The Uses And Gratification Theory Education Essay
In the past, people around the universe used a assortment of different ways to pass on and maintain in touch with each other. However, the turning of cyberspace engineering has redefined the ways of human communicating and interaction. Modern communicating engineerings such as nomadic phone, instant messaging, electronic mail, societal web established the communicating web around the universe.
Social Networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Myspace and Blogspot has been the subject of treatment among the society ( Pasek, 2009 ) .
In this context, Facebook can be briefly defined as a societal networking site that provide the users an on-line platform to make profiles, generate and portion information and content, and holding interaction with other contacts ( Boyd and Ellison, 2007 ) . Since the establishing of Facebook on 2004, it has attracted 1000000s of users and many of whom have integrated it into their day-to-day patterns ( Kazeniac, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Facebook Statistics ( 2012 ) , there are over 955 million active users on Facebook that spend an norm more than 6 hours on the site comparison as there are merely 300 million active users in 2009. The rapid alteration of the Facebook has shown the increasing in development and popularity in the past few old ages.
For case, Facebook has become a new phenomenon and tendency that taking extensively popularity from all coevalss of people ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Rouis ( 2012 ) , the societal site like Facebook has become an dependence for many and it has brought important impact to their relationships, occupations, and normal day-to-day life. It allows the users to continuously maintain in touch with their household and friends with no geographically constrained every bit long as there is internet handiness. Facebook has finally brought greater societal integrating among people from assorted civilizations and backgrounds. Users can update and uninterrupted exchange the information as they interact with people from all over the universe.
As ab initio, Facebook is created by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 for Havard ‘s college pupils to pass on, portion instruction information and socialisation within the university ( Calvi, 2010 ) . The popularity of Facebook is turning quickly in this recent twelvemonth specific in the younger coevals. Finally, Facebook itself has experienced huge enlargement among college young person pupils, with 95 % of 18 and 19 old ages old have Facebook profiles ( Smith & A ; Caruso, 2010 ) .
1.2 Research Problem
Today, Facebook has received overwhelmed figure from all ages of people that participate in this societal platform. Student ‘s presence on Facebook has become a societal argument in the society ( Ellision et al. , 2007 ) . As a consequence in today, college pupils have been rated as the most active users in Facebook. The two most common treatment of Facebook uses among college pupils are socialisation and instruction intents. First, Facebook is able to offer a platform for college pupils ‘ to socialising, communicate and keep relationships with friends ( Science Daily, 2011 ) . In another facet, Facebook has been described as effectual tools when came to academic treatment. College pupils frequently used Facebook to discourse their assignments or prep. It involves sharing of their thoughts among the group treatment. Harmonizing to Ophus and Abbitt ( 2009 ) discuss that Facebook was most often used by the pupil when comes to communicating with friends. Therefore, Facebook can see as an effectual academic acquisition tools if they utilize the use of Facebook between socialising and academic intent.
However, other exploratory surveies have shown that the presence of Facebook has brings impact on an single public presentations and productiveness on undertaking ( Karpsinki and Duberstein, 2009 ) . It is believes that long hours spent on Facebook is able to harmful to pupils ‘ academic public presentations. Harmonizing to Schulten ( 2009 ) , pupils exhausted norm of 30-40 proceedingss per twenty-four hours in surfing Facebook and do several update and visits a twenty-four hours. Some of the survey besides found out that pupils spend up 8 hours per twenty-four hours on Facebook which affected their proper day-to-day modus operandi ( Rouis, 2012 ) . In peculiar, a reappraisal shows that college pupils are the chief Facebook users who spend long hours which has caused their parents and instruction establishments worried on their academic public presentations ( Rouis, 2012 ) . However, on the pupils perspective themselves argue that Facebook as a leisure activity will non impact on their academic attempt ( Rouis, 2012 ) .
In order to understand the impact of Facebook use towards the pupil ‘s academic public presentations, this survey aims to analyze on the position of the beginning itself which are pupils. Different people may hold different perceptual experiences on the Facebook use and their result. The general feeling asserts that Facebook use is able conveying negative impact on pupils peculiar in their academic public presentations. Therefore, by carry oning the survey on the perceptual experience of pupils are able to find the relationship between Facebook use and academic public presentation.
The chief aim of this survey is purposes to look into the perceptual experience of Malayan College Students towards Facebook use on their academic public presentation. In add-on, 3 sub-objectives have constructed in order to accomplish the chief aims for this survey. First is to analyze the consciousness of Malayan college pupils on their Facebook use. Second is to analyze whether Malayan college pupils perceived Facebook use will impact their scrutiny consequences. Last is to analyze what are the sensed effects of Facebook use towards their overall academic public presentations.
1.4 Research Questions
The aims of the survey are aims to reply the undermentioned inquiry: What is the perceptual experience of Malayan College pupil towards Facebook use on their academic public presentation?
