The practitioner as a bureaucrat (control of labor) due to the increase growth and change of workplace activity such as: Job allocation and performance monitoring; time keeping and control of absenteeism; sick leave and holidays; pay and benefits; training and promotion; rules and regulations; procedures and forms. Part of Tarmac dream vision is to achieve the exceptional to deliver value to all its stakeholders and key element of that plan is to engage their employees to use their energy and skills to improve the business.
The professional tradition: arose as a need for a specialized body of knowledge in the areas of law, economics, administration and social sciences and the professionalism of the work involved. Within Tarmac HER Management the level of skills of specialist employees have become a central role to Tarmac growth and as a result recruiting internal and external roles have become part of the process that enable the organization to meet its employee's objectives. According to
Fisher et al Human Resource Management involves all management decisions and practices that directly affect or influence the people or human resource, who work for the organization. HARM is a series of activities which include; four key policy goals that and Practices must reflect in the management of people and it systems such as investment in high quality employees. High commitment and flexibility is associated with management practices such as demodulating, empowerment, involvement and the creation of strong cultural values with a Unitarian approach to employee relations.
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The diagram below illustrates the comparisons between the two contexts. Old assumptions ( Personnel Management) New assumptions (HARM) Reactive, piecemeal, interventions in response to specific problems Proactive, system- wide interventions, with emphasis on fit, linking HARM with strategic planning and cultural change People are a variable cost People are social capital, capable of development Self-interest dominates, conflict between stakeholders (pluralist perspective) Co- incidence of interest between stakeholders can be developed (unitary perspective) Seeks power advantages for bargaining and confrontation
Seeks power equalization for trust and collaboration Control of information flow to enhance efficiency, power Open channels of communication to build trust, commitment Relationship orientation Goal orientation Control from the top Participation and informed choice 1. 2 assess the functions of the human resource management in contributing to organizational purposes According to the case study, Tarmac Human Resource Management is a strategic process that involved planning for the future with the right skills and knowledge that enables the business to meet its objectives and compete more effectively.
In order for the HARM function to be effective there must be good teamwork, and co-operation and consultation between line managers and HER Manager. Top management should agree on clear terms of reference within a framework of personnel policies. Therefore the effective management of people involved a partnership between managers and HER Specialists, and as a result the HARM Function can be seen as operating at two levels: the organizational level and the departmental level.
The organizational level: The HER manager would be concerned mainly with aspects of procedures that affect he organizational activities such as human resource planning, procedures for recruitment and selection, induction and training, consultation with trade unions or staff representatives, employee development, compliance with the law relating to employment, maintaining records and statistics and liaison with outside bodies such as ACS,employers organization, government agencies, the criminal records bureau, training organization and professional associations.
Departmental level: Line managers would be more concerned with the operational aspects of HER activities within their own departments such as organization of work and allocation of raining, communication of information and grievances from staff. In order to assess the functions of HARM the four CSS model was developed by researchers as a means to investigate the effectiveness of HARM. Commitment - Employees' identification with the organization loyalty and personal motivation in their work. Competence - Employees' skills and abilities, training needs and potential for performance improvement and career development.
Congruence - harmonistic of the goals, values and efforts of management and employees. Cost-effectiveness - efficiency where HARM objectives are met and benefits obtained at the lowest input cost. The models mention above can be evaluated or measured using the following criteria: Performance based criteria - profitability, productivity, error reduction, compliance are easily measured and compared. Effective personnel management - long term measurably impact on improved business performance. Subjective criteria - quality of working life, employee motivation, team spirit,openness to change, Job satisfaction, quality of employee relations.
The diagram below illustrates the function of HARM and its environmental influences. (De Cozen et al 1994) HARM Functions and environmental influences. Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management The roles/responsibilities of line managers in human resource practices Laurie Mulling pointed out that line managers have both the right and duty to be concerned with the effective operation of their own department, including the management and well- being of their staff.
According to Allege (1989) an effective HARM for line managers is to create competitive advantage in implementing HER policies in showing leadership by involving staff and responding to their suggestions, and in controlling quality, impinging and absence makes a real difference to implementations.
