Great Expectations Study Guide

Category: Great Expectations
Last Updated: 12 Mar 2023
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Throughout these early scenes it Is clear that there Is a feeling of evil pervading. The evil comes not so much from Magnetic or even the Terrible young man' that PIP so fears as a young lad, but rather the presence of the gibbet and the nearby reference to the 'hulks that appear "like a wicked Nosh's Ark. " It is a symbol of evil that is presently at hand as well as foreshadowing future ills. In this chapter we can see that the presence of the soldiers makes Pip ill at ease because of the guilt that he eels at aiding and abetting the escapees.

He fears that they will tell of his collusion if they are captured. We know that it is their own quarrel that brings their escape to grief. We are told that they came from different class groups. The fierce young man is supposedly a 'gentleman. ' This brings into doubt the definition of this term. This is important as Dickens Is most concerned in his work with defining the class groups and In fact the true definition of a gentleman. The evil of the convicts is contrasted with the sympathy that both Pip and Joe feel for them.

Joe Is particularly selfless In is forgiveness towards Magnetic upon his admission of stealing from their household. PIP on the other hand allows this deception to pass as It favors his position. "l was too cowardly to do what I knew to be right, as I had been too cowardly to avoid doing what I knew to be wrong. " His guilt is intense and this isn't lessened by the forces around him that would condemn him and subdue him prejudicially for being young, fatherless and vulnerable. These forces ironically seem to come from his own parish and family.

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Joe, who is ironically not blood related is the one that he ants to impress the most and tone who he fears alienating by telling the truth. The irony is that Joe has already displayed tangible signs of being able to forgive anybody for anything on humanitarian grounds e. G. Magnetic. Magnetic himself has done a noble act In his confession. This Is In contact to Pip's cowardly secrecy. Chapter 7 Pip lacks education. This is remedied by Pip's being sent to Mr... Whoopee's great aunt. Unfortunately she tends to sleep through these lessons. Fortunately, though, Pip learns to read through the assistance of Biddy, the granddaughter of this lady.

Pip, who is apprenticed toes displays a very disturbing quality during this chapter that is to affect his development and the responder's opinion of him, that being snobbery. He ostentatiously offers to tutor Joe who is illiterate, but changes when Joe tells his story of how he met Mrs.. Joe and how he had cared for Pip. Joe goes further to show his magnanimous affection for all humanity as well as Pip: "l wish there warrant no Tickler for you, old chap; I wish I could take It all on myself," He also looks at the frost on the marshes and pities all those that might be caught up In It.

Pip Is Invited through Uncle Bumblebee's to visit a rich and grim lady who lived in a large and dismal house, MISS Having looms large as life at the end of this chapter. Pip breakfast for his uncle before heading to Stats house. 'Stats' refers symbolically to the irony of being satisfied. In contrast to the name of this Manor House there is nothing that is satisfied. When Pip arrives he is greeted by a young girl who comes across the courtyard to give Pip entry and usher him through the grim house by candlelight.

Her name is Estella and she seems like a shining star to Pip although ironically her spurning of Pip seems to remove much of her luster to the responder. When we are introduced to Miss Having she appears as a weird and shrunken lady who seems surreal and almost lifeless. Her watch and the clock remain at twenty minutes to nine. This is the time that her life stopped and she began to decay metaphorically and literally. She tells Pip that her heart is broken and then orders him to play. Pip is unable to satisfy this request until Estella is ushered in once more to play cards with him. Miss Having sits acropolises during this before dismissing

Pip and ordering him to return in six days. He is ushered out and given something to eat before experiencing an hallucination of Miss Having being hung. He walks home with his mind buzzing with the contempt that Estella had for him. Chapter 9 This chapter finds Pip being 'grilled' by the negative forces at home, Uncle Bumblebee's and Mrs.. Joe. He prefers to lie being embarrassed about his treatment at Stats house. He eventually owns up to his lies to Joe at the forge that night but is haunted by the fact that Estella found him coarse because of his hands and boots. He wishes that he wasn't coarse.