1.5 Significance of survey
This survey attempts to look into the perceptual experience of Malayan college pupils towards Facebook use on their academic public presentation. Although many surveies have been done by the old bookmans and research workers, cultural features are changing across the states. Malaysia is a multicultural and racial state which the result might different comparison to the other cultural context. Social Networking sites are considered as a multiple dimensions that can be studied through assorted positions. However, there has finally merely small research has been done sing perceptual experience of Facebook use in Malayan college pupils. Therefore, this research survey is purposes to research the perceptual experience of these pupils are the get downing point on bring outing the relationship between Facebook use and academic public presentation specific in Malaysia context. It besides allows the future treatment on possible causes and effects of the academic public presentations particular related to the societal networking. The survey is able to supply the part and mentions for geographic expedition and in-depth surveies in the hereafter when it comes to Facebook use in academic public presentations.
In the undermentioned subdivision, definition of particular term has been developed in this survey. It was noted that the survey chiefly focused on the pupils on the college degree. Therefore in this survey, the Malayan College Student has been the defined as the pupils soon enrolled in any in any public or private college establishments in Malaysia.
For the intents of this survey, Facebook use has been defined as to what extent of the engagement clip and attempt pupils invest in the Facebook. Thus, the thought covered includes the consciousness of the college pupils on the day-to-day clip spent, channel or medium, locales and intents in utilizing Facebook.
Percept in here refers as the position and the sentiment of the respondents on the issues. The position can be based on positive, negative or impersonal result. The measuring for the perceptual experience will be based on 5 Likert Scale evaluation system.
Since one of the aims of this survey is to analyze the perceptual experience of the college pupils towards Facebook use on their academic public presentation, the academic public presentation is measured by the scrutinies or any appraisal from the college. The measuring will be based on the non merely the GPA but besides the college assignment, engagement and the attending of the pupils in category. However, the perceptual experience towards impact of Facebook use may mention to the possible result that can be either positive or negative ( Ahmed & A ; Qazi, 2011 ) .
This chapter outlined the background of the survey country, research job, nonsubjective, significance survey and operational definition as an introductory chapter to this survey. Traveling on to following chapter Literature reappraisal will get down by presenting the general position of societal networking sites and Facebook to supply a theoretical foundation to the undermentioned treatment. In add-on in the chapter, uses and satisfactions theory has been discussed in order to supply the apprehension on the chief aims in this survey.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Social Networking Sites
Social networking site ( SNS ) is a type of web based applications that provide users to build a profile for single or public utilizations and to make a web that portion connexion with other users. In other words, it is a platform that allows the user to hold personal interaction and set up interconnectedness with other users. The user is able to add the other contacts and position other user ‘s contacts and information in return ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008, p. 211 ) .
In fact, societal networking sites began in 1997 along with the launching of Sixdegrees.com. The intent is to let the users to make profiles and connect with each other through the Friends list ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008, p. 214 ) . Social Networking sites have under rapid growing in the past few old ages ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008 ) . Social networking sites has became a phenomenon as it has attracted 1000000s user in recent old ages ( Rouis, 2012 ) .
Therefore, Karspinski & A ; Dubeistin ( 2007 ) found that the figure type of societal networking sites are increasing such as electronic mail, web logs, societal media like Youtube and Flickr and besides video conferencing like Skype. These tools have become the platform for societal interaction where people can portion and state narratives or information and interact among each other ( Eyrich, 2008 ) . Social networking sites allows the user discuss any subject of issues at any point of clip and location.
Basically, the users are free to print show their sentiment without any limitations. The information that has been published will be spread around the universe in a affair of proceedingss. More and more people have chosen to socialise in the online societal web comparison to the others societal activities ( Pasek, 2009 ) . Therefore, societal web as other signifier of mass media has finally redefined overall human communications procedure. It has changes the functions one manner communications traditional media such as telecasting, wireless and films ( Urista & A ; Dong, 2008 ) . Users are able to expose to these media as it has been provided as portion of societal networking sites services.
Therefore, societal networking sites are so accessible and effectual which many immature people today use this platform to pass on and show themselves. Therefore, the figure of users have significantly increase specific in the younger coevalss.
Social networking has finally become a new phenomenon in this modern society. This survey focuses merely one particular of societal networking site that is Facebook. In fact, Facebook by far is one of the web site that contributed SNSs into the new phenomenon in the society ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008 ) . Facebook as one of the most popular SNS, grow three times more on the twelvemonth 2008 comparison to the past three old ages which from 90 to 120 million users.
Facebook is besides among the most popular societal networking sites due to its alone characteristics that allow the users to custom-make their interface profile and content. It provides the broad diverseness of tools for the users to pass on among each others. The users able to interact and interchange content, illustration they portion picture and image, discuss topics, chat, publish advertizement for group events, or play available applications ( Safko & A ; Brake, 2009 ; Westlake, 2008 ) . Finally, the popularity of the Facebook has developed its really ain subculture ( Westlake, 2008 ) .
Facebook has gain popularity among the coevals Y which are the people born after 1980 ( Rois, 2012 ) . These coevalss grew up in the modern engineering universe and normally trust it to execute their undertaking. In fact, most of this coevals possessed their ain Facebook history comparison to the other coevals ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008 ) . This coevals prefer on to pass on through online based engineering like Facebook instead through face to confront communicating.
In fact, the impact of Facebook has non merely changed the manner the users interact with each other but besides the besides the overall media ingestion behavior ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008 ) . Haythronwaite ( 2005 ) explains that the Facebook non merely able allow person to makes new friend but besides to enable the users to determine and develop their ain individuality.