Line managers responsible for activities such as: Selection of department/team members: such as Interviewing and selection Discipline and grievance handling - informal conflict resolution,counseling,initial stages of disciplinary action such as complaints investigation, interviews Absent management - monitoring time keeping and absenteeism, record keeping Performance management - agreeing performance criteria and targets, monitoring performance and giving feedback, identifying learning needs and opportunities, instructing coaching, counseling and mentoring, employee appraisal reporting and interviewing, motivation.
Employee relations - immediate employee communication both upward and downward, managing team participation and involvement, reinforcing cultural values through management styles. 1. 4 analyses the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on human resource management. At Tarmac human resource needs are constantly changing with distinctive product portfolio which means it needs to have a more diverse workforce to support its operations. The operational structure of Tarmac is divided into areas Tarmac I-J and Tarmac International; therefore the legislative framework ill play a major part in Tarmac hardcore HER management policies.
These include: SEX Discrimination Act 1995/97(amended in 1996) - The Act covers on the ground of sex, marital status, maternity or pregnancy. There are three types of discrimination Direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, factorization. There may be permissible international operations where legal restrictions particularly Jobs likely to involve work outside the I-J, where laws or custom(United Arab Emirates) are such that the duties could not effectively performed by a woman.
Race Relations Act 1992 - Amended (1996 and 2000) outlaws certain types of coordination on the grounds of color, race, nationality, or ethnic or national origin. The equal opportunities commission and commission for racial equality have powers to investigate alleged breach of the Acts. Serve a non-discrimination notice on employers found guilty of contraventions Follow-up the investigation until satisfied Equal Pay Act 1970 - The equal pay act 1970 was the first major attempt to tackle sexual discrimination of employment between men and women.
Sexual harassment (code of conduct) compliance with EX. code of conduct is only voluntary and there is no specific law against sexual harassment in Europe. Work and Families Act 2006 - provide parental rights, Maternity leave, Requirements to notify intention Parental leave, Right to return under the Employment Act 2002 Employment equality regulations Act 2003 - The act came into force on 2 December 2003 outlawing discrimination on the basis of: Religious belief Sexual orientation Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005 - The disability discrimination act 1995 came into force in December 1996.
The act contains provisions for disabled access to services, transport facilities and education and training opportunities. The disability eight commission was established to ensure that employers and disabled people are informed of their respective rights and duties. Data Protection Act 1984 and 1998 - First piece of legislation to come into force that addressed fear that information about individuals stored on computer files and processed could be misused, inaccurate or misleading.
National Minimum Wage Act 1998
The Act was introduced 1999 covering all I-J Regions and all sectors of the economy. Agriculture remains outside the scope of the legislation. The economic, social and regional impact of NNW includes: Women and part-time workers benefit from the NNW Labor costs increase Reducing in wage inequality (equalization of pay) Increase prices and the degree of competition in the markets in which it operate.
LO 2 understand how to recruit employees At Tarmac like most other businesses human resources needs are constantly changing and as a result workforce planning involves a continual review of human assets and the business organizational structure. Most of Tarmac employee have been a man in a hat which depends heavily on high skill workers in a variety of settings including; sales, customer service and marketing and as well as IT, finance and procurement. A successful planning leads to better chance of success, it also helps organizations cope with changes and it requires managers to define the organization's objectives.
CUPID definition of HARP as a systematic and continuing process of analyzing an organization's human resource needs under changing conditions and developing personnel policies appropriate to the longer-term budgeting procedures since human resource costs and forecasts both affect and are affected by longer-term corporate plans. Organization wishing to maximize its human resources planning must focus on three areas of primary concern to management: Needs forecasting: Improved planning and control over staffing and organizational requirements.
Performance Management: Improving the performance of individuals, teams and the organization as a whole.
Career Management: Activities to select, assign, develop and otherwise manage individual careers in an organization.
Outline HARP purposes Armstrong (2003) To attract and retain the number of people required with the skills, expertise and competencies required To anticipate potential surpluses or shortfalls this will need to be adjusted.
To develop a well-trained and flexible workforce this will support organizational adaptation to external to external changes and demands. To reduce dependence on external recruitment to meet key skills shortages (by formulating retention and development strategies). To improve the utilization of people (most notably by developing flexible working systems). 2. 2 outline the stages involved in planning human resource requirements There are three stages to human resource planning process: Stage 1 : assessing what demand the organization will have foe people and skills as its business plans are auctioned.
