One country’s flaw could attract a person to another country, people tend to look for certain characteristics in one country that theirs does not comprise of, and one country’s push factor can be another country’s pull factor. Emigration is a personal choice, but defiantly there are reasons for everything, they could be as simple as wanting to experience something new, or they could be more complex such as living the life that one wanted but couldn’t have in their homeland or previous country, due to politics, religion, education or work.
Push and pull factors are liable to overlap, the stronger factors that help make the choice for the majority of the people to migrate from one country to another are the political differences, religious freedom, education and the future, as well as labor. For example during the first half of the twentieth century Canada was the most preferable places to migrate to because it evoked more freedom, and opportunity to those with a poor life. Very similar to today people leave their homeland for a better life, the conditions in their country could be very pitiful, their present and future are being destroyed, and their life becomes cautious.
A push factor which most choices revolve around is the political factor, because politics is the most powerful characteristic about a country, and it controls how we live, people just can’t handle their lives with appalling politics so they are rather being pushed away by it, and another country with a more preferred political view is pulling us. Dictatorship is probably the most controlling type of government, where the population does not play an important role, and have no say in political choices. The country as whole is controlled by one group with fixed power.
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A simple definition of this political government is Dictatorship is a government that can be defined as those countries prohibited by authoritative, absolute leaders. Some countries with that type of government are North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Cuba, and Iran, just to name a few. So there is this population of people whose voice cannot be heard, especially a country like Korea where there is a population of approximately twenty-three million people, and they do not possess the freedom of speech, instead this massive population is controlled by Kim-Il Sung and his son Kim Jong-il.
What happens is that the population, does not like having the same ruler for all their life, they do not like a dictatorship government, where they carry no voice, they are basically a mass of people with very little importance to the government. People living in a country like this date it, they prefer to make a choice on government and give a voice that would count to something, and in a dictatorship country that becomes impossible. So these people start to migrate to much freer countries, countries where their voice be heard such as Canada, the United States, countries that are democratic.
Anyone would prefer living in a country where they can choose the life which they want, rather than living in a country where you are forced to live a certain life, and so the push and pull factor regarding government becomes very clear. A push factor is a dictatorship where one is being controlled mentally, while a pull factor is democracy where you choose your path, you choose a better life. Another big issue that affects people’s lives majority is war, whether it is genocide, or revolutionary, people have that fear in them.
Wars often scare people off to another country, because they start thinking twice about their safety, and the future of the country. It is the weaker countries which we see today such as Afghanistan and Iraq who are being thrown into war, or being attacked, these countries are not attacking back, they do not hold the power to attack the country, or defend their own. People are kind of rushed away from political problems like this, people tend to ask for peace, and unfortunately for some they do not achieve that peace.
A population would not want their children growing up or exposed to such violence. War plays a big part in a push factor, because after a while the population would start to think about their own future, the future of the country, and how could there be a personal future if the future of a country is destroyed? A country’s leader would typically try to put all the pieces back together after the attack is done and the other country has withdrew from the attack, but it would take a lot of patience to wait for those pieces to be put back nd readjust. People find it much easier to try to adjust to a different country with a hopeful future, which insures safety for their kids. A pull factor regarding politics is with a nation which holds peace or a special relationship with other countries, and does not hold many political problems and disagreements. Countries like that are once again Canada, Australia, alongside some other countries in Northern Europe such as Sweden, Holland or Denmark, where we see are already favorable for people who are looking to migrate.
Finally the last effective push factor which kind of comes into play as a force of immigration is persecution. Political persecution would go hand in hand with religious persecution. First off persecution is “a program or campaign to exterminate, drive away, or subjugate a people because of their religion, race, or beliefs” for example “the persecutions of Christians by the Romans. ” So this is more of a force, and the people are not given the choice.
We saw in the past that Muslims were killed by the Christians during the crusades. This factor is more of a threat, people of certain religions could be offended in other countries, where people do not believe in the religion in which some would like to practice, and torture would come into play. So people are feared of this act. Instead they are pulled to countries that are more accepting of all types of religions, where equality is a factor.
Freedom to practice your own religion is very important to those who are religious, and even for people who are considered to be atheist, or do not follow a certain religious path or believes, immigration is a big choice for them, and it comes to a sense where people are now free to start over, and live the life which they wanted, but could not have because they were threatened. So as stated above in some cases immigration is a choice, but where it is a choice or a force, there are push and pull factors that go along with it, in this case political reasoning is the most effective to people’s choice.
