Management of People at Work
Social Inventions of groups of people working to achieve their goals 2.Goal Accomplishment- Individual assembled to achieve goals that cannot be done by one man alone 3.Group Effort– By combining as a team, they can thus work efficiently to achieve goals What is Organizational Behavior? Attitudes and behaviors of individual and group in organizations.
Involves systematic study of these attitudes and behaviors, and should be of interest to all students of management Why study ABHOR? 1. It is interesting 2. It Is Important as It helps us be more efficient .
Makes a difference because good companies are the one practicing It ABHOR goals 1. Predicting People’s Behavior – Predicting what people wants to do in work life 2. Explaining Behavior- Explain why people work in different way 3. Managing it- The art of getting things accomplished via others. If It can be predicted, It can be managed Early Prescription 2 phases to pursue correct way to manage organization 1. Sass, managers believe high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, centralized decision making to solve issue (Classical View- Authoritative) 2.
Hawthorne Studies ?Human relations movement was critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs (Participative) Contingency Approach This approach recognize there Is no best method depends on situation- No best method What Managers do? 1. Managerial Roles vary with management level and organizational technology 2. Interpersonal Roles- Roles that are used to establish and maintain interpersonal relations. Figurehead roles and spokesperson roles 3. Decisional Roles- Makes decision and the negotiator role
Managerial Activities 1. Routine communications (Exchange Info, handle paperwork with people) 2. Traditional Management (Planning, Decision Making) 3. Networking (Socializing, politicking) 4. Human Resource Management (Managing Conflict, Staffing, training and development) One of the most fascinating findings is how emphasis on these various activities relates to management success. People who promote faster tends to do more networking and less human resource management. However, if success is successful managers are those who devote more time and effort to human resource management and less networking.
Managerial Agendas Successful Managers has similar patterns via – Agenda Setting, Networking and Agenda 1 . Agenda Setting- Managers tend to develop agendas of what they want to accomplish for organization. Usually Informal unwritten, more concerned with ‘people issues’ and less numerical than most formal strategic plans 2. Networking- Managers established wide formal and informal network of key people inside and outside of organization to ensure cooperation inside and outside. 3. Agenda implementation- Managers use networks to implement agendas. They will go anywhere to obtain assistance. Managerial Minds
Intuition- Problem identification and solve issues in a systematic manner International Managers- National Culture is one of the most important contingency variables with more ideas Contemporary Management Concerns 1. Diversity Local and Global-With more diversity, people need to be treated fairly and equally so that issues can be solved 2. Employee- Organization Relationship – Downsizing, Restructuring engineering have been having lots of consequences of employees, lower Job satisfaction, lower morale, trust ETC. ABHOR states its important that managers can manage these issues positively 3. Focus on quality, Speed and
Flexibility – Increasing competition states Organizations have to do things faster because there is a greater need for quality, speed and flexibility to maintain standard 4. Employee Recruitment and Retention- Organizations find it difficult to sustain skilled employees in their workforce. Lack of skilled labor is a big issue for organizations and its expected to get worse as baby boomers begin to retire. Recruitment process then has to be more effective to find these employees Personality and Learning Personality – Stable set of psychological characteristic that influence the way individual interact with his or her environment.
It is reflected in the way people react to other people, situations and problems. Personality and Organization behavior Individuals possess stable traits or characteristic. Interactions approach, ABHOR is a function of dispositions and situation. 5 Factor model of Personality Extroversion/Neurotics/Agreeableness/Conscientiousness/Openness to Experience Evidence state that big 5 is related to Job performance. High conscientiousness is related to performance for all occupations and the best predictor of performance of all big 5. It is also related to motivation, Job satisfaction and career success Locus of
Control- Beliefs that one’s behavior is controlled by external force or internal Self Monitoring- Attitude of being aware of surrounding or not -High self monitors tend to be more involved in Jobs and to perform at a higher level. These Jobs usually includes sales, law, public relations and politics Self Esteem by surroundings. Higher Self Esteem tend to view world more optimistically. Proactive Personality- Positive affectively tends to report world as having less stress Greater Self-Efficacy – Trait that refers to individual belief that in his own capability to do well regardless of situation.
