Last Updated 13 Jan 2021

Hazrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib

Category Islam
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Hadrat Ali was the son of Abu Talib, a prominent Quraish chief and custodian of the Holy Ka'bah. The mother of Hadrat Ali was Fatima. Fatima was a cousin of Abu Talib. Thus, both the father and mother of Hadrat Ali were Hashimites, and that was a great honour. Hadrat Ali was born in unusual circumstances. On the 13th day of the holy month of Rajab, Fatima, the mother of Hadrat Ali, visited the Ka'bah to perform the pilgrimage. During the course of the pilgrimage and while circumambulating the Ka'bah, Fatima felt the pangs of childbirth.

She retired to a secluded place in the precincts of the holy Ka'bah, and there Hadrat Ali was born. Hadrat Ali has thus had the unique honour to be born in the House of God. When both mother and the child returned home, the holy Prophet, and Hadrat Khadijah came to see her newborn child. Since his birth, he had not opened his eyes, and that worried both Fatima and Abu Talib. However, when the holy Prophet took the child in his lap, then he opened his eyes. So the first person that Hadrat Ali saw after his birth was the holy Prophet.

When the holy Prophet was asked whether he approved of the child being named either Asad or Zaid, he said that since the child was born in the House of God, he should be named Ali (the word Ali being a derivative of Allah). Hadrat Ali had thus had the distinction of being named after Allah. No one before him had ever been so named. Furthermore, the name acquired more sanctity because it was suggested by the holy Prophet. His life The life of Hadrat Ali can be divided into three distinct periods.

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The first period comprises the first 32 years of his life and extends from 600 to 632 CE. I call this period the period of the education and action. It was during this period that he received his education under the loving care of the holy Prophet; imbibed with values of Islam; and acquired all the attributes that contribute to greatness When Ali was five or six years old, a famine occurred in and around Mecca, affecting the economic conditions of Ali's father, who had a large family to support. Muhammad took Ali into his home to raise him.

When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali, then only about ten years old, believed him and professed to Islam. A whole group of companions said that he was amongs the first ones to accept islam. During the persecution of Muslims and boycott of the Banu Hashim in Mecca, Ali stood firmly in support of Muhammad In 622, the year of Muhammad's migration to Yathrib (now Medina), Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot so that Muhammad could escape in safety. [1][6][21] This night is called Laylat al-Mabit.

According to some hadith, a verse was revealed about Ali concerning his sacrifice on the night of Hijra which says, "And among men is he who sells his nafs (self) in exchange for the pleasure of Allah Ali was 22 or 23 years old when he migrated to Medina. When Muhammad was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions (sahaba) he selected Ali as his brother. [4][6][24] For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service as his secretary and deputy, serving in his armies, the bearer of his banner in every battle, leading parties of warriors on raids, and carrying messages and orders. 25] As one of Muhammad's lieutenants, and later his son-in-law, Ali was a person of authority and standing in the Muslim community. Familylife In 623, Muhammad told Ali that God ordered him to give his daughter Fatimah Zahra to Ali in marriage. Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (pbuh) found his wife in tears, he then sought the cause of it, Fatimah Zahra (pbuh) responded, "I thought of my state in the end of this life and in purgatory, since the transition from my father Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) to my own house reminded me of my transition to the grave.

By the grace of Allah (SWT), let's rise for prayer in the first hours of our married life and spend the night in worshiping the Lord. " Indeed, in the sweetest and most memorable moment of her life, the very example of human excellence and the gems of women in heavens and on earth, Fatimah Zahra (pbuh) remembers the reason of her creation and asks her husband to accompany her in spending the night seeking closeness to Allah Ali had four children born to Fatimah, Theirs was a simple life of hardship and deprivation.

Throughout their life together, Ali remained poor because he did not set great store by material wealth. To relieve their extreme poverty, Ali worked as a drawer and carrier of water and she as a grinder of corn. Often there was no food in her house. According to a famous Hadith, one day she said to Ali: "I have ground until my hands are blistered. " and Ali answered "I have drawn water until I have pains in my chest. "[ [edit] In battles Arabic calligraphy which means "There is no brave youth except Ali and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar. With the exception of the Battle of Tabouk, Ali took part in all battles and expeditions fought for Islam. [6] As well as being the standard-bearer in those battles, Ali led parties of warriors on raids into enemy lands.

