It has become a pervasive and influential approach o the management of employment in a wide range of market economies. There is a difference between HARM (a major management activity) and HARD (Human Resource Development, a profession). You might include HARM in HARD, explaining that HARD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, for example, career development, training, organization development, etc.
The HARM function and HARD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around ring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HER Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.
Components or Functions of A HARM System
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The Human Resources Management (HARM) function includes a variety of activities, and key amongst them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs in-house, recruiting and TRAINING the best employees. The functions also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. All these functions are inter-linked, making one dependent on the other.
Basically, in small organizations-?those with fewer than fifty employees - there might not be an HER department, and so a line manager will be responsible for the functions of HARM. In large organizations - those with a hundred employees or more-?a human resource manager will coordinate the HARM duties and report directly to management. The technology in the workplace is changing very rapidly and companies that can't keep up will drop out of competition. Read about components of staffing
A company which has a high turnover, further training and development of employees will make them more productive, feel better about themselves and the Job and stick around longer. Training and Development Performance appraisals not only assist in determining compensation and benefits, but they are also instrumental in identifying ways to help individuals improve their current positions and prepare for future opportunities. As the structure of training and development programs continues to grow. Improving or obtaining new skills is part of another area of HARM, known as training and development.
Training focuses on learning the skills and knowledge required to initially perform a Job or to improve upon the performance of a current Job, while development focuses on activities that are not Job related, but on broadening the employee's horizons. To be effective in any organization, training and development must meet a number of goals.; It must be focused on individual training needs that reflect organizational goals in terms of expected performance. ; It must also reflect learning goals or outcomes, outlining what will be accomplished by the process of training. It must e based on sound learning principles, be seen as important by trainees, and be conducted in a manner that maximizes learning. ; Lastly, it must be evaluated to determine effectiveness and to help change and improvement. Trends in Training and Development A number of trends have occurred that reflect the common idea of making training more effective. Some of the most significant trends include the following: ; Customized training reflects the needs of trainees, in terms of the skills and knowledge they currently have and those that they need, along with identifying the unique learning style of each individual.
Having this focus, training can better match each individual's learning goals and needs, thereby be perceived as more relevant and appropriate by the trainee. ;
An increased development of personalized learning objectives relates to present or future Job requirements and reflects past performance appraisal information. This information can be gained, in part, by conducting a needs assessment for each trainee and can help in designing learning activities that embraces the critical skills and skills for future performance. Use of instructional technologies, such as distance learning, allows individuals to customize earning to their Job situation-?such as the location, the time, access to technology, and so forth. It can greatly assist individuals in their learning, since training content and delivery can be standardized, quickly updated, and constructed so as to require learners to demonstrate the desired competencies as they engage in learning activities. Integration of training and development into the workplace links learning to Job performance. Training outcomes and learning activities are linked to each individual's Job requirements so that what trainees learn will be reflected in their Job performance. Use of action or performance plans requires trainees to develop a plan outlining how they will implement what they have learned and how they will determine whether this plan will, in fact, improve performance.
It can also be integrated with the performance appraisal process to measure changes or improvements in an individual's performance. SST. James Hospital and the Citizens Information Service Using SST. James Hospital and The Citizens Information Service as case studies, I came up with the following findings. Staff. It is a major teaching hospital for Trinity College. The relationship between SST. James Hospital and Trinity College is governed by a Teaching agreement freely entered by both parties.
The Hospital benefits in having access to the best clinical practice and research and being able to attract staff of the highest caliber and the university benefits in having the best possible clinical facilities for its students and clinical staff. The organization has created a dedicated role in relation to equality and diversity three years ago, through the support of the Partnership Committee and has had Diversity Action Plans for the first two years and then participation into cantonal pilot projects promoted by the HOSE. At SST.
James, Training is developed through various training offered. There is usually training and presentation on cultural diversity offered through the induction for all staff, also there is module for student courses (FETA for health care assistants, nurses' specialist courses), there is also a Cultural Competence half-day module offered twice a month to all front-line staff and to overseas nurses attending the adaptation programmed. On request, also a training module on the appropriate use of interpreters in a health care setting has been delivered to various departments.
There is a Centre of Learning and Development in Human Resources
Directorate at the hospital, which is dedicated to ongoing in-house training. There is a budget within each department for outside training although it is limited. A member of staff has to apply for this and get approval from each individual department. The process is rather very long and the course might actually be over by the time it is approved. The training applied for must be seen to have an impact on the individual's Job before it can be considered. Some departments within the hospital have more funding than others that is also a limitation.
Most staff does not bother applying for this now cause of the limitations mentioned, even if it would enhance performance. The staff that gets outside training does it for career progression and/or personal development. The Citizens Information Service provides the public with information, advocacy and advice on all rights and entitlements. It is a free, confidential, impartial and independent service that covers a range of subjects including employment, housing, legal matters, health, welfare payments and immigration issues.