To summarize, Facebook is a taking societal networking sites that provides a broad diverseness of characteristics for to users and make their ain content and communicate to their friends. Facebook is hence seen as a new phenomenon in the society. The treatment of Facebook will lend to the undermentioned literature reappraisal.
The Uses and Gratification Theory
Sheldon ( 2007 ) defined this theory as different people use the media for different intents. It is normally affected by single ends, demand and desire. In other word, the people used media for their ain benefits. This theory provides us an implicit in psychological communicating position on how the persons use mass media to carry through their demands and desire.
Katz et Al. ( 1974 ) explained that five premises of the utilizations and satisfactions theory. In fact, under the first premise of this theory describes that media users are active and end oriented. The intent of utilizing media is to carry through their demand ( E. Rossi, 2002 ) . In the context, Facebook is discussed as the persons ‘ motivations to socialise with others. Facebook is able to fulfill the persons ‘ interpersonal communicating through the characteristics available in the platforms ( Sheldon, 2008 ) . It was besides noted that Facebook is able to associate the users to those who portion the same involvements with them and therefore to further relationship with others ( Ellison, 2007 ) .
In the past, people have used a face to confront communicating and besides one manner communicating mass media such as telecasting, wireless and films to carry through their different type of demands and desires. Sheldon ( 2008 ) explained the societal networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace and Blogger are used at the same time by the persons to carry through their societal demands on amusement, information and recreation. Social networking sites are able to unite assortment of these demands in on cardinal location. The developments of societal networking sites have provided the persons to fulfill their cognitive and affectional demands. Therefore, societal networking sites have became a popular ways to convey satisfaction in term of demands and desires for an person.
Facebook use on college pupil
The old subdivision fundamentally described the functions and maps of societal networking sites and Facebook. Then, the farther treatment has been included to understand the utilizations of satisfaction in these new phenomenons. This subdivision will supply penetration of the Facebook use on the college pupils.
Modern engineering communicating has bought the societal web such as Facebook to go one of the most of import tools to link and portion information to friends. Approximately 50 % the users in Facebook are fundamentally the population from the coevals Y which the ages range between 18 and 34 old ages ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008 ) . Hepburn ( 2011 ) found that 48 % of people age ranges between 18 to 34 look into their Facebook right after the aftermath up in the forenoon while 28 % cheque in earlier go to bed. The figure of users in Facebook have been increasing really rapidly peculiar among the undergraduate pupils age scope between 18 -24, which are higher than any other age group ( Eldon, 2011 ) . These populations tend to pass a batch of clip in the societal media and log on to the site every twenty-four hours amounted to about double than any other type of media.
In fact, the development of this 24/7 accessible engineerings allow the pupils to hang around in Facebook ( Fodeman and Monroe, 2009 ) . Therefore, the excessive of Facebook use has become a wont for the pupils that able to convey impact peculiarly on their academic public presentation every bit good as their quality of life. College pupils have finally going the largest user base in Facebook ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2008, p. 214 ) . The old point has been supported by Smith & A ; Caruson ( 2010 ) who study found that 95 % of 18 and 19 old ages old college pupils have their ain Facebook profiles.
Therefore, the two chief Facebook uses are hedonistic use which able to ensue useful motivations and the 2nd simply for leisure intents ( Rouis, 2012 ) . The Facebook use normally involved people from different ages interact and communicate. They use Facebook to portion picture, image, treatment and chew the fating with each others. The younger coevals peculiar pupils have spent up more than 8 hours per twenty-four hours on Facebook. These yearss, pupils spend their clip more on online socialising web like Facebook compare to other socialising activities. Kutjath ( 2011 ) explains that college pupils tend express themselves in Facebook by deriving greater integrating with their friend, entree to new friends and involves in interchanging of information and cognition.
However, Rouis ( 2012 ) found that pupils are good concerns about the impact of Facebook to their life. They consider their clip pass on Facebook is of import because it enable them to supply them amusement and socializes with each others. Facebook have besides become a platform for them to rest so that they can execute better on the other of import undertaking.
This literature sought to understand the battle and the intents of college pupils in Facebook use. Therefore, the following subdivision will analyze on the relationship of Facebook use on the academic positions.
Facebook use in academic public presentation
Academic public presentations provides as a mean to measure the impact of societal and external properties or environment that related to pupil ‘s academic undertaking and accomplishment. There are a batch of properties that contributes to the academic public presentations of the pupils, and one of the illustrations is the Facebook use ( Rois, 2012 ) .
In contrast, Facebook as portion of the pupil ‘s leisure activity is able to better their societal life. However, it has besides been known as a menace on pupil ‘s academic classs. It is predicted that heavy use on Facebook able to caused pupils to less apportion their clip on prep readying ( Hofer, 2007 ) . In add-on, nomadic devices such as smartphones, tablets or laptops are used to surf on Facebook during schoolroom session that able indirectly distract their attending to the talk.