Joe tells him that: "If you can't get to be uncommon through going straight, you'll never get to do it through going crooked. " Pip thinks about Joey's wisdom as he is going to sleep that night, however, he can't help thinking that Estella would consider Joe common and his boots thick and his hands course. It would seem that this first visit to Stats House has infected Pip psychologically and he is experiencing quite a deal of disquiet. Ironically it is his childhood innocence that has been lost. After visiting Stats house and gaining a glimpse of a more privileged lifestyle he will himself never be satisfied again.

This creates a prelude to his expectations. Chapter 10 Pip is obsessed now with improving himself, presumed to make himself more acceptable to Estella and Miss Having. He asks Biddy to privately tutor him in addition to the classes that he was getting at Mr... Whoopee's great aunt's school. The disquiet that Pip is increasingly feeling and that was first heralded by his hallucination of Miss Having hanging is now seen further in his dreams. This follows when he sees Mr... Hopple at the public house tailing to a mysterious stranger who is stirring his rum and water with a file. It is Joey's file.

Pip is further haunted by nightmares about the convicts and the file. Most importantly he is concerned that having such secret associations with criminals might be perceived as being 'common' and therefore unpalatable to Estella. Chapter 1 1 wonders why he doesn't cry when she slaps him. This hardens him against emotion and this suggests also what Miss Hafnium's design was in this relationship. Another foreshadowed event occurs as he enters when he encounters a strange man of dark complexion. Pip returns to Stats house on the appointed day to find that Miss Having is being visited by fawning relatives.

It seems as if the responder is strangely and unexpectedly given an emotional empathy for Miss Having. We feel for this character because she is Jilted and because we know that the relatives that are fawning after her have only her inheritance in mind. The relatives are Raymond, the henpecked husband; Camilla the hypocrite; Miss Sarah Pocket the fawning woman and Georgian the quiet but slippery woman. When they have gone Pip is asked to play again but refuses and agrees instead to work. He is forced to walk Miss Having around the table where she tells Pip that she will one day be placed when she is dead.

The Juxtaposition of this frank request and the fawning relatives brings death to the fore. Miss Having also places expensive Jewelry on Estella breasts and hair to suggest her beauty and suggested inheritance. This is to tease and taunt Pip in a way starting the process of gaining revenge on mankind through her ward Estella. The notion of Juxtaposing two different classes is also part of this process. Pip is taken outside to be greeted by a pale young gentleman who wanted to fight Pip. Pip betters him and is rewarded with a mocking kiss by Estella. Chapter 14 Pip is totally miserable in this chapter.

His discontent has reached apparently unbearable levels. This content is highlighted by the Juxtaposition of the good- natured Joe. His only solace is in that he hasn't shown Joe how he feels about him. Nonetheless it is a point of further pain as he realizes the extent of his character flaw as it contrasts with Joe: "l know right well that any good that intermixed itself with my apprenticeship came of plain contented Joe. " This heightens his cognitive dissonance. He feels guilt and shame at being ashamed and dissatisfied with things surrounding such and amiable character as Joe. He fears that Estella and Miss

Having may visit and see him in his grimiest state. He is fully aware of the level of shame that he feels about Joe and his apprenticeship as a blacksmith. Pip feels that all hope for him has been lost. It is not incidental that this has come as a direct result of his visit to Stats House. His depression is evident in his thoughts made evident in this chapter: "l have felt for a time as if a thick curtain had fallen on all its interest and romance, to shut me out from anything save dull endurance... " Chapter 15 The cognitive dissonance or guilt that Pip felt last chapter reaches its zenith in this chapter.

He is the focal point of a fight between Joe and an itinerant worker (journeyman') named Rollick. Pip decided that he would like to visit Miss Having to thank her for organizing his apprenticeship as it was the anniversary of the establishment of the same. He asked Joe for a half day off so that he could visit Stats this leads to Mrs.. Joe arguing with Rollick and then Joe feeling that he had to defend his wife, the resulting fight leads to Joe defeating Rollick. They later make up over a pint but Pip's guilt about this incident is enduring. He visits Stats House but is greeted by Miss Sarah Pocket instead of Estella.

Estella is overseas to become a lady. This leads to further dissatisfaction in Pip. Mr... Hopple meets Pip and leads him to Uncle Puncheons place to see a play by a young George Lillo. The play is about an apprentice who murdered his Uncle. This adds further guilt as Pip feels that this is all aimed at him because he is an apprentice. It is as if the adults surrounding him feel that he will amount to no good. On the way home they walk with Rollick before reaching the village and finding that something is wrong at the Gagger house. Pip runs home to find out that his sister has been struck on the back of the head.

Chapter 16 The theme of guilt continues in this chapter as Pip thinks that he may be somehow responsible. He fears one of two sources of this crime both that would somehow be his responsibility. It could have been Rollick, in which his asking for a day off may have indirectly be responsible; or the strange young man with the file in which it would have been his fault because of his association with convicts. Meanwhile Mrs.. Joe lies unconscious and then speech impaired. She continually asks for Rollick and designs a "T" that seems to point at the assailant.

Biddy comes to live with them to help nurse Mrs... Joe in the light of the death of Whoopee's aunt's death. Chapter 17 Pip's life has become routine except for his annual visit to Stats House on his birthday, at which time he is given a Guiana. Each visit makes him further dissatisfied with his lot in life. After one visit he takes Biddy walking on the marshes, where all bad things happen. He is oblivious to the fact that Biddy might love him even though he does see that she is attractive on one level. He thinks that he is better than her and acts in a patronizing manner towards her.

He apparently cannot get the specter of Estella out of his mind... If I could only get myself to fall in love with you... " This reveals how self absorbed he is as he cannot appreciate her affection for him or even her feelings. The tragedy of this scene is that his soul-mate is in front of him and he is crippled from recognizing this. On the way home Rollick confronts them but Pip dismisses him. Biddy suggests that she is uncomfortable with Rollicks manner as she fears that he likes her. Pip wishes to get him dismissed but his new relationship with Mrs... Joe prevents this action.

Chapter 18 In the fourth year of his apprenticeship Pip goes with Hopple to the Three Jolly Bargeman where Hopple reads out an account of a local murder. Those around him believe the man to be guilty. A stranger chimes in asserting everyman right to be man that he met on the steps of Stats House all those years ago. Pip learns that he has 'great expectations' from an unknown benefactor. He is to retain his name as Pip; he is to be educated and he must not seek to know his benefactor. Ironically he is more morose than ever and is sad and lonely. His emotions do not move further away than himself.

He cannot fathom what Joe and Biddy might be feeling at his departure. He is to be educated by Mr... Matthew Pocket, Miss Pocket's relation. This to the responder as well as to Pip seems to link this lady to his expectations. It seems unlikely that it could be anyone else responsible. Whilst Pip counts the days down to his departure, Biddy and Joe feel the opposite about the passing of this time. Chapter 19 Pip feels satisfied and free as Joe and he burn his indenture papers. After church he goes to the marshes again and thinks condescendingly about his village and feels superior to everyone.

He thinks that he would do something for the village once he has made his mark. He recalls his first meeting with the convicts on the marshes. Pip's negativity and superiority ironically has him wishing ill to these convicts that had frightened him all those years ago. Pip hopes that the convict is transported or perhaps dead. He presumes that the benefactor is Miss Having and wonders whether part of the plan for himself involves Estella. This misapprehension is encouraged by her when she says: "Goodbye Pip - you will always keep the name of Pip you know. This of course echoes the instructions given to him by Jaegers from his benefactor. This combined with the fact that Jaegers was associated with Miss Having seems to be too much of a coincidence for him and the responder. Pip snoozes only to wake to find Joe smoking next to him. Again he acts in a superior condescending manner towards him. We notice the sycophants come out of the woodwork at this point of the novel. Mr.. Tract spurns Pip until he learns of his money and expectations. At this point he starts to fawn after him, as does Bumblebee's and even Miss Sarah Pocket.

