CHAPTER I BACKGROUND Indonesia is a country which has a strong philosophy to control the whole system of the country. In its preamble, the 1945 constitution sets forth the Pancasila as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state. These five principles were announced by Sukarno in a speech known as "The Birth of the Pancasila," which he gave to the Independence Preparatory Committee on June 1, 1945. In brief, and in the order given in the constitution, the Pancasila principles are: belief in one supreme God; humanitarianism; nationalism expressed in the unity of Indonesia; consultative democracy; and social justice.
Sukarno's statement of the Pancasila, while simple in form, resulted from a complex and sophisticated appreciation of the ideological needs of the new nation. The details about each principles: 1. Belief in the one and only God The symbol of this principle is star. This principle tells us about belief in God. It shows that the Indonesian people believe in life after death. It emphasizes that the pursuit of sacred values will lead the people to a better life in the hereafter. The principle is embodied in the 1945 Constitution and reads: "The state shall be based on the belief in the one and only God".
It is represented by the star in the centre of the shield of the Garuda Pancasila. 2. Just and civilized humanity The symbol of this principle is chain. This principle requires that human beings be treated with due regard to their dignity as God’s creatures. It emphasizes that the Indonesian people do not tolerate physical or spiritual oppression of human beings by their own people or by any other nation. The chain at the lower right of the shield symbolizes successive generations of humanity. 3. The unity of Indonesia
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The symbol of this principle is banyan tree. This principle talks about the concept of nationalism, of love for one’s nation and motherland. Pancasila nationalism demands that Indonesians avoid feelings of superiority on the grounds of ethnicity, for reasons of ancestry and skin color. In his 1 June 1945 speech, Sukarno quoted Gandhi: I am a nationalist, but my nationalism is humanity. The Indonesian coat of arms enshrines the symbol of "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" which means "unity in diversity". This is represented on the shield by the banyan tree at top right. 4.
Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives The symbol of this principle is the buffalo’s head. Pancasila democracy calls for decision-making through deliberations to reach a consensus. It implies that voting is not encouraged as long as deliberation is possible. It is democracy that lives up to the principles of Pancasila. The head of the wild bull at top left stands for this principle. 5. Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia The symbol of this principle is the rice and cotton.
This principle calls for the equitable spread of welfare to the entire population, not in a static but in a dynamic and progressive way. This means that all of the country’s natural resources and the national potentials should be utilized for the greatest possible good and happiness of the people. Social justice implies protection of the weak. But protection should not deny them work. On the contrary, they should work according to their abilities and fields of activity. Protection should prevent wilful treatment by the strong and ensure the rule of justice.
This is symbolized by the paddy and cotton ears on the shield. Those principle are the base of Indonesia. All the constitution, rule, regulation, law, and system in this country must follow those principles. All activities related with Indonesia cannot be contrarily with its state philosophy. This state philosophy also can help the government to solve some problems in the country. That is why Pancasila is made and conclude all aspects that are needed in country’s life. CHAPTER II VIOLATION OF PANCASILA 2. 1 The Issue
Religious violence is not talking about good violence or the type of violence which is allowed by the religion. It talks about the violence action that bring such name of religion to attack other belief or religion. The head of Setara Institute for Democracy and Peace, Hendardi stated that within the last three years, the violence that bring the name of religion happened frequently, even more frequent than before. From the beginning of 2010, 27th of April, thousands of people attacked “Yayasan Badan Pendidikan Kristen” (BPK) complex at Cisarua, Bogor. Not less than six buildings was burnt.
Then, on 1st of October, a thousand people invaded Ahmadiyah area at Cisalada, Ciampea, Bogor and broke six buildings. On 12th of September in the same year, Christian community of HKBP Pondok Timur Indah Church was attacked when they were going to do the service. A preacher was also being stabbed by the attacker. The violence was not ended at 2010, entering 2011, on 6th of February, a thousand of people attacked Ahmadiyah Cikeusik, Pandeglang. Three Ahmadiyah people was died in this incident. Two days after that there were some people broke and burnt three churches and one Catholic school at Temanggung, Central Java.
Those violence causes death of some people and a big losses for some parties. That religious violence is easily published by the media. Even in one media, there is one Indonesian who live in Cairo, Egypt, state his cynical thought, “That is Indonesia which is never reach maturity stage. Other countries are trying to get out from the cage of primordialism but we still stay the same. ” It shows that religious violence in Indonesia is also heard by other countries or even by the whole world. One case that recently happened is the case on Temanggung, Central Java.
That chaos happened after the judge verdicts 5-year punishment in jail to Antonius Richmon Bawengan who is judged as a person who insult other religion. Right after the decision of the judge come out, the mass on the court altogether destroy the buildings (three churches and one Catholic school), break the glass and other facilities there. Those violence has caused great chaotic in Temanggung. Some roads must be closed due to the barbaric action of the mass. It also causes great loss to some parties. The reason for that religious violence is mass’ disappointment because of the judge decision.
