Various Architecture Problems

Undertaking 1:

A ) Identify Three ( 3 ) different types of edifice:


– A residential edifice is a constructed for residential tenancy and can suit a person’s to populate in. There are a few types of residential edifice such as flat set of room fitted particularly with housekeeping. Then Condominium besides included as a type of ownership in existent belongings where all of the proprietors own the belongings, common countries and edifices together, with the exclusion of the inside of the unit to which they have title. Following townhouse is similar to condo in that each abode is attached to next abodes.

Figure 1 ( A )


-Non-residential edifices use some intent other than residential. Non-Residential are edifices other than homes, including fixtures, installations and equipment that are built-in parts of the constructions and costs of site clearance and readying. Non-residential edifices comprise.Example include commercial such as is abuildingthat is used for commercial concern intents, Educational Buildinga edifice designed for assorted activities in a primary, secondary, or higher educational system such as school and college. Then Manufacturing edifice are include as a non-residentialis the edifice for production of goods for usage or sale.

3.Industry Building

-Industrial edifices are frequently a warehouse or other big. Industrial edifice designed to house industrial operations and the provide necessary status for work and the operation of industrial equipment. Industrial edifices has been grown up with fast long times ago in the universe. There are a few industrial edifices such as mill, refinery, factory and others. Industrial edifice by and large have skeletons in the form of cross frames, with Colum embedded in the foundation and balk beam or trusses hinged to the Colum.

Figure 3 ( A )

B ) Select One type of edifice in undertaking 1 ( a ) , place and depict Two constituent of infrastructure and superstructure of the selected edifice.

Residential Building

-Residential Buildings is an of import thing of all. Residential edifice is a edifice that is occupied by all the people all the clip. Residential edifice is besides really fast turning but non in Malaysia but around the universe. Custom residential edifices will be sold or rented to those in need through the building companies or agents that have been registered. Residential edifice included such as cottage, patio house, flat and condominium.


-Substructure is a last support part of a construction. Basically a construction located that inside the land degree such as foundation. A foundation is hence that portion of the construction which is in direct contact with the land to which the tonss are transmitted.


-Ensure that the structural tonss are transmitted to the undersoil safely, economically and without any unacceptable motion during the building period and throughout the expected life of the edifice or construction.

Figure 1 ( B )


-Superstructure is an drawn-out portion of the infrastructure. A construction that stands above the land degree and the floor degree is known as pedestal. Plinth is hence defined as the part of the construction between the surface of environing land and surface of the floor.


-floor is that portion of a edifice on which furniture, family, commercial and others. Floor is used for walking about and besides strength and stableness to utilize. There are a few types floor such as solid lumber floor, timber laminated floor and concrete floor ( Solid Ground Floor )

Figure 2 ( B )


-Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are used in constructing depending on the location and roof besides give a protective covering to the edifice, so rain, air current or snow may non damage the edifice.

Figure 2 ( C )

C ) Explain the characteristic and map ( s ) of each edifice constituent that has been province in Task 1 ( B )

-The characteristic and maps of floor is the floor surface of a edifice site which receives all the activities and other tonss.The building floor shall hold safety characteristics and comfort. Shocking normally consists of a figure of base bed, bed of sand, concrete liner and coating coatings. Stability should be included on the floor. The stableness of the floor doing it a robust construction. The following is floor should besides dwell from floor strength besides to suit unrecorded burden. Comfort is besides of import to do certain the temperatures either hot or cold. Then the characteristic and maps of the roof is to give a protective covering to the edifice, such as rain, air current or snow may non damage the edifice. Following conditions opposition is required to protect a edifice from the damaging. Structural stableness besides could be supplying support for the roof. Supply good visual aspect might be a major ocular component in the design of a edifice.

Undertaking 2:

A ) Define dirt probe

-Soil probe is of primary importance in the building sector. It is necessary before constructing a new construction to forestall the failure of the foundations at a ulterior phase. Bearing capacity of dirt and the dirt must be established to find whether the stableness of the foundation can be obtained. Soil of probe is of paramount importance for building undertaking.

B ) Briefly explain Two ( 2 ) types of dirt simple

-Disturbed dirt Samples

Disturbed dirt samples, as their name implies, are samples taken from the drilling tools. Examples are auger slivers, the contents of the split-spoon sampling station in the standard incursion trial, sludge from the shell or wash-water return, or manus sample dug from test cavities. Disturbed samples are usually used for the finding index belongingss of the dirt such as the unit weight and specific gravitation. The sample besides used for categorization trial such as screens and gravimeter analysis to obtained the atom size distribution and Waterberg bound trials to happen the consistence of cohesive dirt.

-Undisturbed Soil Samples

Undisturbed dirt samples, obtained by driving a thin-walled tubing into the dirt, represent every bit closely as is operable the true unmoved construction and H2O construction and H2O content of the is of import non to overdrive the sampling station as this compresses the contents. It should be recognized that no sample taken by driving a tubing into the dirt can be genuinely undisturbed. Undisturbed samples are needed for more sophisticated laboratory trial such as shear strength, include the unconfined compaction trial, direct shear or shear box trial and Trixie trial under unconsolidated untrained ( UU ) , amalgamate untrained ( CU ) , and consolidated drained conditions ( Cadmium ) .