Dickens, it would seem, is determined to satirist the money dominated society in which he lived. He was more concerned with humanism and the real values of human beings Great Expectations - Charles Dickens: Part 2 Chapter 20 In this chapter Pip arrives in London and finds the city dirty and revolting. This seems to represent to the responder that he is disappointed in his expectations. It certainly takes the gloss of his expectations. This can be clearly seen through the repetitious use of the word "dismal. " "Mr... Jigger's room was lighted by a skylight only, and was a most dismal place. This also gives an idea about how we are to view Jaegers. He too is a dismal man with very little regard for the societal 'garbage' that provides him with his living. They provide him with a living but he treats them in a superior way as goes his clerk Hemming: "l wondered ... Whether they all claimed to have the same obtains perjured witnesses for Jaegers. Jaegers tells Pip to go to Barnyard's inn where he is to meet Herbert Pocket. Jaegers ends this chapter telling Pip: "of course you'll go wrong somehow, but that's no fault of mine. Chapter 21 This chapter mostly contains information about the city and about Barnyard's Inn and its environs. We learn about the seedy nature of London when Hemming advises: Mimi may get cheated, robbed and murdered in London. " Pip begins to despair: "So imperfect was this realization of the first of my great expectations, that I looked in sigma at Mr... Hemming. " We are told that Weenie is to be a major influence on Pip as he controls the money from Jaegers. The end of the chapter has Pip meeting Herbert who recognizes Pip as the "prowling boy. " Could things possibly get worse!

Nonetheless he is to find Herbert' company a bright spot in a "dismal" London landscape. Chapter 22 Herbert and Pip become friends despite the earlier altercation. They share stories about Estella as it is obvious that Herbert too has had dealings with her. Herbert describes her as a "Tartar": miss, Miss Having had sent for me, to see if she could take fancy to me. Despite this obvious parallel to his situation Pip does not waver from his affections for Estella. We find out that Estella is adopted by Miss Having. It would seem to reek revenge on all mankind by her "haughty and capricious" nature.

We find out that Matthew Pocket is Miss Hafnium's cousin and this coincidence is the driving force behind Pip's supposition that he must be favored by this woman and hence she must, it would seem be his secret benefactor. In this chapter the familiar relationship with Herbert is established and he is given his nickname Handel after the piece of music called the Harmonious Blacksmith. This provides a link to Pip's roots and his true personality that suggests that he is not as haughty as he aspires to be. It also suggests that whilst Herbert is of this world he also has a sense of identification with normal societal dealings.

Nonetheless Herbert does try to teach Pip proper etiquette such as how to use his utensils. Chapter 23 This is a chapter where we are introduced to the strange world of the Pockets household. Mrs.. Pocket has aspirations to be royalty and is 'precious' being removed from the upbringing of her children. We are told they are not brought up but in fact eave "tumbled up. " When they annoy her she simply has them sent inside to have a nap. We are also introduced to Matthew Pocket, Herbert father. The responder is told that he is well educated at Cambridge. His other tutees are are Drummed and Startup.

These characters are also introduced here. The total impression of the scene is painted as mildly amusing and Pip feels comfortable here, probably because despite the dysfunctional nature of the relationships it is more hospitable than his variety was not possible in the country and he appreciates it and finds it interesting and amusing. Chapter 24 Pip's future is discussed whilst it seems it is still very vague and not sent in concrete. He is told that he was: "not designed for any profession. " His education therefore is to be a generic one. He wants to secure his place at Barnyard's inn and needs to get furniture.

Jaegers plays with him about the sum that he will need for this. Again this suggests something about the nature of Jaegers more than anything. This is also suggested when talking with Hemming about this man. He tells Pip to note his housekeeper carefully when he is invited to dine with his guardian. " You'll see a wild east tamed. " This provides some foreshadowing for this scene. Hemming also invites him to Walworth to observe "... Three curiosities as I have got. " Chapter 25 In this chapter we find that Pip visits Whimsies Walworth castle. This provides a contrast to the world of Stats House that is dark an gothic.

Whimsies house is warm and inviting. It is personal and quirky and provides and interesting view of the lower echelons of society and how happy they can be. Perhaps this is the vision of society that finally gives Pip something to build upon for his future. Earlier in the novel he experiences such rejection and dislocation from his own sphere of influence including his sister that there is no stability other than Joe, who is himself under siege by Mrs.. Joe. We are also introduced to Startup and to Drummed and find out more about these fellow students.