Stage 2: forecasting based on analysis of internal and external trends and conditions. Stage 3: assessing the gap between demand and supply to forecast the extent to which additional skills and knowledge will have to be acquired. 2. 3 compare the recruitment and selection process in two organizations (Tarmac) The starting point of the workforce planning process is to identify employment needs for the future and the processes include attraction, recruitment and selection. Tarmac need to manage these processes effectively in order to ensure it gets high quality candidates for the posts.
Recruitment is a costly process and so it uses a structured approach to ensure that the right candidate is selected. The difference between recruitment and selection is that recruitment is about attracting suitable candidates whereas selection is the process of filtering the applicant pool to find the find the best candidates. The diagram below illustrates the recruitment and selection process of Tarmac in comparison to SAD. TARMAC recruitment Identification of recruitment needs Set Job description and person specification Advertisements - trade Journals such as construction weekly or personnel today
Short-list based on application received Selection tools used for graduates include: Competence questions, group exercise, delivery presentation, psychometric testing and interview. SAD Recruitment Sad promotes career opportunities on its dedicated careers website such as Linked, Reemploy, to access the widest range of potential recruits when advertising job vacancies. Applications are registered through Sad's online recruitment system, Sad's HER team then shortlist appropriate candidates for interview or an assessment Centre.
Two documents are vital here: a Job description and a personal specification. These inform applicants and help managers select the candidates that best match the requirements for the position. Part of the attraction comes from offering competitive salaries and benefits such as its Shares scheme and colleague discounts. Selection The assessment Centre known as either 'Sad Reality or 'Sad Magic' provides an opportunity for candidates to demonstrate their strengths which align to Sad's culture, beliefs and way of working. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in two organizations To evaluate the process of recruitment and selection techniques for he two organizations mention above according to Concoct who suggests that auditing the recruitment process can occur at four levels. Performance indicators should be used for each stage of the process. Data can be collected about actual performance and compared with standards of remedial actions such as extra staff for recruitment section if turn - around time are not met.
Cost-effectiveness of various methods used should be measured for example advertisement channels may be too costly for the number of responses it generates. Monitoring the make - up of the work force and the impact on its new recruits is essential as part of an equal opportunities policy where curtained groups are under-represented for example women, disabled people or ethnic minorities. Attitude survey among staff that have been recruited to find out whether they were satisfied with the various stages of their recruitment and selection.
Benchmarking is comparing the organization systems with known examples of good practice used in other organization. ALL Understand how to reward employees in order to motivate and retain them Tarmac ensures that employees are motivated though: Clear and understandable objectives and targets, Being helped to improve and acquire the skills, qualifications and training to do heir Jobs effectively ; Being recognized for their performance and rewarded accordingly. 3. 1 assess the link between motivational theory and reward behavior is influence by others.
Reward: Britton ; Gold, 2003) refers to all the monetary, on-monetary and psychological payments that an organization provides for its employees is exchange for the work they perform. The link between motivational theories and reward is solely depend on the link between the two major theories that is content and process theories. Content theories assumption that human beings have an innate package of motives which they pursue which is a set of needs or sired outcomes and will act in such a way to fulfilled them.
Measles need hierarchy theory and Herrings two factor theory are the two most important theory of this type. Process theories explore the process through which outcomes become desirable and are pursued by individuals. This approach assumes that people are able to select their goals and choose their path towards them. Expectancy theory is a major approach of this type. The link between the two concepts recognized that a reward system offering a mix of both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards which is likely to be the most effective way of motivating employees.
Needs theory according to Measles Hierarchy of Needs recognized that people can be motivated at work by rewards which offer satisfaction of their higher order of needs. Such as esteem, competence, achievement, independence, confidence and reflection in the perception of others: recognition, appreciation, status, respect and self-actualization (challenge, personal development, fulfillment. The diagram above illustrates the different types of motivation theories that represent the different reward systems that is most likely motivate people at work. . 2 evaluate the process of Job evaluation and other factors determining pay Job evaluation: is the process of analyzing and assessing the content, worth or size of Jobs within an organization, in order to rank and group them as a basis for an equitable remuneration system. Pay as a motivator: according to Herbert can be viewed as a factor that offers the satisfaction of many various needs which is most important in the hygiene factors.