They tend to have higher Job satisfaction, higher Job performance. Core Self Evaluation- Self Esteem/Self-Efficacy/Locus of control/ neurotics What is Learning? When practice or experience leads to a permanent change in behavior. We assume that learning has occurred when individual behavior change. 4 types- Practical/ Interpersonal/elementariness/Cultural Awareness 4 types -Job Specific Skills/ Knowledge/ Technical Competence Operant Learning Theory- Subjects learns to operate on environment to achieve certain consequences. Operant Leaning can be used to increase or reduce probability of behavior Increasing the Probability of Behavior
Promoting behavior is reinforcement?By which Stimuli strengthen behaviors. 2 Behaviors are – Positive reinforcement/Negative reinforcement Positive Reinforcement- Increase or maintain probability of some behavior, this sends to be pleasant stimuli Negative Reinforcement- Increase or maintains probability of some behavior by removing them in the situation. Tends to be unpleasant experience Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement 1. Confusing Rewards with Reinforces – Stating why rewards are given clearly 2. Neglecting Diversity in Preference for Reinforces -Provide the right benefits-
Workaholic may not like holidays 3. Neglecting Important sources of reinforcement – Feedback is good to let people know how well or bad they have done 4. Reinforcement strategies Reducing Probability of Behavior 1. Extinction- Limiting bad attitudes e. G- shorter breaks etc 2. Punishments – Provide punishment deduct pay etc 3. Using punishments effectively?Make sure punishment is truly aversive/punish immediately/do not reward behaviors before/after punishments 4. Do not punish desirable behavior Punishments can be effective to stop unwanted behavior and hence extinguish unwanted response.
Reinforcing good behaviors is better than punishing bad behaviors Social Cognitive Theory Human behavior can be best explained through system of triadic reciprocal . Albert Bandeau social cognitive theory involves 3 parts 1. Modeling – Copying others behavior, some can learn by copying others 2. Self-Efficacy- beliefs people have on their ability to successfully perform the task. 3. Self-regulation- Regulating oneself 1. Organizational behavior modification – Systematic use of learning principles – Can use all 3, money positive feedback to improve returns 2. Employee Recognition
Program – Publicly recognize employees- how to recognize, type of behavior encouraged, manner of public acknowledgement, token of recognition 3. Training program – Positive effect on learning, skills and Job behaviors help to set goals when rewards sanctions used in trainees work environment 4. Career Development – Individual progress through a series of stages which involves certain plans and management component. Perception- Interpreting messages of our sense to provide order and meaning of environment. Most important perception that influence organizational behavior are the perceptions of each other Components of
Perception 1. Perceiver – Experience/motives/emotions can affect perception 2. Target – Ambiguity or lack of target leads of greater need of interpretation of information 3. Situation 1. Social Identity Theory?People form perceptions of themselves based on characteristics based on gender, religion, nationality, religion etc. 2. Model of the Perceptual Process – Initially less cues of information from the target but as time passes, it becomes clearer and easier to decipher messages 3. Basic Biases in Person A. Primary Regency Effect – Form impressions of others fairly quickly. We tend to read a lot into first impressions.
B. Reliance on Central Traits- We read into others behavior based on their initial impressions C. Implicit Personality Theories- We organize our perceptions of others around the presence of certain traits or personal characteristics of others that are particular interest to us D. Projection?If we are always honest, people tend to believe we are honest E. Stereotype- Putting players into a certain category to Judge their behavior (Page 13) 1. Consistency Cues- How consistent to his goals 2. Consensus Cues- How his actions deviate from social expectations tell us more about his behavior 3. Distinctiveness Cues- How