C ) Soil drilling are the most common method of subsurface geographic expedition in the field. Briefly explain THREE ( 3 ) types of drillings.

( 1 ) Percussion Boring Boring:

-Percussion Drilling is the procedure of doing boreholes by striking the dirt so taking it. The tools are repeatedly dropped down the borehole while suspended by wire from the power windlass. Meanwhile, H2O is circulated to convey the dirt film editings to the land surface. A shell and a pump are required to go around the H2O.

( 2 ) Rotary Boring Boring:

-Rotary Drilling uses rotary motion of the drill spot with the coincident application of force per unit area to progress the hole. In this procedure a hole is made by rotary motion a hollow steel tubing holding a cutting spot at its base. The cutting spot makes an annulate cut in the strata and leaves a cylindrical nucleus of the stuff in the hollow tubing. This method is the most rapid method of progressing a hole in dirt and stone. Boring clay may be needed to forestall dirt cave-in.

( 3 ) Hand/Mechanical Auger Boring:

-Hand plumber’s snakes may be used for tiring to a deepness of about 6m. power plumber’s snakes may be used for tiring to a deepness of approximately 10 to 30 m. Next, as the hole is tiring a short distance, the plumber’s snake may be lifted to take dirt. The removed dirt can be used for field categorization and research lab testing, but it must non be considered as an undisturbed dirt sample. Power plumber’s snake set with a drill rig can be used to obtain samples from deeper strata.

Undertaking 3

A ) Describe with the assistance of studies the anatomy of the lumber:

1 ) Bark:

-Hard outer covering.

-Protect tree from harm.

2 ) Bast:

-Layer surrounds the cambium.

-Carries nutrient made from foliages to the other portion of the workss.


-Annual rings.

-Each pealing one twelvemonth grown.

4 ) Beam:

-Convey nutrient from the blast into the cambium bed to sapwood to heartwood.

5 ) Sapwood:

-Newly formed portion of the tree.

-Cells carry H2O and minerals to subdivisions and foliages.

6 ) Heartwood:

-Provides useable lumber for building ( difficult, strong, and lasting ) .

-Gives support to the tree.

7 ) Pith:

-Centre of the bole.

-Consists of soft, dead cells from original sapling.

B ) Discuss the THREE ( 3 ) factors that will impact strength and lastingness of lumber.

Factors that will impact strength and lastingness of lumber are due to natural factors. The temperature can besides impact the strength and lastingness of wood. lumber that has been cut can non be left at high temperatures because it could impact the opposition of wood Example, the grains are way of wood cell and the longitude axis of a lumber that were swan and this can give an consequence to the strength of a lumber. Following, Factors act uponing the humidness changes the wood and adhesive strength. Visibility between wood and adhesive are affected by wet content. Following factors is will give affect is transition defect it usually, cause by human such as hapless drying and hapless film editing. Following is deterioration defect Reproduction by spores and the favourable status for it growing is where the topographic point have a good temperature, O and wet. Higher wet content will cut down strength and lastingness and cause lumber to disintegrate. Densities besides give consequence to strength and lastingness due to dense microstructure.

C ) With the assistance of studies, briefly explain the THREE ( 3 ) types of lumber defect

– A defect of lumber is any abnormality looking in or on the lumber that may cut down its strength or lastingness if used for building work. It may happen in the lumber during fending or flavoring. Defect can sort three types such as natural defect, transition defect and impairment.

Natural defect: Nature defect it’s the grains are way of wood cell and the longitude axis of a lumber that were swan. This can give an affects to the strength of a lumber.

Conversion defect: Normally, cause by human. Example hapless drying and hapless film editing.

Deterioration defect: Reproduction by spores and the favourable status for it growing is where the topographic point have a good temperature, O and wet included dry putrefaction ( most common and fungous onslaught ) and wet putrefaction ( become toffee, lose strength and crumble ) .

Undertaking 4:

  1. Describe and discourse about the choice of the roof system:

– The roof system for a cottage is level roof. This is because to cover a level or low-pitched roof. This is normally known as a membrane and the primary intent of these membranes is to waterproof the roof country. Besides, these roofs are found in traditional edifices in parts with a low precipitation. Modern stuffs which are extremely impermeable to H2O do possible the really big low-pitch roofs found on big commercial edifices.

Materials that cover level roofs typically let the H2O to run off from a little disposition or camber into a trough system. Water from some level roofs such as on garden sheds sometimes flows freely off the border of a roof, though gutter systems are of advantage in maintaining both walls and foundations dry.

  1. The Philosophy behind the selected roof system:

-I had purpose utilizing level roof because there are plentifulness of advantages. The advantages utilizing level roof. The most obvious advantage is that they are easier to mount and inspect. These roofs offer more stableness than sloped roofs. Flat roofs are besides cheaper to re-coat and put in so their aslant opposite numbers. With proper attention, level roofs are durable and easier maintain.

  1. Sketch the subdivision of the foundation, land beam and floor of the edifice, and besides roof beam and roof system of the edifice: