Last Updated 10 Mar 2020

Global Warming And Human Security In Ghana Environmental Sciences Essay

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Africa is one of the most vulnerable parts in the universe to Global Warming. This exposure and the restrictions of hapless states to accommodate to Global Warming challenges were highlighted in Climate Change 2001, the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) . The study established how human activity ( firing dodo fuels and alterations in land-use ) is modifying the planetary clime, with temperature rises projected for the following 100 old ages that could impact human public assistance and the environment.

The historical clime record for Africa shows heating of about 0.7A°C over most of the continent during the 20th century ; a lessening in rainfall over big parts of the Sahel and West Africa and an addition in rainfall in other parts of Africa.

Ghana is non exempted from the hazards of these recent alterations in Global Warming and alterations in conditions forms. Although the authorities is making good to decrease the consequence of Global Warming, Gganaians and most significantly local natives have been left behind in the consciousness and engagement in both determination and execution of clime alteration policies and patterns. The survey recommends the engagement of local people and an addition in climate alteration information airing to educate the public on steps to hold the consequence of Global Warming on human security, saving of H2O organic structures and the state 's flora screen.

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Chapter ONE


1.1 Background to the Problem

Many scientists, economic experts and policy shapers now agree that the universe is confronting a menace from clime heating. The grade of the impact and its distribution is still debated. Current grounds suggests that states in temperate and polar locations may profit from little economic advantages because extra heating will profit their agricultural sectors. Many states in tropical and sub-tropical parts are expected to be more vulnerable to warming because extra heating will impact their fringy H2O balance and harm their agricultural sectors. However, small research has been done on tropical states, so small is known about the extent of these amendss. The job is expected to be most terrible in Africa where current information is the poorest, technological alteration has been the slowest, and the domestic economic systems depend to a great extent on agribusiness. African husbandmans have adapted a certain sum of clime variableness, but climate alteration may good coerce big parts of fringy agribusiness out of production in Africa. The agribusiness sector is a major subscriber to the current economic system of most African states, averaging 21 % and runing from 10 % to 70 % of the GDP.

Even without clime alteration, there are serious concerns about agribusiness in Africa because of H2O supply variableness, dirt debasement, and repeating drought events. A figure of states face semi-arid conditions that make agribusiness challenging. Further, development attempts have been peculiarly hard to prolong. African agribusiness has the slowest record of productiveness addition in the universe. Experts are concerned that the agribusiness sector in Africa will be particularly sensitive to future clime alteration and any addition in climate variableness. The current clime is already fringy with regard to precipitation in many parts of Africa. Further warming in these semi- arid locations is likely to be lay waste toing to agriculture at that place. Even in the moist Torrid Zones, increased heat is expected to cut down harvest outputs. Agronomic surveies suggest that outputs could fall rather dramatically in the absence of dearly-won version steps. The current agriculture engineering is basic, and incomes low, proposing that husbandmans will hold few options to accommodate. Soon, public

substructure such as roads, long-run conditions prognosiss, and agricultural research and extension are unequal to procure appropriate version. Unfortunately, none of the empirical surveies of clime impacts in Africa have explored what versions would be efficient for either African husbandmans or African authoritiess. This is a serious lack in African impact research, given the importance of efficient version.

Although there are well-established concerns about clime alteration effects in Africa, there is small quantitative information refering how serious these effects will be. These theoretical accounts show that Africa is the most vulnerable continent in the universe to climate alteration.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

In recent times, clime alteration has become important in the lives of ordinary people in Ghana and has become a topic of concern for turn toing socio-economic issues in Ghana. It has become so of import that several seminars and workshops have been held in Ghana to educate and research into issues of clime alteration. Surveies have shown that the consequence of clime alteration will devolve at a increasingly faster rate if disciplinary steps are non put in topographic point. Research findings besides indicate that clime alteration could hold an impact on human and socio-economic security. It is besides of import to observe that Ghana would be one of the states to be hardest hit by the effects of clime alteration though it contributes really small to it. Surveies have besides shown that the clime alteration would hold impacts on GDPs of most agricultural based economic systems. Despite the significance of clime alteration to Ghana and its socio economic sciences small research has been done on the estimated impact on the ordinary Ghanaian and the macro economic sciences of the state.

We need to happen out the jobs at interest, of important concern are, the nature of clime alteration in Ghana, the impact of clime alteration on homo and socio economic security.

