A)How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passage and pharynx spread into her sinuses? a. Her infection was able to spread to her sinuses because her sinuses became an area that her nasal passages and pharynx could drain into. In here the drainage just sat there and became a breeding ground for bacteria. B)What is the Cough Reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing? a. The cough reflex is used to get things like irritants and fluid which causes us to have sputum out of the nasal passage and pharynx.
The cilia or little hairs that are in our trachea is trying to move that mucus and crap from her lungs because they don’t want it there so when there is too much mucus it triggers the cough reflex try to get it out to make more room. C)Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate fluid? a. The structure that would normally help with this are the Macrophages. They are normal found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. D)How would the resistance of Cari’s airway be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lungs? . It would cause her airway to have resistance because of the fluid buildup would cause her airway to be smaller in diameter. With all of the fluid in her lungs some of her alveoli would be under this fluid causing them not to be able to work like they should and causing friction. E)How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? a. It would increase I believe because she will be working harder to gases In and out of the alveoli.
F)How would fluid in Cari’s lungs affect her total lung capacity? a. Her overall lung capacity would be lowered or decreased because of all the fluid in there. With the fluid in there it is taking up all the space that she would normally use for air which means she can’t get as much air in her lungs. G)How does the elevation of Cari’s respiratory rate alter her minute ventilation? a. It would be alter becaused it would be raised. It raises it because she has more volume in her lungs. H)Normal blood oxygen saturation levels are greater than 94%.
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Cari’s blood oxygen saturation level was 90% at the time of her exam and an arterial blood gas analysis done when she was admitted to the hospital revealed her arterial Po2 was 54 mm Hg. How do these clinical findings relate to the internal respiration in Cari’s body? a. First a normal resting oxygen level should be 94% or higher with no oxygen supplements. A normal Po2 on a person resting is 40 mm Hg and if it was someone that was exercise it would be even lower so the 90% and 50 mmHg means that the arteries have too much oxygen. I)Which symptoms Cari has described are due to lack of oxygen and reduced oxygen exchanged at her tissues? . When she said “Panting like a dog”. This would be a symptom of what is going on. J)As Cari’s Pco2 rose, how was the oxygen –carrying capacity of hemoglobin affected? a. It will decrease since the CO2 will take oxygen place on the bus which means she will be getting more oxygen and the CO2 will be taken and gotten rid of. K)How would you have expected Cari’s decreased Pco2 and alkaline blood pH to have affected her breathing? a. Since her pH and Pco2 is decreasing so is her rate of breathing because she is not having to work as hard.
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