Individual use on the societal networking sites like Facebook hold the same similarity to other sort of computing machine based web. Harmonizing to Kalpidou, Costin & A ; Morris ( 2007 ) , SNSs like Facebook and Myspace has been diffused to teenager ‘s life and play a major function on their academic public presentations. As we indicated in the old treatment, the two chief attacks of Facebook use are fundamentally useful motivations and leisure intents. If the Facebook use is merely pure useful motivations, it can convey impact positive to the single academic public presentations ( Burton & A ; Straub, 2006 ) . On the other side, leisure intents on Facebook will do the pupils to entree to this web from different channels and devices along the twenty-four hours. Therefore, the pupil ‘s day-to-day modus operandi will appears conflict between their survey motivations which their cognitive burden has been submerged and could non concentrate on their academic undertaking.
By sing Facebook use as a leisure purposes that will impact pupils ‘ academic public presentation, Madge ( 2009 ) found that Facebook is used chiefly for societal grounds and academic-related intents. Pempek et Al. ( 2009 ) argued that the intent of Facebook use among college pupils is to pass oning with friends while treatment for assignment or prep was the least. Younger coevals particularly pupils spent up to 8 hours per twenty-four hours surfing on Facebook daily. Therefore, it increased the degree of information flow direction in pupil battle more than in their prep ( Rouis, 2012 ) . In other word, Facebook had caused pupil engage in changeless interactions and socialisation in the platform while debaring their attending from their academic work which prohibit them from concentrating on their academic undertaking.
On the other side, 70 % of the college pupils perceived that Facebook would non impact their classs except for heavy use users ( Kaspernski and Duberstein, 2009 ) . Heavy use may impact on their day-to-day modus operandi and caused Facebook dependence. Therefore, Facebook use in academic has been discussed in this subdivision. The following subdivision will reason the statement and position by old survey of Facebook use on positive and negative result of Facebook use in academic public presentations. One of the most common techniques of mensurating the academic public presentations is analyse the pupil ‘s ends ( Valle et al. , 2009 ) . Premises have been made that Facebook use as a leisure activity to the pupils will impact their overall academic consequences. In this context, the chief attacks of analysing the academic public presentations is by the meant of focused on the scrutiny and assignment classs of the pupils.
Positive impact of Facebook use on academic public presentations
The impact normally depends on the different utilizations and satisfaction on Facebook among the college pupils. Social networking sites like Facebook are extremely based on the single utilizations and it has the possible to increase the pupil effectivity in academic ( Brady & A ; Smith, 2010 ) . Pasek ( 2009 ) argued that there is no cogent evidence that Facebook use is impacting the academic public presentations of the third instruction pupils. Hoffman ( 2009 ) explains that the positive properties of Facebook are able to heighten the acquisition environment of the pupils, every bit good as conveying motive to persons.
Junco ( 2011 ) identified the same statement that Facebook contribute to the positive impact of academic public presentation. Facebook served as a platform or forum for the college pupils to portion, discuss, and update information that is related to their academic undertaking. Brady ( 2010 ) explains that interchanging information through Facebook is extremely effectual comparison to face-face communicating. The societal networking site like Facebook, Youtube and Twitter are able to convey positive consequence on cognitive and societal accomplishments. Mahadi & A ; Ubadidulla ( 2012 ) found that it can heighten the linguistic communication of the pupils in the procedure of societal interaction and feedback.
Negative impact of Facebook use on academic public presentations
However, several surveies have found a negative relationship between Facebook use and pupil ‘s academic public presentations. Exposure to Facebook hold the inclination to convey overall negative consequence on pupils ‘ academic public presentations ( Park et al. , 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Boogart ( 2004 ) and Kirschner & A ; Duberstein ( 2009 ) highlight that Facebook is able to convey negative deductions such as lowered GPAs when it comes to heavy use. Facebook is able to do distraction consequence to an person. It is able to deflect the pupils to see Facebook profiles when they are making their work. In fact, pupils might travel on-line to look for assignment information and stop up interacting on Facebook ( Rouis, 2012 ) . As a consequence, pupils appear to see degraded on their academic public presentations.
As effects, Facebook use may endanger the pupils ‘ academic public presentation. Harmonizing to Ohio State University ( 2009 ) argued that there is a relationship exists between Facebook use and academic public presentation. The survey shows that those pupils that used Facebook often tend to hold the lower Grade Point Average ( GPA ) than those who seldom use Facebook. It is because most of the heavy Facebook user frequently holding job on the clip direction on their survey comparison with the light Facebook user. Madge et Al. ( 2009 ) came to the decision Facebook for societal intents are able to blow the clip to academic survey by sing as possible negative consequence to the pupils.
In fact, Roblyer et Al. ( 2010 ) challenges Facebook function as an educational tool which the survey found out that Facebook usage among module and pupils for instructional intents is limited and that popular in academic universe. Furthermore, Hargittai ( 2010 ) has done the survey on negative impact of Facebook use toward pupils ‘ academic public presentation. Research shows Facebook will do pupils to lost their involvement and concentration on their prep or assignment. As a effect, its end up with undone or low quality of work. In add-on, Jackson ( 2008 ) explains that negative impact on academic public presentation besides affect by intervention by Facebook utilizations like multitasking. Students are unable to execute expeditiously on multitasking even non count how good they are. The survey besides shows that important consequences which pupils like to utilize Facebook for chew the fating and bet oning the same clip when making assignments. Jacobsen and Forste ( 2011 ) described that Facebook as portion of electronic media is negatively associated with academic classs. The Facebook is able distract pupils on utilizing handphone, laptop in category or while making academic undertaking.
