Microeconomics (from Greek prefix micro- meaning "small" and economics) is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and small impacting players in making decisions on the allocation of limited resources (see scarcity). [l] Typically, it applies to markets where goods or services are bought and sold. Microeconomics examines how these decisions and behaviors affect the supply and demand for goods and services, which determines prices, and how prices, in turn, determine the quantity supplied and quantity demanded of goods and services. 2] This is in contrast to macroeconomics, which involves the "sum total of economic activity, dealing with the issues of growth, inflation, and unemployment. " Microeconomics also deals with the effects of national economic policies (such as changing taxation levels) on the aforementioned aspects of the economy.  Particularly in the wake of the Lucas critique, much of modern macroeconomic theory has been built upon 'mispronunciations'?I. . Based upon basic assumptions about micro-level behavior. One of the goals of microeconomics is to analyze market mechanisms that establish elating prices amongst goods and services and allocation of limited resources amongst many alternative uses. Microeconomics analyzes market failure, where markets fail to produce efficient results, and describes the theoretical conditions needed for perfect competition.
Significant fields of study in microeconomics include general equilibrium, markets under asymmetric information, choice under uncertainty and economic applications of game theory. Also considered is the elasticity of products within the market system. The fundamentals of Microeconomics sees in the analysis of the preference relations. Preference relations are defined simply to be a set of different choices that an actor can choose (a k-cell metric space) that actors can also compare between any two bundles of choices ( completeness of the relationship. In order to analyze the problem further, the assumption of transitivity is added to the mix. These two assumptions of completeness and transitivity that is imposed upon the preference relations are what is termed rationality. Microeconomic analysis are conducted mainly through imposition of additional constraints on the preference relations or even relaxation of the above stated assumptions (most often transitivity) although such relaxation makes the problem much harder to analyze.
The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). The graph depicts a right-shift in demand from Del to DO along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new market-clearing equilibrium point on the supply curve (S). The theory of supply and demand usually assumes that markets are perfectly competitive.
Order custom essay Microeconomics Essay with free plagiarism report
This implies that there are many buyers and sellers in the market and Microeconomics By Jumbo In many real-life transactions, the assumption fails because some individual buyers or sellers have the ability to influence prices. Quite often, a sophisticated analysis is required to understand the demand-supply equation of a good model. However, the theory works well in situations meeting these assumptions. Mainstream economics does not assume a priori that markets are preferable to other arms of social organization.
In fact, much analysis is devoted to cases where so- called market failures lead to resource allocation that is suboptimal by some standard (defense spending is the classic example, profitable to all for use but not directly profitable for anyone to finance). In such cases, economists may attempt to find policies that avoid waste, either directly by government control, indirectly by regulation that induces market participants to act in a manner consistent with optimal welfare, or by creating "missing markets" to enable efficient trading where one had previously existed.
This is studied in the field of collective action and public choice theory. "Optimal welfare" usually takes on a Pertain norm, which in its mathematical application of Calder-Hicks method. This can diverge from the Utilitarian goal of maximizing utility because it does not consider the distribution of goods between people. Market failure in positive economics (microeconomics) is limited in implications without mixing the belief of the economist and their theory. The demand for various commodities by individuals is generally thought of as the outcome of a utility
Did you know that we have over 70,000 essays on 3,000 topics in our database?