And because of politics, people have felt threatened, and scared to stay in their own country, and they looked for a more clear path. We live to pursue our dreams, the future, and fortunately for most of us we have been taught to go after what we want, and that could mean escaping many obstacles and challenging ourselves to go from a place where our dreams and preferences were hopeless to a place where our dreams seem to shine bright.
Without push and pull factors we there would be no reason to escape one country to go live in another. Politics, types of government, war, genocide, are all push and pull factors and with out them people would not realize why they are immigrating, and if there were no push factors, people are most likely to stay in their homeland and stick with their own culture and beliefs, and have the life they always dreamed of.
Costs and benefits of migration
The world we are living is very dynamic and exhibits various types of movements for both plants and animals including humans. History insinuates that man practiced considerable movements from one place to another since its first existence. This movement from one locality to another is referred to as migration. Human migration can be classified as permanent or semi-permanent depending on their reasons which maybe voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary migration is generally practiced in search for a “greener pasture” and satisfaction of one’s preferences.
This includes employment, climate, food supply, self development like education, religion and family. Involuntary migration, on the other hand, includes migration due to calamity, political conditions like when in war or in exile, slave trades or human trafficking and ethnic cleansing. (Boyd 2003) Refugees can eventually be immigrants. Based from Human Migration Guide of the National Geographic Society, “A refugee is a person who is residing outside the country of his or her origin due to fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
” (2005) . The last quarter of 2005 registered an estimated 8. 4 million of refugees which is lowest since 1980 and still exhibiting a decreasing rate. The decreasing rate of refugee population may be attributed to the resilient solution like voluntary repatriation to their own country. (2005) This is similar to moving voluntarily of the back to their place of origin called return migration and to seasonal migration wherein the immigrants move or migrate only for a period of time for a certain purpose like farm workers.
In the figure below, studies showed that young adults comprised the most number of immigrants. This may be attributed to the extent of their activities and complex reasons like employment and self development. Majority of the groups involved in employment and self development are that of young adults. Consequently, this results to chain migration in which other family members or defined group join the immigrant. Source: http://www. soc. duke. edu/~pmorgan/lectures/migration/slide6. html Human migration can be further classified to other types.
Migration can be 1)internal which is within the country, state or continent or 2)international which crosses boundaries to other country, state or continent. With the development of technology and globalization, international migration continues to increase over the past decades. The figure below shows the growth of international immigrants over the four decades. In 1960, there were 76 million international migrants and increased to 191 million international migrants in 2006. It was noted that a relatively high migration rate is from 1985 to 1990.
However, the trend reveals that migration rate is still growing exhibiting the dynamic activities brought about by the complex way of life today. Source: United Nations World Migrant stock (2005) Notes: The UN Population Division retroactively updates figures of population change, births, and deaths. The net numbers of migrants by five year intervals, which are shown in the above table, are based on the 2004 Revision Population Data and are calculated as follows: Net number of migrants = 5*(Population change - Births + Deaths). Immigrants showed interest in moving to the places that will offer them good living conditions.
The United States topped in having the most number of immigrants between 1990 and 2005. Table 1 shows the top ten countries for net immigration. Table 1: Top ten countries for total immigration (2005) Country Net number of immigrants (millions) As percentage of total United States 38. 4 20. 2 Russian Federation 12. 1 6. 4 Germany 10. 1 5. 3 Ukraine 6. 8 3. 6 France 6. 5 3. 4 Saudi Arabia 6. 4 3. 3 Canada 6. 1 3. 2 India 5. 7 3. 0 UK 5. 4 2. 8 Spain 4. 8 2. 5 There are countries which have existing concrete immigration policies.
The United States, Canada and Australia are examples of traditional countries of immigration which categorize immigrants by place of birth allowing opportunity of comparing some aspects qualitatively and quantitatively. These countries together with Sweden and Israel, welcome immigrants with laws and measures facilitating a long term and permanent settlement though in case of Israel, they choose immigrants based on religion and culture. Socio-Political Costs and Benefits Human migration has taken a major participation in shaping and honing the present status of the population.
It allows the diffusion and combination of the structures, cultures, beliefs, ideas, principles, religion, and other traits which results to the modification of each others traits. (2005) Rejection of the integration, however, results to conflict that may cause decline of socio-cultural capital and values. The growing population and influx of immigrants faces debate regarding complex issues. In Europe, there is a growing concern on how the immigrants affect their culture and national identity which comes with common language, heritage and ethnicity.