Percept of pupils towards Facebook use
In the old surveies, there major two types of consequences shows on college pupil ‘s position toward Facebook use on academic public presentation. Students perceived self ordinance and clip direction accomplishments are of import facets to protect them from Facebook dependence ( Rouis, 2012 ) . Helou & A ; Rahim ( 2011 ) found that bulk of the pupils ‘ position that Facebook have positive impact on their academic public presentations even they are reported that the intents of engaged in Facebook are socialisation instead than academic intents. Harmonizing to Gewertz ( 2007 ) , the survey Facebook use on pupil ‘s position is effectual larning tool. It is able to better the interaction between lector and pupils. Therefore, Facebook has peculiar become an effectual tools for college pupils when semen to the job in their assignments. Brady et Al. ( 2010 ) portion the similar findings on the pupil perceptual experience on the impact of Facebook. Majority of the pupils are reported to hold Facebook as their e-learning in their classs alternatively of face to confront communicating.
This reappraisal reflected up the research inquiry “ The perceptual experience of Malayan College Students when comes to their Facebook use and academic public presentations. ” Facebook as a new phenomenon in the society has gain popularity specific among the younger coevals like pupils. Previous surveies have indicated positive and negative result of Facebook. In positive position, Facebook has been view as an of import educational tool to better pupil public presentations, while in the negative position, Facebook is by and large found to be negatively affected pupil classs. However, we assumed that although Facebook has been described as able to convey negative consequence on academic public presentations, the pupils will still comprehend Facebook as non impacting on their academic public presentations. Therefore, to to the full understand the impact of Facebook use towards pupils ‘ academic public presentations, it is of import to carry on a research survey in position that based on the pupils itself.
Chapter 3 Methodology
Chapter 3 Methodology
The conceptual model was constructed based on the countries of treatment on the literature reviewed and that will lend to the undermentioned chapter of this survey. Therefore, this chapter will show the research method and scheme that used to roll up the information in this survey. The chapter starts by explicating the pilot survey, trying method, and research design. The concluding subdivision of this chapter will reason the research process in roll uping the information in this survey.
3.2 Pilot Study
Pilot survey has conducted in Tunku Abdul Rahman College Penang Branch Campus. The instruments have been assigned to 20 possible respondents. The information collected was used to minimise and analyse the mistakes in the survey. However, informations collected will non be included as the research determination. Through the pilot survey, one extra inquiry has been suggested by the respondent and therefore it has been added to the questionnaire. Some of the inquiries have been reconstructed to more comprehensive in term of grammar and linguistic communication. Correction has been made in the reply by supplying more options to the future respondents of this study.
3.3 Capable and Participants
The questionnaires studies were distributed to 160 respondents and entire 153 return with valid responses. Figure 4.2.1 summarizes the demographic profiles of the respondents. The respondents were 54 males and 96 females. All the respondents were undergraduate pupils runing between 18 and above 25 old ages old. Despite of the diverseness of ethnicity, bulk of the respondents are Chinese and most of them are Diploma holder.
3.4 Sampling method
The population for this survey was Malayan college pupils. The sample was determined by purposive sampling method. A sum of 160 trying size were identified in this survey from 3 different establishments. Respondent must be a Facebook user was used as the basic standards of the purposive sampling method in this survey. To guarantee the quality of the informations collected, the respondents will be ask in verbally whether they have ain Facebook history before carry oning the study. Respondents will be informed that the informations collected is purely confidential and merely for academic intents. The information such as name, reference and contact figure will non be included in the study in order to protect the respondents ‘ privateness.
To obtain the information sing the perceptual experience of the Malaysian college pupils, the establishments were narrowed to the college pupils in private establishments in Penang. The establishments were determined from the list of the best private college in Penang province accorded to Malaysian Quality Evaluation System ( 2011 ) . The list was obtained by out of 26 private colleges in Penang, the samples will be categorized into 5, 4 and 3 stars in term of overall consequence based tonss and the study will be carried out merely in three colleges. The chosen colleges are KDU Penang College, Han Chiang College and Equator Academy of Art as 5, 4 and 3 starts severally. The ground to choose these 3 colleges is to happen out the different position of the pupils in different evaluation degree of colleges.
3.5 Research Design
In this subdivision, the research design is reviewed and discussed in inside informations. The survey was to look into on the perceptual experience of Malayan College Students toward the Facebook use on their academic public presentation. In order to accomplish the research aim, quantitative research has been chosen as the method to roll up the information. The ground is because quantitative research is utile when used to quantify sentiments, attitudes and behaviours and happen out how the whole population feels about a certain issue ( Suphat Sukamolson, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Creswell ( 1994 ) , quantitative research is basically in explicating a phenomenon by roll uping numerical informations that are analyzed utilizing mathematically based methods. Therefore, to obtaining the perceptual experience and besides the consciousness on the Facebook use and academic public presentations, quantitative research is prove to be more suited. In this research survey, questionnaire study is used as the instrument to roll up the information.