Process of Job evaluation Steps select compensable factors Step 2 gather data on Jobs Step 3 evaluate Jobs Step 4 assign specific pay values to the Job Factors determining pay Market rate of pay- vary with demand and supply Individual performance Legal provisions on pay 3. 3 assess the effectiveness of reward systems in different contexts A reward system is a mix of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards provided by the employer. It also consists of the integrated policies, processes, practices and administrative procedures for implementing the system within the framework of human resources strategy and the total organizational system. Britton; Gold, 2003). The diagram below illustrate by examples of reward systems. Salary system: is a structure which provides internal system: will include basic rate, overtime premium rates for employees who work unusual or socially disruptive hours or shift patterns as a form of compensatory pay. Performance pay system: should fulfill targets and standards of performance required to earn the rewards must be clear,formula use to calculate rewards should easily understood and must relate to performance indicators by which people have control or influence through their own behavior and decisions.
Payment by results: is based on work study techniques, determining output per hour/day. Performance related pay relates to monetary bonuses, the rates of extent of pay progression to the reference of individuals, which can be assess according to criteria. 3. 4 examine the methods organizations use to monitor employee performance At Tarmac each individual has a personal development plan which enabled employees to identify the skills and knowledge they want to develop in order to improve their capability and efficiency.
Employee performance can be monitored using the following methods: Appraisal - the process whereby an individual's performance is reviewed against previously agreed goals, and where new goals are agreed which will develop the individual and improve performance over the forthcoming review period. Feedback - giving feedback on performance is a key leadership skill. Such as compliments and praise is Just as hard as negative feedback. The purpose of giving feedback is to help people learn by increasing their awareness of what they do, how they do it and the impact on other people.
There are two main type of feedback: motivational and development feedback. Performance indicators - Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of an organization. They will differ depending on the organization goals, mission statement and objectives. Goal theory - according to Locke (1968) goal theory proposes that both motivation and performance will be high if individuals are set specific goals which are challenging, but accepted and where feedback is given on performance.
Goal setting is now a popular technique in organization. Locke (1981) identified four ways in which goals influence behavior: Direct attention Mobiles effort Encourage persistence Facilitate strategy development LO 4 know the mechanisms for the cessation of employment At Tarmac human resource needs are consistently changing in responsive to its market place. Sometimes individuals leave the organization to take up other posts.
Some retired due to the growing problem of the I-J ageing population, new technologies removing some roles and replace new ones and change in economic climate may result in lesser demand for its product which forces the decision for redundancies. 4. 1 identify the reasons for cessation of employment with an organization Dismissal - to terminate the employment contract. Retirement - there are two basic approaches to retirement policy Flexible retirement - stated retirement age is a minimum age at which the contract can be ended for retirement purposes. Fixed retirement - enforced at stated age. Ruination of contract - contract of employment can be terminated in the following ways: By performance, mutual agreement, Notice, Breach of contract, Frustration Redundancy - defined by the employment rights act 1996 as dismissal: by reason that the employer has ceased or intention to cease to carry on the business for the purposes of which the employee was employed. 4. 2 describe the employment exit procedures used by two organizations Termination of employment contracts - HER role in managing the termination of employment contracts, looking at the legislative and managerial frameworks that influence policy in this area.
Exit rights and procedures Retirement policies and age limits on posts will have to be clearly communicated Decisions regarding particular cases discussed confidentially and tactfully with the individual concerned written confirmation of the decision to retire an employee should be tactful, with expressions of regret and appreciation as appropriate. Whatever is done should be done carefully, the way organization treats its retiring workers sends powerful messages to its other employees and the labor market.
Resignation - employees may resign for any reasons, personal or occupational. These may be a reflection on the structure, management style, and culture or personnel policies of the organization. Exit rights and procedures Notice is given of an intended departure Attempts must be made for the employee to stay if unsuccessful and exit interview will have to be arranged. Period of notice for employee to leave should be set in the contract of employment, unless otherwise negotiated where an employee wishes to take up employment immediately.
The statutory notice period employment right act 1996 is one week. Details of the departure have to be notified to the wages clerk, ensign fund officer, social security officer so that appropriate paperwork and other procedures can be completed by date of leaving. The organization may have a departure checklist to ensure that all procedures are completed. The departmental head or supervisor should complete a leaving report form. Overall assessment of the employee's performance in the organization. This can be used to provide references to future employers.
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