(Cohen 2000) Further queries have been raised whether or not to absorb the immigrants and allow them to participate in their national activities or to allow them to become their citizen without the thorough knowledge of their culture and heritage. During elections, opposition to immigration is always an issue in some countries like Britain, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy and Sweden. (Cohen, 2000) Immigrants in some countries are subjects of distrusts and fear. Opposition to immigrants often claims that immigrants have something to do with crimes and unemployment, if not low-wage jobs.
Racial discrimination tends to set in which affects the acceptance of immigrants to the host country and if not properly addressed to by the government will give negative effect to both the immigrants and the host country. Consequently, immigration issues become the central topic for studies of different researchers and sociologists. There have been clamor that immigrants are linked with social crimes in the host countries. This was contradicted by some researchers who conducted related studies. Based on the studies in Little Village conducted by the Harvard sociologist Robert J.
Sampson, having high number of immigrants does not mean high number of crime. Though Little Village is poor, a relatively low incidence of violence is recorded. (Eval Press, 2006) This was further supported by other researchers though commented that the next generations or children of poor immigrants may not be as optimistic as their parents and may have a negative assumption that they will not be given fair chance of making a successful career and self development in the host country. Migrant workers, on the other hand, have to embrace the low wage, high-risk jobs.
In the host country, the corporations took advantage of the situation enabling them to lower the wages of the migrant workers. This is in effect resulted to the claim of the opposing party of migration that migrant workers cause the low wages that are prevailing. This coupled with the issue of competition between the migrant workers and the native workers. In July 1, 2003, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Family put into force the human right protection to migrant workers whether documented or undocumented and eliminate exploitations of immigrants.
(Addy, p. 22) This protects the migrant workers from the increasing occupational health hazards they are facing despite of low wages and gives them access to trainings that will further develop their skills. (Addy, p. 22) Different countries have their own immigration rules and laws relative to the standing of the country on certain issues. Population control, culture, tariff policies, health concerns, investment policies, agricultural policies are among others which mold the rules and laws of immigration.
Implementation of the rules and laws of immigration also considers the relationship with the country of origin of the immigrants. It is also noted the United Nations monitor and influences the countries in making their rules for the benefit of both parties as well as making their own study and recommendations. Though the immigrants and their families experience hard adjustments on each others absence, they are ease of the burden of poverty. The family members can now use the remittances for their needs such as foods, shelter, education, investments and even sophisticated telecommunication gadgets to make the migrant worker nearer.
The community as well as the government will be eased by the lowering of unemployment and the cash inflow diminishes poverty-related crimes. However, the government should address the increasing rate of “brain drain” as migration rate increases. The government should device a process to produce more professionals to augment the loss of the skilled and professional workers to migration. Economic costs and benefits Migration does not always coupled with growth unless it was given proper measures and economic restructuring (Appleyard: 1992; Hammar et al.
: 1997;Ghosh: 1998). The major reason for migration is considered to be for economic purposes. History showed evidences that the immigrants and their descendants play an important role in the economic growth of the host countries. Developed countries which welcome immigrants become richer and richer. In addition to the openness of the immigrants to all types of work, they can also work under cheap labor that the natives will reject. This allows the old businesses such as textiles and garments to still exist adding to the income of the host country.
Migration of skilled workers will further strengthen the skills and talents pool of the country. These enhance their productivity and economical gains. Simultaneous with the gain of brain and skills of the host country is the loss of the brain and skills of the country of origin which are oftentimes the poor countries or the developing countries. This may bring “brain drain” or loss of the trained, educated and skilled individuals which will inhibit the development of the native country or country of origin.
Dependence to foreign countries will be one of the consequences of this which will post negative effect on productivity and economy of the native country. Some researchers, however, regarded immigration to contribute to economic growth of the native country through the remittances that the immigrants send to their family. These remittances are the major source of foreign exchange in developing countries which alleviate the poverty line. According to the International Migration Data, global remittances to developing countries worldwide are estimated at $204 billion per year.
(International migration data) The countries who registered the highest remittances are Mexico, India, Philippines, Egypt and Morocco. ( International migration data) This enormous value made the home countries considered their emigrants to have the major role in improving its economy. It contributed to the fluidity of cash flow and development of business sectors. Realization of the major participation of emigrants’ remittances made the home government sets priority regarding the welfare of these workers.