The questionnaires study was designed to analyze 3 major countries of ratings: consciousness of Facebook use, perceptual experience of Facebook use, and perceived effects on overall academic public presentations ( Appendix B ) . The respondents will have a standardised and consistent set of questionnaires ( Appendix B ) that consists of 15 inquiries. Demographics informations such as age, gender, race and instruction degree were collected. Then the inquiries will travel on to one of the research nonsubjective inquiries to happen out the consciousness toward their Facebook use. The manner to mensurate the consciousness of Facebook use is through the respondent ‘s cognition and degree of battle in the Facebook. 5 inquiries constructed in this subdivision such as clip spent on the Facebook daily, intent of utilizing Facebook, location and the channel that normally logon to Facebook. These inquiries included multiple picks responses the combination of 1 inquiry which the respondents can take more than an option.
The concluding subdivision of the questionnaire study focused on the perceptual experiences of the respondent towards Facebook use on their academic public presentations. The inquiries were designed to turn to on the degree of attitudes towards the certain statements. The sample steps for the construct including:
Using Facebook affect my day-to-day modus operandi.
Using Facebook impact my scrutiny consequence.
Using Facebook affect my college assignment.
Using Facebook impact my category engagement.
Using Facebook impact my attending in category.
These inquiries drawn a line which the respondents are required to rate in footings of the grade to which it reflects their attitude towards the statement. Likert Scale evaluation system has been used to mensurate construct of the perceptual experience towards Facebook use on their academic public presentations. For case, 5-point categorical graduated table that ranged from strongly differ to strongly hold was used to measure the degree of strength on the statement.
3.6 Research Procedure
The first informations aggregation was implemented get downing 18 November 2012 began at the Equator Academy of Art and traveling on to KDU College and Han Chiang College. It was noted the study was conducted inside the campus of Han Chiang College and chief gate for the other two colleges. Questionnaires studies were distributed to 160 respondents. In order word, a sum of 53 questionnaires have been distributed in each college. However, merely 150 respondents ‘ reply will be chosen to bring forth better quality and valid consequences. The intent is to extinguish those failed to react or did non reply wholly in the conducted study.
As indicated in the old sampling method, the respondents had been asked verbally whether they have Facebook history. Then we will merely continue on distribute the questionnaires to the respondents. In the procedure of informations aggregation, accounts will be given to the respondents that have job on replying the questionnaires. Finally, each respondent took about 5 proceedingss to complete the questionnaire.
In Equator Academy of Art, we started to administer a sum of 53 questionnaires to the college pupils. Finally, the response rate was 100 % . In KDU College, the questionnaires were conducted which 48 out of 54 respondents completed the questionnaire study. Last in Han Chiang College, 52 out of 54 questionnaires have been received in to the full answered respond. Therefore, the overall response rate for the study was 95 % and 153 out of 160 respondents to the full completed the questionnaire study.
However, some challenges and jobs have been faced in the survey. The attitude of the respondent is one of the chief jobs faced in the informations aggregation procedure. Some of the respondents are unable to finish the questionnaire by go forthing space in certain inquiries. There are besides some mistake happened when the respondents tick more than one replies in the inquiry which the direction does non required to make so.
As a decision in this chapter, the survey was conducted at three private colleges Equator of Art and Academy, Hanchiang College and KDU College in Penang province. Quantitative research questionnaire study was used to roll up the information from the college pupils. The sampling is determined by utilizing purposive sampling method. Consequences that obtained will be farther discuss and analysis in following chapter.
Chapter 4 Finding & A ; Analysis
Chapter 4 Finding & A ; Analysis
This survey sought to look into the perceptual experience of Malayan College Students towards Facebook use on their academic public presentation utilizing the quantitative research method. The instrument of questionnaires study has been used to roll up the information in three different instruction establishments. Datas were collected in the undermentioned country: Demographic profile, Awareness of Facebook Usage and Perception of Facebook use affect on academic public presentations
4.2 Demographic Profile
This subdivision provides the information sing the demographic profile of the study respondents. Four inquiries are asked on the instrument included degree of instruction, race, age and gender. The information presented on the Figure 4.1 is the combination consequences of the respondents in 3 different colleges.
Degree of instruction
Figure 4.2.1 Demographic Profile
The tabular array above shows the demographic profile on degree of instruction. Majority 65 % respondents are Diploma holder, while 20 % and 15 % of the respondents are Certificate and Bachelor Degree holder severally.
The 2nd subdivision of the tabular array above shows the demographic profile on the races. Majority 71 % of the respondents are Chinese, while 21 % are Indian. The consequence besides indicated that 5 % and 3 % of the respondents are Malay and Sikh severally.
The undermentioned subdivision of the tabular array above shows the demographic profile on the age. Majority 40 % respondents are 20 old ages old and 27 % respondents are above 21 old ages old. The consequence besides included 20 % and 13 % of the respondents belongs to 18 and 19 old ages old.
The concluding subdivision of the tabular array shows the demographic profile on the gender. 64 % of the entire respondents are female while the remainder 36 % are male.
4.3 Awareness of Facebook Usage
This subdivision will show the consequences of Awareness of Facebook use of the respondents. All respondents were asked five inquiries sing their use on Facebook. Figure 4.2 – Figure 4.6 shows the consequences from these series of inquiries.
