Last Updated 06 Jul 2020

Research methods in early childhood

Category Childhood, Literacy
Essay type Research
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In this article, it discusses the importance of literacy for kindergartners as portion of 'school preparedness ' readying and the bilingual literacy in Singapore Primary School instruction system. The word 'literacy ' frequently brings to mind `` reading and composing '' , but preschool literacy includes much more. Reading is a cardinal accomplishment that can be acquired with the careful planning and direction of skilled instructors. The usage of reading schemes coupled with other lending factors to assist a kid to read.


Literacy for Preschooler

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The word 'literacy ' frequently brings to mind `` reading and composing '' , but preschool literacy includes much more. In the 2008, Ministry of Education ( MOE ) , Singapore launched the Kindergarten Curriculum Guide ( KCG ) . The KCG is meant to steer preschool instructors in fostering early scholars so that a steadfast foundation can be built to run into the academic demand of the instruction system in Singapore. Under the model, Language and Literacy is one of the chief key cognition and accomplishments to get by all who have graduated from any MOE licensed Kindergarten. The chief strands of linguistic communication and literacy are viz. : speech production, listening, reading and composing.

School Readiness in Singapore

Singapore, observing its 45 independent old ages, is a little multicultural state that lacks natural resources. However, it thrives good by the hardworking and resilient citizen together with the inflow of one million foreign endowments and workers to hike its economic system. The so first Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr. Lee Kuan Yew, was the drive force behind to stress the importance of instruction, forcing through the authorization for bilingual literacy with English being the first linguistic communication and a female parent lingua ( Chinese, Malay and Tamil ) being the 2nd linguistic communication in the instruction system.

In recent old ages, there has being an increasing accent in 'school preparedness ' which is to fix immature kids for the compulsory primary instruction ( Kirkland, E.S. , 2002 ) . As shown by assorted research consequences, early literacy is the cardinal constituent to accomplish that. The term 'bilingual ' literacy is to depict a individual holding the ability to talk, listen, read and compose in two linguistic communications. In fact, there is an outlook that when a kid turns seven, he is to be comparatively bilingual by being able to grok and utilize English as the first linguistic communication and Mother Tongue ( Chinese, Malay or Tamil ) as the 2nd linguistic communication. William and Lundstrom ( 2007 ) emphasized the demand for careful planning and direction by trained and skilled instructors in order for a kid to emerge as confident talker, hearer, reader and author.

Research Question utilizing instance survey attack

The research inquiry for this instance survey is `` How is bilingual reading promoted in school for the 4-6 old ages old? '' Since 75 % of Singapore 's population are Chinese ( Statistics Singapore, 2009 ) , the two linguistic communications for this survey shall be the English and Chinese. The topics in this instance survey are 13 4-6 old ages old kids from the baby's room and kindergarten categories go toing a child care Centre in Singapore taught by three instructors. They are the Chinese Teacher who uses vocals, rimes and word games to learn Chinese linguistic communication ; the English Teacher who uses Thematic Approach to carry on her lesson and the Enrichment Teacher who uses flash cards, phonics and word games to learn reading in English.

The end of this instance survey is to uncover how preschool instructors in Singapore facilitate bilingual reading in the linguistic communication and literacy development of immature kids to fix them for their following phase of larning. 'Despite the unfavorable judgment of instance surveies, it is noted that the chief characteristic of instance survey is really utile and effectual to research and look into real-life context between instructors and kids. By utilizing interview and observation, research workers will be able to hear the 'voices ' of instructors and kids when roll uping informations and findings for the intent of this research survey. As described by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie ( 2004 ) , both quantitative and qualitative informations will be collected to triangulate the consequences in the assorted research methods ' ( Ng, E. 2010 ) .

literature reappraisal


Reading under linguistic communication and literacy accomplishments is farther sub-divided into assorted constituents such as Book and Print Awareness ; Phonological and Phonemic Awareness ; Word Recognition and Comprehension. The KCG lists a 'set of cardinal cognition, accomplishments and temperaments purposes to steer pre-school instructors in developing an appropriate course of study that would back up and advance kids 's acquisition and development ' ( MOE, 2008 ) . This list is meant to steer instructors to supply chances for kids to get the stated cognition, accomplishments and temperaments. For illustration, under reading strand, word acknowledgment is non expected of nursery kids, nevertheless, by the clip the kid is 5 or 6-years old, it is expected that they be able to intermix sounds to read 3-letter-words, read some frequence words, read a scope of words by decrypting or by sight, and read simple sentences. Upon graduation from his kindergarten old ages, the ultimate end for a kid is to be good prepared and equipped with accomplishments to manage the course of study outlook in the primary school old ages in front.