1.4 Aims of the Study

The chief aims of the survey is to analyze the nature of clime alteration in Ghana, the impact of clime alteration on homo and socio economic security. The research is aimed at specifically turn toing the followers:

Nature of clime alteration in Ghana.

The impact of clime alteration on Human security.

The impact of clime alteration on socio-economic security.

Solutions or extenuation of the impact of clime alteration.

1.5 Beginnings of Data and Methodology

This subdivision will foreground the process and methods used in the research work. These consist of research design, country of survey, population sample and trying techniques, instruments for informations aggregation, method of informations aggregation and analyses of informations.

1.5.1 Research Design

The research design adopted for this survey is descriptive. In this survey nevertheless a combination of instance survey and causal comparative designs were employed. This enabled the research to do usage of extended docudrama informations juxtaposed against the responses of administered questionnaires.

1.5.2 Area of Study

The research covered the Sakumono Area. Sakumono is located in the coastal portion of Greater Accra Region. The country of survey is along the Accra - Tema beach route. Its length is stretches 20km apart. The Sakumono country is populated by fishermen and vegetable husbandmans and until late a important figure of urban inhabitants.

1.5.3 Sample and Sampling Technique

A entire figure of 100 individuals dwelling of 20 fishermen, 20 fishwifes, 20 husbandmans, 20 market adult females, 10 craftsmen and 10 adult females with assorted trades participated in the survey. To guarantee the unity of relevant features like age, sex, matrimonial position and business, stratified random sampling technique was used for choice of the sample population. The population of traditional trades was grouped into fishermen and fishwifes, husbandmans and market Sellerss and other traditional trades. This technique ensured that all bomber groups ( fishermen, fishwifes, husbandmans, market Sellerss, and other traditional trades ) were adequately represented.

1.5.4 Instrument for Data Collection

A questionnaire was used for informations aggregation. The questionnaire was designed in two parts, the first portion contained information on biographic informations of the respondents. The biographical information consists of age, sex, matrimonial position and figure of kids. The 2nd portion consists of a 14 point questionnaire grouped into 5 classs with sub points in each class. The research inquiries were used to beg information from the respondents on the followers:

General cognition of the jobs of clime alteration.

Impact of clime alteration on wellness and wellbeing.

Impact of clime alteration on work end product.

Expected action by policy shapers and authoritiess to extenuate the

impact of clime alteration.

1.6 Significance of Study

Climate alteration is a menace to humanity, and to Ghana as a developing state the impacts are far making. The survey would be good to locals, kids in Sakumono, the fishermen, market common people, the territory assembly, estate contractors, the authorities and Non-Governmental Organizations ( NGOs ) . Finally the survey will function as a base mention for farther academic surveies.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.7.1 Scope

This research was based on grownups with traditional trades within the Sakumono country. It besides focused on interviews with experts in the field of clime alteration.

1.7.2 Restriction

The research work was confronted with some challenges during the survey. The first job was that respondents were disbelieving as to the grounds for the research. Some people thought it was information assemblage for relocation. After the necessary account and confidence from the research worker the respondents began to collaborate but at a point started demanding for some pecuniary wages for replying the questionnaires. The research worker besides found it hard measuring needful paperss from the metrological section of Ghana since they were unavailable.

1.8 Literature Review

In this subdivision a aggregation of constructs aimed to reexamine the critical points of current cognition in clime alteration has been analyzed based on the survey aims. These constructs are secondary beginnings, and as such, do non describe any new or original findings.

1.8.1 Nature of Climate Change

Climate alteration is fast turning to be one of the top issues that resonate in all corridors of treatment that affect human endurance and development. Human endurance is bit by bit been disturbed by the changing of the conditions which to many people is as a consequence of human activities. From worlds to livestock everyone is affected by the changing of the conditions. The conditions is going warmer and doing intolerable conditions to human endurance. Water organic structures, agribusiness and energy are earnestly been affected.

Climate alteration has hence become a planetary issue that requires a planetary response. The scientific discipline tells us that emanations have the same effects from wherever they arise. The deduction for the economic sciences is that this is clearly and unequivocally an international corporate action job with all the attendant troubles of bring forthing consistent action and of avoiding free equitation. It is a job necessitating international cooperation and leading.

On the African scene, many analysts have noticed that the continent has contributed small to planetary clime alteration. Harmonizing to Camilla Toulmin, Africa has contributed really small to Global Warming. The nature of Climate Change and the breakability of African states means that African states will be negatively affected by agribusiness, land and natural resources.

1.8.2 The Impact of Climate Change on Human Security

Climate alteration will impact the basic elements of life for people around the universe - entree to H2O, nutrient production, wellness, and the environment. Hundreds of 1000000s of people could endure hunger, H2O deficits and coastal implosion therapy as the universe warms, every bit good as high degrees of poorness and hapless administration has made Africa peculiarly vulnerable to the effects of clime alteration. Climate alteration will ensue in deficit of resources for human ingestion this may trip struggle between and within states, as resources and safe topographic points become scarcer, and catastrophes destroy supports, increasing the figure of migrators and refugees. For illustration, Edward, Shankar and Sergenti explicate how deficits in seasonal rains that result in drouth and economic hurt addition the likeliness of civil war by up to 50 % . Again At that meeting Margaret Beckett, UK 's Foreign Secretary, warned about migration on an unprecedented graduated table due to deluging, disease and dearth. She besides said that drouth and harvest failure could do intensified competition for nutrient, H2O and energy. `` It is about our corporate security in a fragile and progressively mutualist universe, '' she said. Climate alteration besides has major economic deductions. Harmonizing O'Brien with clime alteration, human security in one topographic point or for one group is progressively linked to the actions and results of others possible struggles happening between nutrient and fuel production in competition for land and other resources and in the publicity of bio-fuels and other extenuation steps.

Stern farther indicates that the investing that takes topographic point in the following 10 -20 old ages will hold a profound consequence on the clime in the 2nd half of this century and in the following. But if the degree of apathy shown by most states persist it would be obvious in the coming decennaries, could make hazards of major break to economic and societal activity, on a graduated table similar to those associated with the great wars and the economic depression of the first half of the twentieth century. And it will be hard or impossible to change by reversal these alterations.

1.8.3 The Impact of Climate Change on Socio-Economic Security

Socio-economic factors of any state is fundamentally of its indispensable services such H2O, nutrient, adjustment and energy. These are what most unluckily has become straight impacted by Global Warming. Harmonizing to Margaret Beckett, UK 's Foreign Secretary, warned about migration on an unprecedented graduated table due to deluging, disease and dearth. She besides said that drouth and harvest failure could do intensified competition for nutrient, H2O and energy. `` It is about our corporate security in a fragile and progressively mutualist universe, '' she said. Climate alteration besides has major economic deductions. Harmonizing to a 2006 study by Sir Nicholas Stern the costs of accommodating to climate alteration could be every bit much as 10 % of universe economic end product.

1.8.4 Extenuation to the Impact of Global Warming

As noticed by Sachs ( 2008 ) the attempt in turn toing Global Warming needs prompt and strong action. Because clime alteration is a planetary job, the response to it must be international. It must be based on a shared vision of long-run ends and understanding on models that will speed up action over the following decennary, and it must construct on reciprocally reenforcing attacks at national, regional and international degree.

Furthermore, Stern ( 2009 ) estimates that if the universe does non move on holding the badness of Global Warming the overall costs and hazards of clime alteration will be tantamount to losing at least 5 % of planetary GDP each twelvemonth. If a wider scope of hazards and impacts is taken into history, the estimations of harm could lift to 20 % of GDP or more. This surely will be a intensifying suffering to already reeling and weak economic system position of most African states including Ghana

In contrast, planetary economic analysts have besides estimated that the costs of action for cut downing nursery gas emanations to avoid the worst impacts of clime alteration could be limited to around 1 % of planetary GDP each twelvemonth.

It has been suggested by Wangari ( 2004 ) that the usage of traditional cognition could be a great replacement in covering with Global Warming. Traditional cognition can be seen as that which emerges from the interaction amongst persons and between persons and their environment, ensuing in a merchandise, which has been formed and transformed by the society itself. The cognition, which is a societal concept, harmonizing to is culturally specific and has its distinguishable features, It is embedded in societal value, beliefs or norms, expressed in narratives, traditional music and other cultural activities.

Local cognition that addresses climate alteration can be made from three types of information: Accrued cultural cognition, Knowledge modified through contact with other civilizations, and progressive acquisition of the environment. Autochthonal Peoples have historically played an active function in the preservation of eco-systems important to the bar of clime change.. Traditional norms and regulations have it that some yearss are prohibited for the harvest home of fuel wood in these forest channels. These steps go a long manner to let the forest to retrieve and make the status for the forest to function as a C sink to attend Global Warming. Sacred grooves or countries are frequently associated with cultural rites, such as rainmaking. Members of the community are prohibited from executing certain activities in them, including hunting, assemblage, wood film editing, cultivating, graze, etc. Taboo yearss and the establishment of local Torahs on hunting and fishing have helped to conserve biodiversity.

1.8.5 Traveling to a Low-Carbon Global Economy

Another of import measure needed to undertake Global Warming is by following the cognition in traveling to a low-carbon planetary economic system. The first is carbon pricing, through revenue enhancement, emanations trading or ordinance, so that people are faced with the full societal costs of their actions. The purpose should be to construct a common planetary C monetary value across states and sectors.

Secondary, Simon ( 2007 ) contend that there is the demand to hold a comprehensive policy on engineering to drive the development and deployment at graduated table of a scope of low-carbon and high-efficiency merchandises. And the 3rd is action to take barriers to energy efficiency, and to inform, educate and carry persons about what they can make to react to climate alteration.

Additionally, Ogata & A ; Sen ( 2003 ) have observed that action on clime alteration will make important concern chances, as new markets are created in low-carbon energy engineerings and other low-carbon goods and services. These markets could turn to be deserving 100s of one million millions of dollars each twelvemonth, and employment in these sectors will spread out consequently. The concluding thought would be to undertake clime alteration is the pro-growth scheme for the longer term, and it can be done in a manner that does non crest the aspirations for growing of rich or hapless states.

1.9 Agreements of Chapters

Chapter one of the survey, comprise of the debut, which provides a brief background of the survey, the statement of the job every bit good as the significance of the survey. It besides outlines the general aims of the survey, the methodological analysis used for informations assemblage and analysis every bit good as a replete of literature refering the survey country.

The 2nd chapter offers a comprehensive overview of the survey country, measuring the chief issues concerned which included international conventions protocols and pacts, challenges of clime alteration docket, the stairss taken to cut downing the impact of Global Warming and a situational instance of Global Warming in Ghana.

Chapter three elaborates on both primary and secondary informations collected which entails presentation of facts and analysis of research results. The last chapter ( chapter four ) outlines the drumhead, decision and recommendations of the survey.


Chapter TWO


2.1 Definitions

2.1.1 Global Warming

Global Warming is the regional or global-scale alterations in historical clime forms originating from natural and/or semisynthetic causes and ensuing in both intermittent but progressively frequent, utmost impacts ( e.g. big storms and heat moving ridges ) and slow on-set, permeant, cumulative effects ( e.g. extinction of life signifiers and sea degree rise ) ( Simon, 2007 ) ; climate alteration involves the interactions of many systems, such as the ambiance, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere, every bit good as the human systems. In this survey Global Warming will be used interchangeably with clime alteration.

2.1.2 Environmental security

Environmental security is the protection of people from short- and long-run depredations of nature, semisynthetic menaces to nature, and impairment of the natural environment.

2.1.3 Hazard

A jeopardy is a potentially detrimental physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may do loss of life or hurt, belongings harm, societal and economic break or environmental debasement ( UN/ISDR, 2004 ) .

2.1.4 Human security

Human security is the protection of `` the critical nucleus of all human lives in ways that enhance human freedoms and fulfilment '' ( Ogata & A ; Sen, 2003 ) ; the security of persons, their supports, and human rights including economic security, nutrient security, wellness security, environmental security, personal security, community security and political security.

2.2 International Conventions, Protocols and Treaties

The demand for international Conventions, Protocols and Treaties mostly is based on the fact that all states will be affected by alteration in clime. The most vulnerable, the poorest states and Populations will endure earliest and most, even though they have contributed least to the causes of clime alteration. The international convention puts a duty and committedness to every individual state to lend in little manner to cut downing the impact of the Global Warming.

Since the consciousness of Global Warming took centre phase in planetary treatment there has been hosts of conventions, protocols and pacts that country geared towards sustainable development and environmental understandings. The 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, offers a roadmap towards sustainable development. Chapter 24, entitled '' Global Action for Women towards Sustainable Development '' , calls upon authoritiess to extinguish all obstructions to adult females 's full engagement in sustainable development and public life

At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, the importance of governmental committedness towards the decrease of activities that result in Global Warming was reaffirmed. The Convention to Combat Desertification ( UNCCD, 1994 ) most clearly recognizes the function of adult females in rural supports and encourages the full engagement of adult females and work forces in the execution of the convention. The UNCCD stresses the of import function played by adult females in parts affected by desertification and/or drouth, peculiarly in rural countries in developing states. Although the 1992 Convention on Biodiversity recognizes preservation and sustainable usage of biological diverseness

The following convention to be looked at is the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) , which recognized the full engagement of husbandmans and pastoral rural folks. Additionally, the Kyoto Protocol, that outlines decreases in nursery grass instituted inter-governmental dialogues under the UNFCCC are germinating around the cardinal countries: extenuation, version, engineering and finance. At the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference ( COP13 ) in Bali, dialogues began for the post-Kyoto government ( 2012 and beyond ) .

2.3 Stairss to Reduce the Impact of Global Warming

States confronting diverse fortunes will utilize different attacks to do their part to undertaking clime alteration. But action by single states is non plenty. Each state, nevertheless big, is merely a portion of the job. It is indispensable for states to hold a shared international vision of long-run ends. The undermentioned stairss as outlined provide a really utile suggestion to planetary policy shapers in their effort to outline a policy for universe to follow:

Expanding and associating the turning figure of emanations merchandising strategies around the universe is a powerful manner to advance cost-efficient decreases in emanations and to convey forward action in developing states: strong marks in rich states could drive flows amounting to 10s of one million millions of dollars each twelvemonth to back up the passage to low-carbon development waies.

Informal co-ordination every bit good as formal understandings can hike the effectivity of investings in invention around the universe. Globally, support for energy R & A ; D should at least dual, and support for the deployment of new low-carbon engineerings should increase up to five-fold. International co- operation on merchandise criterions is a powerful manner to hike energy efficiency.

The loss of natural woods around the universe contributes more to planetary emanations each twelvemonth than the conveyance sector. Controling deforestation is a extremely cost-efficient manner to cut down emanations ; big scale international pilot programmes to research the best ways to make this could acquire afoot really rapidly.

The poorest states are most vulnerable to climate alteration. It is indispensable that clime alteration be to the full integrated into development policy, and that rich states honour their pledges to increase support through abroad development aid.

2.4 Global Warming in Ghana

Ghana lies on the West seashore of Africa with a Population of about 25million. The entire land country of Ghana is 238,539km2. Agribusiness represents the most of import land usage type in footings of its spacial coverage. Agribusiness in the wood takes up more than 75 % of the land while in the northern savannas ; the coverage is between 50 and 60 % . About 11 % of the land country of Ghana is under preservation.

Whiles at that place has non been a important happening of natural catastrophes compared to other Asiatic and African states there are still pockets of instabilities as a consequence of the emerging issue of climate alteration. The most detrimental impacts to climate alteration for Ghana has been to H2O resources, agribusiness, and drouths. About 80 % of Ghana 's population depends on Agriculture for a life. Agribusiness in Ghana is extremely vulnerable to climate alteration variableness and long term clime Change which would ensue in a higher nutrient monetary values, lower domestic grosss and broadening of current history shortages due to lower export net incomes together with increased rising prices and increased external liability ( Zaragoza, 2005 Namikat, 2005 )

Ghana 's environment and cardinal natural resources have been progressively threatened by intensifying and unsustainable force per unit areas from fast turning population, spread outing agricultural and industrial activities and rapid urbanisation.

One other major issue associated with biodiversity in Ghana is the loss of home ground and the depletion of biological resources. Persistent development of the Savannah has resulted in widespread debasement. Forest flora and dirts hold about 40 % of all the C stored in tellurian ecosystems. Release of C as a consequence of deforestation contributes to planetary clime alteration. The grounds of Global Warming in Ghana is clear in the face of a reduced rainfall, increase temperature and vaporization in dry countries, Frequent drouth enchantments taking to terrible H2O deficit, Change in seting day of the months of one-year harvests, Increased fungous eruptions and insect infestations due to alterations in temperature and humidness, Decrease in forest country and country under cultivation and Increased potency of malaria transmittal and loads on the state 's wellness attention system.

A national Committee on Climate Change is hosted by the Ministry of Environment. This commission has the authorization of reexamining policies and plans to complement national precedences and contribute to decrease of nursery gas emanations and an addition in C sinks. The Ministry is the focal point for UNFCCC activities ( Agyeman-Bonsu, 2007a ) .

Ghana signed the UNFCCC in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. The Convention entered intoforce globally on 21 March 1994 and specifically for Ghana on December 5, 1995, three months after Ghana ratified the Convention. In 2002, Ghana 's Parliament passed a declaration to sign the Kyoto Protocol ( KP ) and the KP entered into force globally on 16 February 2005 ( Agyeman-Bonsu, 2007b )


Chapter THREE

Evaluation OF DATA

3.1 Presentation of Datas

A sum of 100 respondents took portion in this survey, consisting of 20 ( 20 ) representatives from each of the followers: fishermen, fishwifes, husbandmans, market adult females. There were besides were ten ( 10 ) craftsmen and 10s ( 10 ) adult females with assorted trades participated in the survey. The chief thought for placing the respondents above, recognized the above mentioned professions are chiefly been engaged by the citizens and by gender, the survey intend to set up the degree of exposure between work forces and adult females. The causes of Global Warming, impacts and how each of the identified group of respondents react to Global Warming in footings of energy wellness, H2O and life conditions.

3.2 Biographic Information

For equal gender representation, an equal figure of 50 were drawn from both males and females for the survey.

Table 1. Sexual activity of Respondents


Number Respondents


Number Respondents







Market adult females




Womans in Trades





3.3 Age distribution of respondents

The mean age among the male respondents is 40 with that of females being 49. Most of the work forces ( 60 % of male respondents ) were aged above 35 whilst for the female respondents ; about 70 per centum were aged above 35.

3.4 Marital position

Refering the matrimonial position of the respondents, 60 per centum of fishermen were married, 15 per centum had divorced, and 10 per centum were besides widowed. On a similar note, more husbandmans were said they were married ( 85 % ) , 10 per centum were widowed but 5 per centum were divorced. Among the craftsmen interviewed, more than half ( 60 % ) said they had married, none had experienced divorced but 40 per centum had ne'er married.

On the portion of the female respondents, 80 per centum of the fishwifes, 70 per centum of market adult females and 50 per centum of adult females in trades said they were married. Besides, 10 per centum of fishwifes, 20 per centum of market adult females and adult females in trades had experienced divorced. More adult females in trades ( 30 % ) have ne'er married and besides more of such adult females were widowed compared to the remainder of the respondents.

Table 1 Marital Status of Respondents






Never Married








































Market adult females









Womans in trades














3.5 General cognition of the jobs of clime alteration

The survey enquired signifier respondents their cognition about clime alteration. It was revealed that more of males ( 46 % male respondents were cognizant of clime alteration ) were cognizant of the planetary consent to climate alter the attempts of change by reversaling the tendency than female respondents ( 30 % of females respondents were cognizant of clime alteration ) .

Figure 1. Awareness of Climate Change Campaign

In all merely 38 per centum of the respondents indicated their consciousness to climate alteration run. Despite their ignorance about the run, most of the male respondents were cognizant of the jobs climate alteration is doing, mentioning among other things, hot conditions.

3.6 Impact of clime alteration on wellness and good being

60 per centum of female respondents complained of frequent wellness jobs but merely 46 % of male respondents said they have noticed alterations in wellness related jobs. More fishermen ( 65 % ) reported that the rate of trial to infirmary hold increased in recent times. This is followed by adult females in trades, where 50 % indicated of frequent wellness jobs. On the general wellbeing of the people interviewed, a pouncing proportion of females ( 90 % ) complained of economic adversity as a consequence of less gross revenues and lower incomes. Besides, about 55 % of males interviewed complained that there has been recent economic adversity as a consequence of decrease in end product of work.

3.7 Impact of clime alteration on work end product

From the survey, 60 % female respondents indicated that productiveness has enormously reduced. As one adult female commented `` bad conditions affects the fish we can catch '' . Less fish caught affect the gross revenues and gross of fishwifes, which finally reduces incomes for families. Craftsmans and adult females in unidentified trade both complained of deficit of gross revenues marks.