They think the punishment is too small for the person who insults religion. Actually, there is another happening before that religious violence happens. On 3rd of October 2010, Antonius Richmon stayed at his relative’s house in Kenalan village, Temanggung, Central Java. On that day, Antonius spread some books, that contain some statement that were considered as humiliation for the Moslem, to the Moslem mass around him. That is why the mass in that village were disturbed by his action and decided to arrest him since 26th of October 2010.
The oddity in this case is most of the mass that was doing the violence were coming from outside Temanggung. The secretary of “Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama” (The Harmony of Religion), Djundardo, said “Most of the mass that do the violence was coming from outside Temanggung because, basicaly, Temanggung has good harmony in inter-religion interactions. ” 2. 2 Analysis based on principles of Pancasila This case has violated several principle of Pancasila which must be our base in everything people do in this country. For the most, it totally violates the first principle “Belief in the one and only God”.
This principle does not mean that all of Indonesian must have one religion. Indonesia acknowledges five religions before and six religions for now. It means that this principle encourage the entire citizen to respect other religion and belief. It says one and only God to emphasize that we have one goal, one destination, and one same point at the last so the one that makes each religion different is the way to reach that goals. The former of Pancasila already thought about it carefully. They just wanted all citizens can have good harmony just like a big family, even though there is diverse religion and belief in it.
Unfortunately, the fact, nowadays, is really contrast with the Pancasila’s former expectation. If we see the “religious violence”, it shows that there is lack of respect to other religion. They tend to defend their own religion by violence. They think that their religion is the best and because of that they lose the harmony of inter-religion relationship which is expected by the former from the first principle. The people who do violence forget about the first principle that said about the one and only God which means unity in one God.
The principle means the last destination of each religion is one and only God who loves all people who believe on Him, so people do not have any right to judge which religion is the best among others. Besides that, none of the religion that tells people to solve problems with violence actions. If there is some people who do violence action and bring the name of religion, it means those people are not respect their own religion and God. That is why, this violence which attack other religion has considered as violation the first principle of Pancasila.
Besides that, religious violence also violates second principle of Pancasila “Just and civilized humanity” because it harm so many people’s life. Civilized humanity describes the society that can treat the people who live there fairly, are polite and behave in a calm and reasonable way. The violence is a contrast action of civilized humanity. It shows that the mass, that kill other people, break others’ properties, and even obstruct others’ religion, imply impoliteness and barbarian behavior. It totally do not implement the second principle of Pancasila.
Those actions also violate the third principle of Pancasila “The unity of Indonesia” because those actions can trigger any disunity among the citizen of Indonesia. Basically, unity never means all people must in the same thought, same condition, or same choice. Unity can be reached when we can respect others thought, condition and choice to reach one goal; also when we can harmonize that diversity and, the most important, has the sense of belonging to all of the member. In this religious violence, we cannot see the sense of belonging of those people or even their effort to respect others’ belief.
They try to attack others because they think that religion is not appropriate to exist and be believed there. At the last, religious violence can be counted as violation of the fifth principle “Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia”. It violates this principle due to the closing of some churches which is unfair for the Christians who live kindly and nicely to the society. In this principle, the former said “for the whole of people of Indonesia” not for several people which means there must be no discrimination to get social justice.
People should not judge a religion based on one-man action which does not describe the characteristic the whole of people who taking up that religion. 2. 3 Solutions Government need to remember and understand deeply about our Constitution. We must realize that we are in the democratic country, not an authoritative one. It means that we must respect others’ thought and belief; we cannot force others to have the same thought and belief with us. If we can realize it, hopefully, our country can be calmer and has harmonious inter-religion life. Government also needs to be strict in law to cope this issue.
It is not only in law but also in its implementation. If someone harms others’ life, especially with harassment, it must be considered as a crime and he/ she must be arrested based on the law. Government need to repair their mind to do their work to serve the whole citizen wholehearted and fairly. Besides all of that, we also can start to resolve the issue by ourselves. We must learn to respect others’ belief and not judge a society by one-man action only. We must try to open our mind to the diversity around us and share our knowledge to the people who still lack of this awareness.
We also need to socialize with all people in our society, not only people who have same belief or interest with us. CHAPTER III CONCLUSION Indonesia is a country which established with a strong state philosophy which is called Pancasila. Pancasila consists of five basic principles which already covers all aspects in country’s life. The principles include the belief, humanity, unity, democracy, and justice. Those principles are called as state philosophy because those five principles are the fundamental principle to run the country. It means every single thing which is done in and for the country must agree with Pancasila.
On the other hand, if we see the reality nowadays, there is some violation in regards of Pancasila. One kind of the violation is religious violence, which means some violence action which brings a name of religion. This issue becomes more frequent lately. The last case is in Temanggung where there are three churches and a Catholic school were destroyed by the mass which bring the name of Islam. That violence had caused chaotic and terrified situation in Temanggung because the mass was looked so brutal. This case has totally broke the first principle of Pancasila which said belief in one and only God.
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