Researches showed that these remittances tend to be invested to the home country for housing, consumption, land, loan payment and savings and to business which the home government targets. (Addy, p. 16) Their families are well supported in establishing their own business in the country and given other privileges. The increasing value of remittances and the business established are expected to balance the effect of “brain drain”, the source country is experiencing. Individual, community and macro points of view on migration At the personal level, the immigrant faces a quandary on culture and environment.
Furthermore, in the foreign land, he is also vulnerable to racial discrimination, exploitation and deportation. He is forced to embrace whatever is offered to him for a common good. Coping with these adaptations to host country’s norms and practices simultaneous with physically adapting to climate and health conditions requires a great level of energy and determination. Absence of the family members also adds to the burden the immigrant is experiencing. New technologies of communication help in this endeavor which makes it easier to gain emotional stability.
Both positive and negative effects do not limit to the individual alone. Whatever happens to the immigrant in the host country will definitely affect his family in the home country. Studies showed that the family is more affected when the migrant worker is a woman for basically she is the homemaker and takes care of the children. Nowadays, there is an increasing number of migrant women accounting for 48 per cent international migrants. Some effects radiates from the family to the community. The flow of income, for example can be manifested in the economics within the area.
This will be radiated further to the home country reducing the poverty. They also contribute to development through investments, business or entrepreneurial activities and the return of newly developed skills and knowledge. The community of the host country, on the other hand, may initially be skeptical of accepting the immigrant. On their point of view, the immigrants can change and influence their economy and other values. A community which does not allow immigrants may be giving up the values, education, perhaps specialization and other benefits brought by the immigrants.
What are the consequences of migration? The complexity of migration brings benefits and costs to both receiving (host) countries and the sending country (place of origin), and the immigrants and the natives. Every country or state deals immigration as a sensitive matter and observe certain laws and measures on immigration to provide more benefits to the majority. Integration of cultures, beliefs, skills, education and values are most likely to happen which is the gauge for the acceptance of the migrants.
Migration produces both positive and negative effects for both the host country and home country and the immigrant and the natives. It is however aimed to be beneficial to the majority by implementing proper rules and laws regarding migration. Migration may weaken the home country of the migrants due to “brain drain” however, migration also alleviates the poverty during the period of their remittances. Unemployment will also decrease which will eventually diminish also the poverty related crimes. Successful emigrants invite and encourage others to join them.
This results to chain immigration which doubles the rate of “brain drain”. This calls for the government to take a double time to produce skilled and professionals to compensate the loss due to emigration. Host countries enjoy cheap labor and high productivity because of migrant workers. They are able to fill up the jobs rejected by the natives for a lower wage. This, in effect, further boosts their economy as they enhance their pool of skills and talents. In some developed countries, immigrants undergo strict screening for security and health reasons.
Closing the doors for immigrants may sometimes result to illegal options which may not be a positive factor to both the host country and the immigrants. Developed countries with immigration policies tend to win the good relationship with the source countries and serves as a key to further trades. Hence, migrants can be considered as agents for development who strengthens the cooperation between the host and home countries. Is migration overall beneficial? After thorough analysis, migration can be assessed to give all around beneficial effects both to the host and home countries.
This was further supported by a newly-released United Nations study which finds that international migration benefits not only the migrants and their family but also the host and home countries. This was disclosed by U. N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his speech to the 16th General Assembly, 88th meeting. He further commented that the study showed that some source countries like Malaysia and Thailand exhibits a significant economic growth making them attractive to the present migrants. In this era of globalization, migration will face new challenges and objectives.
The benefits that the host countries and the home countries gain will optimistically double as the modern technology supports. Proper management of migration programs will alleviate problems of the increasing immigrant population which will add to the productivity and economic growth of the host countries. Productive migrants sending remittances to the home countries accelerate poverty reduction and consequently gaining economic stability. REFERENCES: Addy, David, Wijkstrom, Boris and Thouez, Colleen. Migrant Remittances – Country of Origin Experience. International Migration Policy Programme.
London. October 10 2003 Appleyard, R. T. : 1992, International Migration and Development: An Unresolved Relationship, in: International Migration, vol. 30, no. 3-4, pp. 251-266. Boyd, M. a. G. , Elizabeth. . (2003). "Women and Migration: Incorporating Gender into International Migration Theory " March 1 2003. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from http://www. migrationinformation. org/Feature/display. cfm? id=106 Cohen, R. (2000). "Papers Please; Europe's Love-Hate Affair With Foreigners" New York Times. New York. Rozeff, M. S. (2005). "Communities, Immigration, and Decentralization. " Retrieved March 3, 2007, from http://www. lewrockwell. com/rozeff/rozeff51. html.