Further is said about Jaegers and the dictatorial power and influence he has over the criminal underclass of society p. 206. The aged provides an interesting sideline in the world of Hemming and this shows his concern with family and support of others. It certainly shows how he has developed a dual persona between home and work life. When I come into the office, I leave the Castle behind me, and when I come into the Castle, I leave the office behind me. " Chapter 26 Pip, Startup and Drummed head to Jaegers for dinner and gives an unusual degree of attention to Drummed.

It certainly also provides a comparison with Whimsies house for the responder: "... L had an early opportunity of comparing my safeguard's establishment with that of his achier and clerk. ". Jaegers makes his housekeeper show her wrists to the guests after they themselves had spent a ludicrous amount of time showing off their own muscles in an absurd display. We are also told that her ace compared with the faces that Pip had seen around the cauldron in a play of incident : "the Spider's time with Mr... Pocket was up for good, and, to the great relief of all the house but Mrs...

Pocket, he went home to the family hole. " This suggests that his societal aspirations and ambitions are closely aligned to Mrs... Pocket. This taints our feelings towards Drummed and suggests that his significance to the story will be greater than this. Chapter 27 In this chapter the country comes to the city. Biddy writes a letter in typically familiar tones as Joe suggests he wants the letter written including slang What larks. The letter discusses that Joe is coming to London and in fact Hopple is coming to London as well to make his mark upon the London stage.

Pip's snobbery has developed and he is not too pleased at this news and greets it "... Not with pleasure, though I was bound to him by so many ties. It seems that he is in fact embarrassed by Joe as was suggested in Pip's discussion with Biddy before he came to London. When they meet there is an awkwardness evident and they in fact have trouble finding conversation. We are even made privy to Pip's thoughts when Joe does visit about his clothes and he way that he eats: "As to his shirt and collar they were perplexing to reflect on... He sat so far from the table, and dropped so much more than he ate. Joe brings news that Miss Having requires Pip to return to Stats House to visit regarding the return of Estella. Pip is mortified with the poignancy of Joey's parting comment which highlights the societal division between the two that has developed: Pip... Life is made of ever so many partings welded together... One man's a blacksmith, and one's a whitest... You and me are not two figures to get together in London: nor yet anywhere else but what is private and Benson and understood among friends. " Chapter 28 Pip return s home but decides not to stay at Joey's, instead opting for a room a the Blue Boar.

He says that he would have liked to take his servant the Avenger, Just to show off particularly to that impudent rascal, Tract's Boy. Coincidence again plays its hand as he happens to be on the same stage as two convicts are traveling. One of them Just happens to be the same convict that gave him the two one pound notes. Pip departs the carriage with haste and makes for the Blue Boar where he discovers local newspaper that tells of Bumblebee's being the founder of Pip's fortune. Pip feels self-righteous indignation about this. Chapter 29 This chapter is a study in self delusion.

Despite the fact that Herbert had told him of his experiences at Stats House he feels that his situation is different and that his affection for Estella is real. He thinks about seeing Joe but doesn't, instead walks on the other side of town to avoid running into him. Whilst walking he has a daydream about his relationship with her. He sees himself as doing "... The shining deeds of the he tells us that he "... Loved her none the less. Interestingly he finds Rollick at the door and there is some banter before he is admitted to Miss Having and Estella. Later he advises Jaegers to advise the dismissal of this unsanitary individual.

He also haughtily advises the dismissal of Tract's Boy after Tract's boy mocks him for his airs and graces. When Pip meets with Estella she tells him that she was the ghost that he had seen that night. P. 238. Miss having appeals to Pip to love her charge but Estella herself informs Pip how unprepared she is to love anybody. "I'll tell you what real love is. It is blind devotion, unquestioning self-humiliation, utter submission. Finally we are told that Estella in her turn would come to London and that Pip would host her. This leads to Pip's love expectations and pride: "... Hat she should be destined for me, once the blacksmith's boy. " Chapter 30 This chapter is the most satirically poignant chapter in the novel. Dickens points the disapproving finger of social condescension and snobbery squarely at Pip but he is too caught up in his new superiority to take it to heart. Perhaps this is because the person who is pointing the finger is the subject of his own need to show off, Tract's boy, therefore it is too easy to shrug all of this off as Jealousy. Nonetheless from the responder's perspective there is no character that is less pretentious than Tract's Boy.

