used with the definite article. The meaning may change depending on the presence or absence of the definite article.

For example, Mississippi is the state of Mississippi, while the Mississippi is the Mississippi River. The words “north, east, south, nothern, western, central”, and the like are capitalized if they are part of the geographical name (the North Sea, Northern Ireland, Central America) or part of the name of the region regarded as a unit (the West, Western Europe, the East, the Far East). If such words are used for indicating direction or as descriptive terms, they are usually not capitalized (the north, the west, the southeast, the south of France, western Asia, northern Africa, central Australia).

Ex: the Western Hemisphere, the Eastern Hemisphere, the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere; They invited us round for dinner,which was nice. Sue cooked a special Greek dish that she;d had on holiday. It was delicious,with fresh vine leaves that she;d managed to buy at the local market. Her sister was there too,the one who has just come back from the States. She was looking very glomours in a little back cocktail dress that she’d picked up in the New Yourk. It covered in tiny little sequens that glowed in the candlelight. John couldn’t take his eyes off her all night!

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