Figure 4.3.1 Frequency of log on to Facebook
The saloon chart above shows that bulk 84 % respondents log on to Facebook daily. 11 % of the respondents logon to Facebook 1-3 times per hebdomad. The consequences besides indicated minority of respondents which merely 4 % of them log on to Facebook 1-3 times per hebdomad. However, merely 1 % of the respondents fall under assorted because failed to supply the complete reply.
Figure 4.3.2 Location of log on to Facebook
The saloon chart above shows that bulk 73.30 % respondents normally log on to Facebook in their place. 11.33 % and 10.60 % of respondents normally logon to Facebook at inn and college severally. The consequence besides shows that merely 4 % of the respondents log on to Facebook in public topographic points. However, 0.66 % of the respondents fall under assorted because failed to follow the direction of the inquiry.
Figure 4.3.3 Channel used to log on to Facebook
The saloon chart above shows that bulk 40 % respondents normally log on to Facebook utilizing the computing machine. The consequences indicated that computing machine is the chief channel for pupils to log on to Facebook. 29.33 % and 24 % log on to Facebook through handphone and tabular arraies severally. However, merely 6.66 % of respondents used laptop to logon to Facebook.
Figure 4.3.4 Daily Time Spent on Facebook
The saloon chart above shows that bulk 40 % respondents spend 1-3 hours on Facebook daily. 17.33 % and 13.33 % of the respondents spend more than 6 hours and less than 1 hr on Facebook severally. The consequences besides indicated that 9.33 % of respondents spend 4-6 hours on Facebook daily and 20 % of them are non certain about their day-to-day clip spent on Facebook.
Figure 4.3.5 The intents of utilizing Facebook
The inquiry allowed the respondents to take more than one reply. Therefore, the saloon chart above shows the bulk respondents used Facebook for amusement and socialisation intents which are 34.72 % and 34.02 % severally. The consequences besides indicated that 24.31 % of the respondents use Facebook to seek for information and 4.17 % used it as recreation. However, 2.77 % of the respondents fall under assorted because failed to follow the direction of the inquiry.
4.4 Percept of Facebook use affect on academic public presentations
This subdivision of the instrument begins to analyze the respondents ‘ perceptual experience of Facebook use on their academic public presentations. Respondent were asked to turn to on the degree of attitudes towards the certain statements. The measuring of the responses is based on the Likert Scale Rating System.
a ) Using Facebook affect my day-to-day modus operandi
24 % ( 36 )
27 % ( 40 )
27 % ( 40 )
13 % ( 20 )
9 % ( 14 )
B ) Using Facebook impact my scrutiny consequence
( 16 )
( 20 )
( 54 )
( 44 )
( 16 )
degree Celsius ) Using Facebook affect my college assignment
( 30 )
( 24 )
( 44 )
( 44 )
( 8 )
vitamin D ) Using Facebook impact my category engagement
( 10 )
( 10 )
( 42 )
( 50 )
( 38 )
vitamin E ) Using Facebook impact my attending in category
( 15 )
( 9 )
( 44 )
( 56 )
( 26 )
Figure 4.4.1: Responses to the inquiry on the perceptual experiences towards Facebook use on their academic public presentations rated with a 5 different strength on Likert graduated table evaluation system
The figure above shows that 24 % of the respondents strongly agree with the statement “ Using Facebook impact my day-to-day modus operandi ” . 27 % of them agree with the statement, 27 % of them indicated impersonal to the statement, while 13 % of them disagree with the statement and the remainder 9 % of them strongly disagree with the statement.
The 2nd figure shows that 11 % of the respondents strongly agree with the statement “ Using Facebook affect my scrutiny consequence ” . 13 % of them agree with the statement, 36 % of them indicated impersonal to the statement, while 29 % of them disagree with the statement and the remainder 11 % of them strongly disagree with the statement.
The 3rd figure shows that 20 % of the respondents strongly agree with the statement “ Using Facebook affect my college assignment ” . 16 % of them agree with the statement, 29 % of them indicated impersonal to the statement, while 29 % of them disagree with the statement and the remainder 6 % of them strongly disagree with the statement.
The undermentioned figure shows that merely 7 % of the respondents strongly agree with the statement “ Using facebook impact my category engagement ” . 7 % of them besides agree with the statement, 28 % of them indicate impersonal to the statement, while 33 % of them disagree with the statement and the remainder 25 % of them strongly disagree with the statement.
The last figure shows that 10 % of the respondents strongly agree with the statement “ Using Facebook affect my attending in category ” . Merely 6 % agree with the statement, 29 % of them indicate impersonal to the statement, while 38 % of them disagree with the statement and the remainder 17 % of them strongly disagree with the statement.
Figure 4.4.2 Percept of Facebook will impact their overall academic public presentation
The saloon chart above shows that bulk 65.33 % respondents perceived Facebook will non impact their overall academic public presentation. The respondents perceived themselves have good clip direction accomplishments and they are non addicted to Facebook However, merely 34.66 % of respondents perceived Facebook will impact their overall academic public presentation. The respondents perceived Facebook will deflect them from making their academic undertakings.