The Citizens Information Board (formerly known as Chamomile) is the national support agency responsible for supporting the provision of information, advice and advocacy on social services. They basically fund the Citizens Information Service and they also organize the training for the staff. They deliver training services to people involved in organizations providing social and civil information to the public. Their training services provide a range of training programmer, both accredited and non- accredited, using a variety of delivery modes to maintain high standards of best practice.
Training programmer are delivered at regional level throughout the country. The training events are planned to meet the needs of organizations within a Regional Training Programmer, the central Training and Development Service deliver skills development courses and new courses of general interest. The Board recognizes the role that training plays in the delivery of information services, in the development of social policy mechanisms and in the support of voluntary organizations which deliver social services.
The Citizens Information Board launches two separate calendars for training annually in order to provide a higher level of service to customers. The current one oversee the period March to June 2007, another calendar will be launched in the autumn to cover the period September to December 2007.
Relevant / specific training that is related to the Citizens Information Service are provided, this ranges from Information Provider's training to dealing with clients with mental issues.
The Information Providers Training Programmer is a very popular training within the organization, it equip information providers with the skills, knowledge and attitudes in the provision of a free, impartial, confidential and non- judgmental information, advice and advocacy service to the public with regard to sights and responsibilities. There is also induction training for information providers which aims at introducing learners to the principles, policies, procedures and practices of the CICS. The CICS also provide the Staff Well Being Programmer that address stress management, massages staff socializing etc.
Basically, when specific courses have been identified for individuals, either by the Supervisor or oneself, a completed application form is sent by the Supervisor or Manager, to the relevant Regional Training Executive within the JIB (Chamomile). Training applications should be processed through the Training Officer / Supervisor / Development Manager within the CICS to ensure that there is a training record established of the knowledge and skills acquired by staff, and that the courses being applied for are relevant to the applicant.
Each course has a level noted next to it, it's usually between 1 and 3. This is to indicate the level of experience participants should have reached in order to get full benefit from a course. All courses / training by the JIB (Chamomile) for the CICS are free but for a price to the public. Training and Development Strategy With training and development becoming more systematic, describing the process ND activities required to achieve successful training are broken into three stages, a pre-training stage, training stage and the post-training stage.
They are being used more frequently to explain how training should be designed, delivered, and evaluated. During the pre-training stage, information is gathered to help determine the need for organization needs to make, along with an assessment of what trainees need to meet their performance expectations. From this information, a decision can be made regarding the training gap, for example, the difference between the performance that is desired and the performance that currently exists.
After this assessment is complete, a number of training activities can be completed, including developing training goals or outcomes, determining the appropriate learning activities and strategies, and achieving an understanding and commitment from the trainees for the program or activities. When these activities are performed effectively, the likelihood that the training will be successful is greatly enhanced. During the final stage, post-training, a number of activities are required to follow up on the training, ensure that it is integrated into the workplace, and measure performance changes and the effectiveness of the training.
Although training can be measured through several techniques, the most important and relevant measurement is one that focuses on changes in performance rather than other factors, such as trainees' satisfaction with the training or what they have learned. Summary and Recommendations Training and development have achieved a high degree of recognition for their importance in helping individuals become better performers and assisting organizations in achieving their goals. The field has become more visible, training processes more clearly defined, and the need for training more evident as societal ND technological changes have occurred.
Through designing training and development activities as described above, the benefits outlined, both the intrinsic and the extrinsic can be achieved. Further, when employees learn new skills and acquire new knowledge, they increase their career potential and add extra value to their employers. In both the Citizens Information Service and SST James, it is essential to follow the guidelines below for training and development to be effective and achieving a good return on investment: There should be an assessment of needs. Organization / Job analysis. All training and development activities in both organizations should be tied to their culture and goals. Their mission or goals should be a guideline to the training and development activities. ;
All staff / trainee should see the importance and relevance of the training to them and their performance on the Job. ; A form of assessment should be carried out prior to the training, ensuring that the training and learning process are relevant to what the trainee is required to do in his / her Job. ;The training results need to be integrated into the actual Job on ground.
There is no use sending a staff on a course if it would not reflect on the Job at hand or a future position. ; If training is to be others who have an impact on the performance of trainees. ; In addition, policies and performance reward systems should help to support the training efforts and recognize when performance has improved as a result of training. ; SST James should consider breaking the bureaucratic procedure in the approval of funding for a relevant training / course of employees. This would cut out time wasting and productivity of employee and equally serve as an incentive for Job performance.
What is common in both SST. James and the Citizens Information Service is the multicultural awareness and how well they manage diversity in their workplace. Both Organizations seem to include segments of the population into their work force. The population of both sexes is evenly spread and there are people from all races and nationalities working in both places. The good aspect of it is that both organizations conduct cross-cultural training for employees from both majority and minority groups. The CICS has immigrants and employees with disabilities being employed in all levels of positions.
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