The dementia syndrome is caused by combination of conditions such as specific diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s or motor neurone disease. It can also be caused by having stroke and prolonged alcohol abuse.
- Describe the types of memory impairment commonly experienced by individuals with dementia frontal lobe
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– The person may have difficulty thinking clearly, struggle with forming thoughts, be unable to think abstractly or lose social awareness.
Parietal lobe – The person may have difficulty with judging distance and seeing things in 3D, identifying what objects are used for, recognising people, locating certain parts of the body. They may become easily disorientated and lost; begin to hallucinate. occipital lobe – The person may loose their peripheral vision, have difficulty picking up details of light and shade, lose their ability to look up, struggle to focus on or track moving objects, repeat movements over and over again or struggle to hold on to an idea long enough to act on it without help.
Temporal lobe – The person may forget names, struggle to retain new information, repeat seemingly meaningless word, sounds or number or lose their sense of time and place.
- Explain the way that individuals process information with reference to the abilities and limitations of individuals with dementia frontal lobe – is responsible for regulating behaviour, emotions, reasoning and parts of speech.
It’s also responsible for purposeful acts such as creativity, decision making, problem solving and planning. parietal lobe – is responsible for body movement, spelling, calculation, recognition and interpreting information from our senses. occipital lobe – is responsible for visual processing and our ability to distinguish and perceive the differences between colour, shape and movement. temporal lobe - is responsible for hearing, short term memory, meaning, language and time awareness
- Explain how other factors can cause changes in an individual’s condition that may not be attributable to dementia
Other factors that can cause changes in an individual’s condition not attributable to dementia may include age, anxiety, poor physical health, poor sensory health, gender, ethnicity or even medication.
- Explain why the abilities and needs of an individual with dementia may fluctuate
Needs and abilities of an individual with dementia may fluctuate due to numerous reasons such as loss of independence, loss of companionship, depression, anxiety, mental health issues, and stages of their dementia.
- Describe the impact of early diagnosis and follow up to diagnosis
The impact of early diagnosis for dementia helps rule out other conditions that may have similar symptoms to dementia and that may be treatable such as depression, chest and UTI’s. It also helps rule out other possible causes of confusion such as poor eye sight or hearing, emotional upsets or side-effects of certain medications. It allows the individual to plan and make arrangements for the future.
- Explain the importance of recording possible signs or symptoms of dementia in an individual in line with agreed ways of working
The importance of recording signs or symptoms is so as to get facts about the individual’s functional and cognitive abilities, to be able to make relevant decisions with the individual, their relatives and carers. Another importance is to be able to make sure their nutritional and hygiene needs are met.
- Explain the process of reporting possible signs of dementia within agreed ways of working
The process of reporting possible signs of dementia may include the mode of reporting whether it’s verbal or written and to whom it is reported to like the supervisor, team leader and or manager.
It may also include the frequency it is reported with the level of detail and should have observation reports.
- Describe the possible impact of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on
- a)the individual may become shocked, anxious, stressed, disorientated, frightened, may have to retire early leading to financial implications, lose socialisation
- b)their family and friends may feel guilty, need to balance commitments, get angry, be afraid or embarrassed, become stressed, increased financial needs
- Compare a person centred and a non-person centred approach to dementia care
Person centred care is about caring for the person, rather than the illness. It’s about enabling choice, social relationships, inclusion and valuing the individual. Non-person centred care does not recognise the individual’s uniqueness and needs, lacks choice, exclusion, not allowing participation in decision making and responding to behaviour rather than looking at the unified whole.
- Describe a range of different techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the individual with dementia
Know the person – By having background knowledge of the individual, including knowing their previous life and history one would b able to understand why the person behaves in certain ways, hence being able to design the care and support to meet their specific needs. Stable and familiar environment – A known trigger for agitation and confusion for people with dementia is when their daily routine and environment are constantly changing.
It is therefore important that people with dementia have consistent staff to follow their daily routine and live in a stable and familiar environment Providing specific support – People with dementia have been known to wander, be agitated, have incontinence, be paranoid and show repeated actions. It is important that these specific needs are met in way such as activities, reducing noise levels, clear indications of bathrooms, and incontinence pads provided
- Describe how myths and stereotypes related to dementia may affect the individual and their carers
Myths and stereotyping affects people with dementia as they may be viewed as needing pity which brings down their self esteem making them feel isolated. Assumption of automatic loss of independence in people with dementia makes them feel inadequate or useless.
- Describe ways in which individuals and carers can be supported to overcome their fears
Ways in which individual and carers can be supported is gaining information and advice from others, reading booklets/leaflets, going online for discussion forums through friends and family and through respite care.
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