Reading is a cardinal accomplishment

In 1998, the joint-position paper of the National Association for the Education of Young Children ( NAEYC ) and the International Reading Association ( IRA ) , reported that 'Learning to read and compose is critical to a kid 's success in school and later in life ' . The Access Center: Bettering Results for All Students K-8 had a similar determination reported that 'reading is a cardinal accomplishment that defines the academic success or failure of pupils ' . During the Emergent and Early Literacy Workshop in Bethesda ( 2000 ) , Dr. Barbara Foorman from the University of Texas, Houston Medical School, reported that '88 per centum of pupils who were hapless readers in first class were hapless readers in 4th class ' and '87 per centum of pupils who were good readers in first class were good readers in 4th class ' ( National Institute of Health, 2000, 9 ) . These surveies showed a strong co-relation between the academic success of the kid and the ability to read and compose in preschool old ages. To province it boldly - we can about foretell a kid 's academic success in life upon his kindergarten graduation twelvemonth. Therefore it has become indispensable and pressing to learn preschool kids to read and compose aptly, enabling them to accomplish today 's high criterions of literacy ( NAEYC and IRA, 1998 ) . However, it has besides being reported by experient instructors that the kids they teach today are more diverse in their backgrounds, experiences, and abilities. With this increasing diverseness among immature kids, it is progressively overpowering for instructors to be expected to bring forth a unvarying result for all.

Reading is a Erudite Skill

Reading is a erudite accomplishment and non a biological waking up. The ability to read does non develop of course. It is the result of continual development and acquisition. As emergent reader is invariably emerging, immature kids will go through through different phases of reading accomplishments and will meet different kinds of reading troubles ( Adams and Bruck, 1993 ) . During the workshop by National Institute of Health ( 2000 ) , Nelson, N. of Western Michigan University said that instead than waiting for failure, one preventative precedence is for trained and skilled instructors to fix kids to derive good reading accomplishments with specific types of cognition in reading and composing success during the preschool old ages. The end is to read with eloquence, truth, understanding and enjoyment. IRA and NAEYC ( 1998 ) believe that early childhood instructors need to understand the developmental continuum of reading and authorship and be skilled in a assortment of schemes. They could so do instructional determinations based on their cognition, current research and appropriate outlooks to scaffold kids 's acquisition.

Reading Schemes

Recently, schemes for reading have received considerable attending in the professional literature nevertheless it is improbable for any teaching method or attack to be effectual on its ain. An on-going appraisal of kids 's cognition and accomplishments will decidedly assist instructors to be after effectual direction ( NAEYC & A ; IRA, 1998 ) . Dr. Rao of National Institute of Education in Singapore defines reading schemes as 'how readers conceive a undertaking, how they make sense of what they read, and what they do when they do non understand ' . Reading schemes as listed by the National Curriculum for England ( 1999 ) are phonemic consciousness and phonics knowledge ; word Recognition and in writing cognition ; grammatical consciousness and most significantly, contextual apprehension. These schemes are meant to learn kids whole scope of reading accomplishments such as cognizing the sound and name the letters of the alphabet, link sound and missive forms, able to place and intermix phonemes in words, read on sight high frequence words and other familiar words, acknowledge words with common spelling forms and acknowledge specific parts of words, understand how word orders affects significance, decipher new words, work out the sense of a sentence and focal point on intending derived from the text as a whole. Thereafter, instructor could integrate word games utilizing acquired phonics cognition to do larning more merriment for kids.

Phonicss Knowledge

In the web site of the National Institute for Literacy, it states that 'Phonics is the relationships between the letters ( characters ) of written linguistic communication and the single sounds ( phonemes ) of spoken linguistic communication. ' The end of phonics direction is to assist early readers to acknowledge familiar words accurately and automatically and to `` decrypt '' new words. Phonicss instructions need to be systematic and expressed in order to be effectual. Weaver, C. ( 1994 ) stated some ways instructors can assist kids to develop phonics knowledge such as indicating out interesting forms of oncomings and frosts during shared reading experiences and prosecute kids in activities that reinforce their natural acquisition of the letter/sound relationships. These activities can mask as games to play in category and can be tailored and catered consequently to the assorted age groups. The end is to prosecute kids 's head to get phonics knowledge that lead to word acknowledgment accomplishments.

Phonicss Word Games

Some illustrations of phonics word games are presenting alphabet sound, kids are to fit get downing sound of the alphabet with the images utilizing chart and cards, or to name things in the environment that begin with a peculiar alphabet. If kids are older, they can play card game similar to the game 'Snap ' where they will snarl at alphabets that begin the corresponding image shown in the Centre. Another illustration of a word game is the fishing game whereby kids will angle out alphabets cards attached with a paper cartridge holder, and a fishing rod with a little magnet attached to the terminal so that kids will take bends to angle the needed alphabet cards. Such games can be played by playgroup kids to angle out the alphabets requested by instructors or it could be scaffold for kindergarten kids to larn basic spelling accomplishments where they will angle out all the alphabets to spell simple words they have learnt.

Reading Schemes for Chinese Language

Interestingly, the reading schemes and word games are non restrictive in larning the English Language. It can be adapted and used by linguistic communication instructors to learn kids other linguistic communications such as the Chinese Language which has its ain set of schemes.


