The Relationship between pupil expenditure in high and low capacity school districts and community variables

Across the nation, the public, lawmakers and educators have become deeply concerned with finding ways to measure the effectiveness of schools and school systems. Politicians and educators have been struggling with developing useful yardsticks for school effectiveness that are honest, accurate and easily comprehended. The initial stages of this effort have often resulted in evaluations that assess, judge and even mete out consequences to schools who’ve been measured by a small set of benchmarks that often do not reflect the context of the individual school.

Many states, including Rhode Island, have published annual state achievement results. People have used these results to rank order districts and schools on the basis of those results as if the schools were competing on a level playing field. While valid for certain purposes, these methods encourage the public to draw sometimes unfortunate conclusions about the value of a school or school system because the yardstick itself is not sensitive to differences in school contexts, to other information about school practices, or to achievement results which are not part of the formal state assessment program.

In this study we will undertake the analysis from the financial perspective and study the relationship between pupil expenditure in high and low capacity school districts and community variables. A multiple regression model will be used in order to statistically evaluate the relationship (Information works, 01) 2- LITERATURE REVIEW A hypothesis (H) is an unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher. It may, for example, be a tentative statement about relationships between two or more variables as stipulated by the theoretical framework or the analytical model.

Often, a hypothesis is a possible answer to the research question. Hypotheses go beyond research questions because they are statements of relationships or propositions rather than merely question to which answers are sought. Whereas research questions are interrogative, Hypotheses are declarative and can be tested empirically. An important role of a hypothesis is to suggest variables to be included in the research design (Malhotra, 77). A literature review will be undertaken in order to develop hypothesis which will be tested in the study.

In our study we will use the same variables as Gaudet used in the study of performance of the MCAS tests. Using these variables we will test the relationship with the pupil expenditure in school districts. These include level of educational attainment of school districts, income level, percentage of households above the poverty line, its percentage of single-parent families, its percentage of non-English-speaking households, and its level of private school enrollment in school districts. 3- REASONS FOR CHOOSING THIS TOPIC

The fundamental reason for choosing this topic is that having searched literature I found that very few works have been conducted concerning the relationship between pupil expenditure in high and low capacity school districts and community variables. Since most of the studies have been focusing the students’ performances as the indicator of the success of the school systems. This fact has encouraged me to do this piece of work in order to contribute to the existing knowledge about this subject by adding a new point of view.

Another reason is that most people who are involved in the evaluation of the school systems have poor background in finance, so it is so difficult for them to understand the pros and cons of the financial aspects of the school systems. In addition to that analysts and common people should understand the relationship between pupil expenditure in high and low capacity school districts and community variables. They should not only concentrate on educational tools but also address the community variables while designing the educational expenditure policies in order to improve the performance of the school system in the United States.

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