3.8 Expected action by policy shapers and authoritiess to extenuate the impact of clime alteration

The survey farther wanted to happen out the expected actions locals expect from authoritiess and policy shapers with respect to climate alteration. The consequence were that 55 % of entire respondents said their positions as locals and natives needed to be sought when outlining any national policy. Respondents who presumptively are at the closest to the creative activity and care of clime alteration are non included in policy and decision-making. About 20 % said they wanted authorities to demo more commitment to any policy drafted and shoot more financess towards climate direction.

3.9 Pictures demoing the impact of Global Warming on the Sakumono Lagoon

The images in Appendix B seek to reenforce the points that Global Warming is impacting human and economic security in Ghana. The captioned exposure depicts assorted cases and conditions back uping this averment.

Chapter FOUR


4.1 Drumhead

The activities of few fabrication and agricultural industries in Ghana consequences in high-carbon coevals that has negative effects on clime alteration. Alternate low-carbon emanations that would non cut down economic growing could be used where available.

It has been established that developed states account for 80 % of planetary emanations lending to the depletion of the ozone bed. The necessary force per unit area could be put on states most responsible for green house concentration in the ambiance to cut down their emanations significantly.

The research found out that ordinances on land usage was loose and those who degrade land travel unpunished. Methods could be devised to better land direction of ecological sites to conserve biodiversity, peculiarly in wetland countries.

There no local engagement in protection and direction of the Sakumono laguna and its environments. The Autochthonal people could be included in the preservation of eco-systems through the usage of local imposts to forestall clime alteration.

Thirty-eight per centum of the respondents were non cognizant of the impacts of Global Warming and could non entree and utilize day-to-day conditions prognosiss of the Meteorological Department. The usage of local idioms could be used to better conditions information distribution.

The research established that 67 % the respondents were non adequately accommodated and were at hazard of the conditions. Housing strategies on flexible footings could be provided to locals who can non afford equal lodging.

Waste disposal at the Sakumono Lagoon and its environ were disorderly and set in topographic points that threatened the endurance of the laguna with its vegetations and zoologies. Existing environmental ordinances on waste disposal could be enforced.

The respondents ' reported 89 % frequent contraction of respiratory diseases in the past 5 old ages. Health installations could be extended to the locals particularly those prone to these diseases ( the aged and kids ) .

The research established that there were no co-ops supplying fiscal and other signifiers of support for the hapless land-dwellers, fishermen and market adult females. Cooperatives could be formed to supply fiscal and other signifiers of support to the locals in the Sakumono general country.

Eighty-five per centum of respondents use wood coal or firewood for cookery intents. The debut of reasonably monetary value gas could cut down dependance on wood coal and firewood.

4.2 Decision

Ghana is vulnerable and delicate to climate alteration depends chiefly as a consequence of less governmental committedness and deficiency of information to the chief participants of the environment. This is coupled with institutional failings and this could take to serious impact on wellness, nutrient, H2O and endurance of its citizen in decennaries in front.

4.3 Recommendations

The authorities and municipal assemblies in Climate Change extenuation should concentrate on alternate low C development and usage, that does non cut down economic growing.

On international platforms and during international conventions the authorities should set the necessary force per unit area on states most responsible for green house concentration in the ambiance to cut down emanations significantly.

Industries in Ghana, both fabrication and agricultural should follow emanation decrease inventions where available.

The Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources in concurrence with municipal assemblies should invent steps to better land direction of ecological sites to conserve biodiversity, peculiarly in our wetland countries.

There is the demand to name for multi sectorial attack to a sustainable development scheme of the environment which recognizes the engagement of Autochthonal people because of their historical engagement as active participants in the preservation of eco-systems important to the bar of clime alteration.

The Meteorological Department should set up improved conditions prediction and information distribution.

The authorities, municipal assemblies and non-governmental administrations should assist the autochthonal and hapless population at hazard to efficaciously get by with high temperature extremes and fickle rainfall forms. This can be done by supplying strategies to supply places with better insularity and aeration, against utmost heat and cold conditions every bit good as offer other building betterments.

The Environmental Protection Council should implement ordinances on waste disposal.

The Ghana Health Service should be active in the proviso of timely wellness support for susceptible people.

Banks and NGOs should provide for and beef up concerted establishments to let hapless land-dwellers, fishermen and market adult females to portion the costs associated with market engagement.

The Ministry of Energy should hasten and regulate the proviso of domestic gas.

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