Prpphet Muhammad gave him standards on many occasions. Ali first distinguished himself as a warrior in 624 at the Battle of Badr. He defeated the Umayyad champion Walid ibn Utba as well as many other Meccan soldiers. According to Muslim traditions Ali killed between twenty and thirty-five enemies in battle, most agreeing with twenty-seven. 33] Ali was prominent at the Battle of Uhud, as well as many other battles where he wielded a bifurcated sword known as Zulfiqar. [34] He had the special role of protecting Muhammad when most of the Muslim army fled from the battle of Uhud[1] and it was said "There is no brave youth except Ali and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar. "[35]

He was commander of the Muslim army in the Battle of Khaybar. [36] Following this battle Mohammad gave Ali the name Asadullah, which in Arabic means "Lion of Allah" or "Lion of God". Ali also defended Muhammad in the Battle of Hunayn in 630. 1] Life after Muhammad (during the reign og the 3 caliphs) Another part of Ali's life started in 632 after death of Muhammad and lasted until assassination of Uthman Ibn Affan, the third caliph in 656. During these years, Ali neither took part in any battle or conquest. [4] nor did he assume any executive position. He withdrew from political affairs, especially after the death of his wife, Fatima Zahra. He used his time to serve his family and worked as a farmer. Ali dug a lot of wells and gardens near Medina and endowed them for public use. These wells are known today as Abar Ali ("Ali's wells"). 60] He also made gardens for his family and descendants Ali did not give his oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr until some time after the death of his wife, Fatimah. [4]

Ali participated in the funeral of Abu Bakr but did not participate in the Ridda Wars. [63] He pledged allegiance to the second caliph Umar ibn Khattab and helped him as a trusted advisor. Caliph Umar particularly relied upon Ali as the Chief Judge of Medina. He also advised Umar to set Hijra as the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Umar used Ali's suggestions in political issues as well as religious ones. 64] Ali was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph which was appointed by Umar. Although Ali was one of the two major candidates, but the council's arrangement was against him. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and Abdur Rahman bin Awf who were cousins, were naturally inclined to support Uthman, who was Abdur Rahman's brother-in-law. In addition, Umar gave the casting vote to Abdur Rahman. Abdur Rahman offered the caliphate to Ali on the condition that he should rule in accordance with the Quran, the example set by Muhammad, and the precedents established by the first two caliphs. Ali rejected the third condition while Uthman accepted it.

According to Ibn Abi al-Hadid's Comments on the Peak of Eloquence Ali insisted on his prominence there, but most of the electors supported Uthman and Ali was reluctantly urged to accept him. [65 Election as Caliph as soon as Uthman died, all eyes turned to Ali. The companions of the Prophet could not think of anyone else, to restore peace, and law and order to the Dar-ul-Islam which was battered by economic and social conflict. All the leading Muhajireen and Ansar, therefore, gathered in the Mosque of the Prophet, and agreed, at a caucus, to ask Ali to take charge of the government, and to steer the ship of state to safety.

A delegation then called on Ali, and requested him to accept this responsibility. Ali, however, did not accept the offer of the companions, and said that he preferred to be an adviser rather than the caliph. But the companions insisted and told him that there was no other capable of it. But Ali was not eager to grasp this opportunity as he knew that the caliphate was not to be taken with its roses and its thorns, the roses were all gone and all that was left were thorns. So basically accepting the caliphate would only mean wearing a crown of those thorns.

Ali knew that if he accepted the caliphate his reign would begin with a civil war, which was not an auspicious beginning. Ali wanted to rebuild the infrastructure of the Islamic society or to bring it back as just as it was in the times of Prophet Muhammad but he realized that he could do so only in the most determined opposition from Quraish. Ali considered all of this and therefore was not willing to take over the caliphate. However at last after great insist from the companions Ali accepted the proposal on the condition that he will put the commandments and prohibitions of Allah and his messenger before everything.

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