Traditionally, Chinese Language has being taught by pure rote larning for coevalss. With the promotion in engineering, primary schools in Singapore are undergoing transmutation to recommend learning Chinese Language in a merriment and originative manner. The advanced thought of utilizing the 'iFlashBook ' , an on-line service integrating multimedia, speech acknowledgment engineering and a content-rich library to congratulate the mainstream primary school text editions. Children can electronics learn besides known as 'elearning ' by pull stringsing through the lessons with words being read out to them and their voices recorded as a signifier of feedback. These ebooks are available by through annual subscription fee ( Creative Technology Ltd, Singapore ) .

Hanyu Pinyin

Reading Chinese characters with the aid of English alphabets and its phonemes are known as Hanyu Pinyin, the Romanization of the Chinese characters. Hanyu Pinyin was introduced to school about 30 old ages ago to the upper primary onwards. However, it has made a important presence in the Chinese Language course of study such that all Primary one student are merely larning Hanyu Pinyin during their first six month in school. This is to help kids in reading and be able to identify in maps for the electronics resources made available in recent old ages.

Chinese Fictional characters in Picture

As ancient Chinese characters are derived from the forms and visual aspects of objects, another advanced and originative thought is to utilize images to picture its form and significance of the words. These images make larning the Chinese characters merriment and easy by merely tie ining them with the existent signifier ( Tan, R. 2004 ) . For illustration, the Chinese Character c?« read as 'huo ' agencies fire has its word image drawn to look like a fire so as to stand for the significance of the word.

Lending Areas

In a study done by The Access Center on the scheme to better results for all pupils K-8, research grounds had pointed to three effectual lending factors in order for any environment to better literacy. These factors are classroom stuffs, the function of the instructor, and schoolroom design and layout. Another of import factor beyond schoolroom environment is the function of parent 's engagement by being active in their kids 's acquisition experiences. We will further depict each of these factors presented.

a ) Classroom Materials

Research grounds has shown that there is a demand to hold knowing choice and usage of stuffs in order to develop an environment to back up literacy accomplishments in immature kids. The usage of signifiers and maps of print aid to function as a foundation from which kids become progressively sensitive to missive forms, names, sounds and words. In the study done by Gunn, Simmons, & A ; Kammeenui, ( 1995 ) to derive apprehension in the map of print, one of the term to specify emergent literacy was the consciousness of the utilizations of print from specific ( eg. doing shopping lists, reading street marks, looking up information ) to general ( eg. geting cognition, conveying instructions, keeping relationships ) .

B ) The Role of the Teacher

To back up that, instructors could incorporate phone books, bill of fare, and other written stuffs into pupil drama so that kids will be able to see the connexions between the written word and spoken linguistic communication. For pupils to hold entree to a assortment of resources, instructors are to supply many books in the schoolroom library to keep pupil 's involvement and expose them to assorted subjects and thoughts. Teachers could besides supply activities within the schoolroom such as linguistic communication and literacy drama, reading aloud, storybook reading, reading to dolls, composing notes to friends, doing shopping lists, and taking telephone messages. This will let kids to better reading accomplishments and experience joy and power associated with literacy. Seizing these docile minutes and supply developmentally appropriate stuffs and interactions will farther literacy development ( Gunn, Simmons, & A ; Kammeenui, 1995 ) .

degree Celsius ) Classroom Design and Layout

The physical environment of the schoolroom is important for developing literacy growing in kids. Surveies suggested that physical agreement of the schoolroom can advance clip with books ( IRA & A ; NEAYC, 1998 ) such as in the library Centre to hold tonss of comfy infinites for kids to curve up and loosen up with a book ; books are to beautifully expose and be accessible to kids. By supplying marionettes, composing stuffs and listening equipments will promote kids to widen their reading experiences. Place paper, pens, pencils, crayons throughout the room to promote kids to `` compose '' . Finally, display kids 's work and images.

vitamin D ) Parent-Child Mediated Learning Experience ( MLE )

Russell, ( 2008 ) reported a important correlativity between parent who have given the 'affect, focal point, attending, and communicating of a feeling of competency for larning ' and their 'children 's optimum public presentation ' . It has being noted that the parents today are more educated and intelligent. By reading widely, they have kept themselves abreast with latest engineering and find. Furthermore, most household family are now dual-income and younger twosomes are choosing for smaller household unit with merely one or two kids. This alteration in household construction is get downing to engender a different civilization in modern parents. They are more unfastened to new methodological analysiss and doctrines with the underlying purpose to supply the best for their kids as stated in the front screen of Tony Buzan 's `` Brain Child '' ( 2003 ) that says `` How Smart Parents Make Smart Kids '' . The new strain of parents would travel the excess stat mi to foster their kids. They view it as a wise and shrewd long-run investing in their kids 's instruction in order to make their fullest potency in the hereafter. Therefore another important factor that is beyond schoolrooms environment which could develop literacy in kids is the active engagement of parents in their kids 's development.


Reading is a cardinal accomplishment and is indispensable and pressing to learn preschool kids to read and compose aptly so as to accomplish today 's high criterions of literacy. This could be achieved by integrating reading schemes carefully planned and instructed by skilled instructors.

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