Irish Immigration Essay
Running head: IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850’S 1 Irish Immigration in 1850’s Dorothy Mathews Eth/125 March 7, 2010 Henry Williams IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850’S 2 Irish Immigration in 1850’s The line of ancestry that I came from is the Irish and English and Dutch. I am not certain about the dates, but I am pretty sure that they emigrated around the years 1850 to 1870. The Irish left the island of Ireland because of the potato famine that overtook their country.
Even though undefined, Irish emigrants faced persecution from other foreigners because they were under educated and some were Irish Catholics, and also from little knowledge of what industrialization was. The greatest number of emigrants was from around 1850 through the late 1870’s. The Irish had learned to farm potatoes, because of the productivity and market prices. Towards the end of 1845 the potato crops caught a fungus which destroyed the crops in the ground and also in the storage bins. This turned them into a blackened putrid mass. (Immigration and Immigrants, 2000). By the year 1846 the entire crop was destroyed.
In the interim, more than a million people died from famine and poverty. This began the greatest influx of emigrants from Ireland. After reaching the United States by sea, the Irish stayed mostly in a city environment because the majority of them knew nothing but farming and the land. They did not have the finances or the ease of buying land to farm. They stayed in the cities and most of them ended up living in the slums with some Chinese and African Americans. They could not get jobs because of their education and because they knew nothing of factories and actually living in cities.
Most were used to living on farms and farming the land. IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850’S 3 Most of the Irish immigrants faced many prejudices and segregation. The nativists and the other immigrants were afraid of them because of their religion and beliefs. They were forced to live in slums and in poverty because they could not find jobs. The only work they could find was in servitude and menial labor jobs. They were under educated and poor. The Irish were thought to be stupid and ignorant, so they stayed to themselves.
The Irish emigrants entered a land with new social and cultural differences. At this time the African Americans and Asian Americans were involved in disputes, along with the European Americans. Add to this the disruptions between the Catholics and Protestants and there was not much peace in the neighborhoods. During this time, they developed political partisanships which brought into line a group called the Know Nothing Party and later the American Protective Association (APA). Neither of these parties lasted for long, but the Irish were later associated with the new Democratic Party.
Also during this time, Irish immigrant soldiers played a big part in the Civil War during the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg (Immigration and Immigrants, 2000). Irish Americans also were involved in disturbances against the Chinese on the west coast which eventually led to Chinese American banishment from America. During this time when the Irish immigrated to America, they suffered from many discriminations, including segregation, racism, and redlining. They were stopped from buying properties, because no one wanted to sell to them.
They did not want them in their neighborhoods, or shopping where they shop. They were thought to be ignorant, and beneath the mainstream of people and only good for menial positions. IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850’S 4 By the end of the 19th century, because of all the negativity that they had experienced by coming to America, the Irish had solidified their communities and turned back to the Church. The catholic churches in Boston, Massachusetts grew and were able to build and renovate many churches.
The Irish families had learned new jobs, and between all the members of these families, they contributed to the growth of the Church in many cities. Soon the Irish American Catholics were associated with the Democratic party. In the 1880’s and the 1890’s, the Irish Americans elected quite a few officials to different positions. Although the Irish Americans were undefined when they arrived in the United States, they assimilated into the country and eventually grew into strong and eager Americans. Most of them came from poor families, but with strong visions and many strong backs, and resolution, they formed strong bonds and strong communities.
They leave a long legacy of pride and ambition. Somewhere along the line they married into other groups and other races, and from these came good Americans. I am proud to be among them. In answer to your final question: I identify more with the mainstream American culture, but I celebrate St. Patrick’s Day and wear the green. I have never been to Ireland, but that is one of my fondest wishes. I am proud to be associated with the Irish in America. In my ancestry, somewhere down the line they married with someone of English descent and also someone of Dutch/German descent.
This Emigration was 150 years ago, so the lineage has been mixed with a variety of races, since then. IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850’S 5 References Immigration and Immigrants. (2000). In Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com/entry/galeus/immigration_and_ immigrants. Voters and Voting. (2000). In Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com/entry/galeus/voters_and_voting.
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