Audacious ... Yes, irreverent ... Yes, but not Jealous. Coincidence is again the device of this chapter. Pip is keen to avoid running into Bumblebee's, probably because of the newspaper article that he read last chapter, so he decides to walk for a bit and meet the carriage to London, that Jaegers is also in, further down the road. This provides the circumstance for Pip to run into Tract's Boy. When Pip sees him walking towards him "lashing himself with an empty blue bag," he deems that "a Rene and unconscious contemplation of him... " Would be the most dignified thing to do.

Here is Pip trying to seem dignified to the unseemly, knockabout Tract's Boy. This in itself is pure folly. It was met by Tract's trilogy of mockery for Pip's apparent snobbish and condescending demeanor. He pretends to be afraid; asks for "mercy in front of many people; then "crows" him out of town with his cry of "don't know yah, don't know yah, pony my soul don't know yah," to mock Pip's haughty dismissal of his town and all of his previous acquaintances that now seem below his recognition. Chapter 31 The comic satire continues in this chapter as Pip visits the theatre to see Whoopee's performance of Hamlet that is poor in the extreme.

Nonetheless when he is taken backstage he is complementary telling Mr... Wallpapering (Hopple) that he thought "massive and concrete. " After this experience Pip dreams of performing Hamlet to Miss Hafnium's ghost in front of "... Twenty thousand people, without knowing twenty words of it. " This again reminds the responder how much of a hold this woman and her actions have a hold over his psyche. His dreams and nightmares and subconscious desires are all caught up with the world of Stats House. Chapter 32 In this chapter Hemming invites Pip to Join him in a visit to Negate prison.

The Prison is described vividly. The metaphor of the Jail as "Whimsies greenhouse" is used. Hemming is described as walking amongst the prisoners: "... Much the same as a gardener might walk amongst his plants. " In this environment, his work environment, takes upon himself the same superiority as Jaegers. Pip parts from Hemming and thinks about his: "childhood out on our lonely marshes on a winter evening. " Then regrets coming with Hemming on this particular day when he is supposed to be meeting with Estella. He tries to "beat the prison dust off... " And even to "exhale its air. Ironically he fears, but doesn't understand, the "... Nameless shadow which again in that one instant had passed. " Chapter 33 Pip is more confused and dissonant regarding his relationship with Estella than ever. She arrives and tells him that she is bound for Richmond to live and that Pip is to escort her, to this end she gives him her purse to pay for the expenses. There is a strong sense that Estella is a victim of her own fortunes and that she is a cannonball in flight without control over being fired or even what she might destroy when she ands. We have no choice, you and l, but to obey our instructions. We are not fee to follow our own devices, you and l. " Then she "... Drew her arm through mine, as if it must be done. " Estella recognizes Matthew Pocket's qualities but feels that she has to add "... For I hate that class of man. " She also murmurs the contemptuous utterance "Wretches! " as she approaches Negate. The narrator confesses that he would never have told her of his "... Visit for any consideration. " This again shows how she has been ruined by Miss Hafnium's patronage. Her superior demeanor is objectionable to the responder.

Pip gives voice to his affections for her and she is dismissive Mimi silly boy... How can you talk such nonsense. " Nonetheless he steals a kiss with her permission even though he recognizes that he could "... Build no hope on it. " He in fact recognizes that she will probably have many admirers in his absence in Richmond. Pip thinks about confiding in Matthew Pocket and gain his advice on women, but then sees Mrs... Pocket reading "a book of dignities" and concludes that perhaps his advice may not be as sound as he'd hoped. Chapter 34 Regret plagues Pip as he starts to realize the social ramifications of his expectations.

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