Chapter 5 Discussion & A ; Conclusion
Chapter 5 Discussion & A ; Conclusion
5.1 Summary of survey
This survey was conducted at three instruction establishments throughout the Penang provinces. As Facebook has become a new phenomenon that had important impact to the life of the college pupils. As pupils use of the Facebook are increasing, so it is of import for the survey to understand on the impact of Facebook use on college pupils. Finally, non much research has been done on researching on the perceptual experience of the beginnings itself which are the pupils on these issues. Therefore, this survey aims to look into the perceptual experience of Malayan College Students towards Facebook use on their academic public presentation.
Therefore, one of the cardinal facets of this survey is to foreground the college pupils ‘ use on Facebook. The bulk of the pupils log on to the Facebook daily with over 73.30 % of them accesses it from their place. It was besides indicated that, pupils spent up to 1 to 3 hours per twenty-four hours. The bulk of the pupils accesses to Facebook utilizing the computing machine and laptop as it is besides been consider as nomadic personal computing machine. As expected, the pupils uses Facebook are for amusement and socialisation intents.
The perceptual experiences of the pupils are explored on the Facebook use on their academic public presentations. Students besides indicated understanding on Facebook use will impact on their day-to-day modus operandi. However, the undermentioned responses remain either with impersonal response or being to differ with the statement that Facebook use will impact their academic public presentations. Therefore, it is clearly that most of the pupils perceived that Facebook use will non impact their scrutiny consequences. The perceptual experience of pupils besides noted that Facebook will non impact their overall academic undertaking public presentations included college assignment, category engagement and attending in the category. The ground is because bulk of the pupils perceived themselves have a good clip direction accomplishments. They are able to apportion their clip sagely between Facebook and academic undertaking every bit good as being addicted to Facebook.
As noted in Chapter 2 Literature Review, exposure to Facebook hold the inclination to convey overall negative consequence on pupils ‘ academic public presentations. This survey has applied utilizations and satisfaction theory to explicate the progressively popularity of Facebook among college pupils. It is note Facebook has been used as tools to carry through college pupil ‘s societal and amusement demands. As a consequence, pupils appear to see negative impact on their academic public presentations. Regardless, heavy use of Facebook tends to do for lower pupil ‘s scrutinies classs. Facebook is able to do distraction consequence on their academic undertaking specific on those pupils that extremely engage in this societal platform. In this context, pupils appear to utilize Facebook for amusement and socialisation intents. The consequences besides display that bulk college pupils are more likely to pass 1 to 3 hr per twenty-four hours on Facebook. This may besides related to the fact that norm of the college pupils spent up to 8 hours per twenty-four hours on Facebook.
Therefore, the current survey therefore provides the perceptual experience of Malayan college pupils toward Facebook use on their academic public presentations. Sing the initial use of the pupils in this platform, this survey noted that Facebook has been perceived that it will non do negative impact to their academic public presentations. Although Facebook has been indentify as the tools for amusement and socialisation, self ordinance such as good clip direction is able prevent pupils from Facebook dependence. Therefore, pupils are able to apportion their clip sagely apportion their clip on Facebook. The current survey consequences besides present that pupils are non the heavy users of Facebook. Therefore, it might be one of the possible deductions that Facebook uses are non the chief ground that will impact on their academic public presentations. Student have besides been reported that they normally log on to Facebook at their place alternatively of college. College pupils are more likely to less on-line to Facebook during the category. This indicated that, Facebook use has been perceived that will non impact their engagement and attending during the category.
This survey presents the perceptual experience of college pupils on Facebook use toward their academic public presentations. In fact, battle on Facebook has been measured as the variables of finding the consciousness of Facebook use. The theoretical model suggested that long clip spent on Facebook will negatively impact pupil ‘s academic public presentations. As a decision, the survey premises provide noteworthy consequences in Malayan context. Despite Facebook has been described as a possible negative consequence on pupil overall academic public presentations, in pupils ‘ perceptual experience, Facebook will non convey any negative consequence to their overall academic public presentations. Based on the consequences, self ordinances such as good clip direction accomplishment has been viewed as the bar for this result.
5.4 Limitation of survey
This subdivision sought to name out the restriction exists in this survey. First, this survey is limited to pupils in merely three colleges. Due to clip and resources restraints, the survey can merely be conducted in the limited country. In fact, there are some demographics that become of import consideration when researching the perceptual experience of college pupils in this three instruction establishments. The bulk of the respondents are the Chinese and female populations.
In add-on, the survey is besides limited to the figure of responses of the pupils. Merely a sum of 160 questionnaires have been distributed to the respondents due to the clip restraints. The larger samples are required to be sufficiently stand foring the result of the whole population. Therefore, it is unreasonable to confidently generalise these consequences to users with different demographic or cultural contexts.
5.5 Suggestion for future research
In responses to the restriction above, the country of research should research more specifically on with Facebook impact of Malaysia college pupils. The research is able to carry on in larger population trying in the hereafter. In add-on to that, future survey may besides prove on the perceptual experience of the general populace on Facebook use. More or less, the research country have to be conducted in larger country included the different demographic position. Furthermore, comparative survey between Malaysian college pupils and other civilization context can be conducted to measure the relationship of Facebook use and academic public presentations. Last, qualitative research can be conduct in order to obtain a more in-depth apprehension on the Facebook use of the college pupils.