Historical Development of Organisational Behaviour
Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization.It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies of organizational theory and human resource studies Basic Functions – Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring and motivation.* Planning :
Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.
) and generating plans for action. * Organizing : Pattern of relationships among workers, making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. * Staffing : Job analysis, recruitment and hiring for appropriate jobs. * Leading/directing : Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. * Controlling/monitoring : Checking progress against plans. * Motivation :
Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. History – * F. W. Taylor and Scientific Management * Fayol * Hawthorne Studies * Theory X and Y 1. F. W. Taylor and scientific Management – Taylor’s scientific management consisted of four principles: First. They develop a science for each element of a man’s work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method. Second. They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.
Third. They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. Fourth. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. 2. Fayol – * Division of work – Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. * Authority –
Managers must be able to give orders. * Discipline – Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. * Unity of command – Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. * Unity of direction – Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan. * Remuneration – Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. * Order – People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. * Scalar chain – The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain.