The pattern of safety in workplace has seen unbelievable progresss as clip has gone, due to advancement in engineering, although there is still considerable sum of challenges that comes in signifier of hurts and unwellnesss ( Hopwood and Thompson, 2006 ) . This is where biotechnologies comes to play a function in doing the workplace safe for activities that would be carried out by the employee. Biotechnologies draws on many subjects in its survey of worlds and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical technology, industrial technology, industrial design, kinesiology, physiology and psychological science ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .
Unsafe, unhealthy, uncomfortable or inefficient state of affairss at work or in mundane life are avoided by taking history of the physical and physiological capablenesss and restrictions of worlds ( Dul and Weerdmeester, 1993 ) . Human wellness and safety is at optimal scope when the workplace environmental parametric quantities are suited for the employee ( Story, 2010 ) . Each twelvemonth, ill designed merchandises and workplaces account for 1000s of hurts and skyrocketing costs. That is why biotechnologies the human factor in merchandise and workplace design is fast going a major concern of makers ( Gross, 1995 ) .
This study is about how is about using and proper preparation on the usage of biotechnologies to mundane workplace can forestall life endangering unwellnesss, uncomfortableness, accidents, and how employers can salvage money by cut downing costs related to issues like workers ' compensation, absenteeism and bend over, as it makes operations more efficient by making work topographic point designs with fewer mistakes and better on workplace user friendliness ( MacLeod, 1995 ) , with the end of cut downing musculoskeletal uncomfortableness, addition work productiveness, efficiency and comfort, as an employee who is more comfy is more productive ( Meriano and Latella, 2008 ) .
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1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study is to cognize what biotechnologies is all approximately and how it can be incorporated into the wellness and safety sector.
The aims of this study are ;
Reduce hazards factors associated with ill designed work Stationss and,
To plan a workplace that is suited for the human organic structure instead than the human organic structure accommodating to workplace.
To be able to place, step, control and supervise the occupational wellness hazards/agents in the workplace which may do ill-health to employees.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?
Biotechnologies is the scientific discipline of suiting workplace conditions and occupation demands to the capablenesss of the working population, it tends to look into work related jobs that poses a hazard of musculoskeletal upsets and ways of relieving them ( Cohen et al, 1997 ) . It is besides the applied scientific discipline that is devoted to supply comfort, efficiency and safety into the design of points in the work topographic point ( Shelly and Vermaat, 2010 ) , ergonomic intercession can profit both employer and employee ( Meriano and Latella, 2008 ) .
The International Ergonomics Association defines biotechnologies as follows:
Biotechnologies ( or human factors ) is the scientific subject concerned with the apprehension of interactions among worlds and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, rules, informations and methods to plan in order to optimise human wellbeing and overall system public presentation.
A big figure of factors play a function in biotechnologies ; these include organic structure position and motion, environmental factors, information and operation every bit good as work organisation. Biotechnologies differs from other Fieldss by its interdisciplinary attack and applied nature ( Dul and Weerdmeester, 1993 ) .
The benefits of biotechnologies include occupation satisfaction and enhanced worker motive, added problem-solving capablenesss, and greater credence of alteration. Involving staffs can assist to place occupation jeopardies, suggest ways to command these jeopardies and working with direction in make up one's minding how to set this control in topographic point.
2.2 WHO IS AN ERGONOMIST?
An Ergonomist is one who has equal cognition of the relation between worlds ' wellness and worlds ' public presentation ( Schlick, 2009 ) taking into consideration the occupation, equipment used and information used ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergonomics ) . Harmonizing to Dul and Weerdmeester, 1993, the professional ergonomists can work for the governments ( statute law ) , developing establishments ( universities and colleges ) , research constitutions, the service industry ( consultancy ) and production sector ( occupational wellness services, forces sections, design sections, research sections, etc. ) , they besides wrote that the ergonomist highlights the countries where ergonomic cognition is indispensable, provides ergonomic guidelines and advises interior decorators, buyers, direction and employees, on which are more acceptable systems.
2.3 HISTORY OF ERGONOMICS:
Science of Ergonomics dates back to 1717, when Bernadino Ramazzini, male parent of occupational medical specialty, speculated on factors within the work environment that contributed to his patients ' unwellnesss, he described violent and irregular gestures, dead set position and tonic strain on the musculus as factors that contributed to musculoskeletal strivings in his patients ( Meriano and Latella, 2008 ) .
However, in the United Kingdom, biotechnologies started in 1917 in World War I when the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Medical Research Council were asked to look into industrial conditions, peculiarly of weaponries workers, this led to the constitution of Industrial Fatigue Research Board who performed research on above subject in 1929 because of the expanded range of work ( hours of work, preparation, accidents, illuming and airing, and design of the machinery. In 1949, the Ergonomics Research Society was established at a meeting held by a little group of research workers at the Admiralty ; this made the society the earliest to be formed in the universe ( Meister, 1999 ) .
2.4 LEGAL CONTROL OF ERGONOMICS:
The jurisprudence serves as a critical map in complex societal scene as it provides criterions or guidelines that define unacceptable and acceptable human behavior. A breach in this jurisprudence can be considered misdemeanor of the jurisprudence and the transgressor could confront civil or condemnable punishments the legal system of every governmental legal power and at every degree of organized society must invariably accommodate to altering demands, so at that place has and will be a go oning gush of commanding Torahs. It is for this ground that the legal system is based on constructs of human mistakes. Liability bar or extenuation is the turning away of mistake by probe, analysis, rating, hazard appraisal, disciplinary action, and preventative redresss. The chance of a scientist or applied scientist holding contact with jurisprudence is high, it is wise to go familiar with the country of web ( Marras and Karwowski, 2006 ) , as there are a myriad of functions that can be played in province or federal common jurisprudence actions, workers ' compensation instances, allegations of statutory misdemeanors, arbitrations or mediations, authorities bureau hearings, or commendations affecting Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) , Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) ( Vinal, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Health and Safety at Work ( HASAW ) Act 1974, which is statute law, it states that ; it is the responsibility of the employer to transport out a hazard appraisal in the work topographic point. Failure to this is regarded as a breach in the jurisprudence and has its effects.
2.5 METHODS OF UNDERTAKING ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENT
The cardinal end of human-centered technology is to fit human features such as organic structure size, strengths and failings, and capablenesss and penchants with the relevant properties of equipment, undertakings, and process ( Kroemer, 2006 ) .
The different methods used in the appraisal of biotechnologies include ;
I Physical methods
II Psycho physiological methods
III Behavioural and Cognitive Methods
IV Team methods
V Environmental methods
VI Macroergonomics methods
( Stanton et al. , 2005 )
All these methods make usage of the following techniques listed below ;
Measuring energetic capablenesss
Measuring musculus strength
Measuring mental work load
Measuring vision capablenesss
Systematic assemblage of information
The ideal field appraisal tools used should possess the undermentioned properties ;
Predictive: the tool should supply prognostic step of hazard of musculoskeletal hurt,
Robust: can be used in any work state of affairs,
Cheap: tool can be available at minimum pecuniary cost,
Non-invasive: should non impact when worker performs or procedure work flow,
Quick: appraisal could be performed rapidly,
Easy to utilize: tool could be used with minimum preparation,
( Marras and Karwowski, 2006 ) .
3.1 INTEGRATED ERGONOMICS ASSESSMENT FOR THE WORK STATION
For the intent of this appraisal to be done, several protocols would hold to be met. The first thing that would be done is to acquire a work station that can be used to transport out an ergonomics appraisal, and the Help Desk in the Learning Resource Centre ( LRC ) has been selected. A proposed meeting was set up with the Manager of the LRC to acquire permission to transport out the appraisal, the director approved of this and forwarded necessary messages to the supervisors in the LRC who helped in finishing the undertaking. A confidentiality questionnaire was handed to one of the supervisors, which was filled and returned and would be used as a point of mention in the consequences. Using anthropometric method of ergonomic hazard appraisal, measuring of the work station would be taken utilizing a measurement tape and images snapped for farther grounds of the work station for biotechnologies assessment. Ergonomics appraisal on the work station would be done on the footing of the undertaking carried out. The undertaking carried out in the Help Desk in the LRC involves assisting pupils use the computing machine systems to turn up books in the library and assisting to set up books in shelves. For this ground, there is the demand to jump between sitting down and standing. Below is a chart that shows a program on how the work would be carried out.
Biotechnologies Assessment Evaluation
Control and proctor
Chart 1: Flow Plan on the methodological analysis of the ergonomic appraisal.
4.0 RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATION
The peculiar work station selected for this biotechnology was carefully observed for the different undertaking carried out to see if there is any job associated with the work topographic point. Anthropometric technique was used to transport out this work by acquiring measurings of the work topographic point.
4.1 Observation: The aid desk offered aid in transporting out this work after permission was granted by the Manager of the LRC. Looking carefully at the manner work was done and inquiring inquiries from the staff being monitored were put into consideration, besides exposure were taken to besides acquire a clear image of how the employee carries out the undertaking.
Fig 1: A Staff transporting out her responsibilities on a Ocular Display Unit.
4.2 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION: jeopardy designation was obtained chiefly by inquiring inquiries from the employee on the work station, doing usage of a questionnaire and sing the work station for possible activities that may do wellness upset ( s ) and affect the employee. Health and Safety at Work ( HASAW ) Act 1974 demands that the employer should do certain that employers carry out a hazard appraisal in the work environment to guarantee safety of staffs. See consequence in table 1 below.
Table 1: Hazard Identification on the aid desk.
Hunched position ( ensuing from weariness and long hours of working )
Stiffness of the dorsum, cervix, and carpus from working excessively long on the Visual Display Unit
Assortment of wellness jobs, like caved shoulders, muscular instabilities, rounding of the upper dorsum and a inclination to tilt frontward while walking.
Incidence of lower dorsum upsets.
Distortion of the waist, cervix, stretching the manus and retention in that place for a long clip ( striving musculuss in the manus )
Pain and strain on cervix musculuss and waist.
Stress on musculuss of the weaponries while stretching causes weariness of the arm musculus.
Ocular Display Unit ( VDU ) , keyboard and mouse.
Fixed place of the cervix when staring at the VDU, and emphasis on fingers from excessively much typewriting, writhing and flexing of the carpus when managing the mouse.
Makes the employee aware of some oculus defects that he/she was non cognizant of. Striving of the weaponries to make the mouse and distortion of the carpus to acquire to the keyboard and catching the mouse.
4.3 ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENT:
Biotechnologies appraisal on the work station showed that the design of the station has a moderate mark as it accommodates the employee and has a low hazard degree. Below is a tabular array of the entire ergonomic hazard factor and how it was derived.
Table 2: Ergonomic Work Position Evaluation.
Assessed by: Igho Date:14/12/2010
Ergonomic Evaluation Risk Factor Static Points Comments/Action
Work Positions ( Siting )
0 platinums 2 platinums 4 platinums
v if 20 secs +
X 3 if inactive
Neck ( Flexion ) flexing caput frontward
Shoulders ( Raising cubituss )
Back ( flexure ) flexing frontward at the hips
Writhing ( falsely with pess stationary )
Table 3: Undertaking factor Evaluation
Low v Moderate High
Low v Moderate High
Good v Fair Poor
Comfortable v Warm/Cool Hot/Cold
Table 4: Hazard Factor sum on the work station.
Risk Factor entire Risk Factor Points Total Comments/Action
0 platinums 2 platinums 4pts
0 - 7 8 - 15 16 pts+
High ( 8-12 )
0 - 8 9 - 15 16 pts+
Moderate ( 4 - 7 )
0 - 7 8 - 13 14 pts+
Low ( 0 - 3 )
Table 5: Key Descriptor
Little or no ailments of musculus achings and strivings
Taking of short clip interruptions
Stress and weariness on musculuss which is tolerable
Choice of an employee to supervise how undertakings are being carried out
Work Musculoskeletal upset, inactive burden on musculuss leads to painful weariness on musculuss
Decrease of work that can do musculoskeletal upset and preparation of staffs to go more cognizant of ergonomic hazard factors related to musculoskeletal upsets.
Below is a study on the work station used in the LRC, measured in centimeter.
96cm 48cm 72cm
Fig 1: Sketch and measuring of the work station.
The study above can be compared to the British criterion dimension to cognize if the mensural work station meets up with the criterion.
Table 6: Work topographic point measuring compared with British Standard Dimension
Measured Work Station
British Standard Dimension ( 5th - 95th Percentile ( assorted Population 19 - 65 year )
Table Height ( Popliteal height + Siting Elbow tallness )
Siting Shoulder Height Position
Based on the production of a well ergonomically equipped work station, a good control and reappraisal of the work station, and everything put in order, information and preparation of employees there may still be a job that can present as a menace to the work topographic point. This can be seen in workers habit ; sitting frontward on the chair, sitting in the center of the chair, tilting on arm remainder and back remainder, weaponries resting on the tabular array are some illustrations of employees habit, and this can ensue in intervertebral phonograph record hurts and back jobs as the musculuss of the dorsum are easy stressed.
CONTROL AND MONITORING
To command occupational wellness and safety hazards, betterment of public presentation and benefits in work topographic points in order to extinguish or minimise hazard to employees and other interested parties exposed to hazards associated with its activities, it is necessary to implement, keep and continually better occupational wellness and safety in the work topographic point.
The followers can be used to command and supervise ongoing activities and undertakings in the work topographic point ;
Avoid Unnatural Position: flexing the trunk/head sideways is more harmful than flexing forward
The on the job country should be located so that it is at the best distance from the eyes of the operator.
Hand clasp, stuffs and tools should be arranged in such a manner that the most frequent motions are carried out with the cubituss set and near to the organic structure.
Manipulations can be made easier by utilizing supports under the cubituss, forearms or custodies. Padded/soft warm stuffs that can be adjustable to suite people of different sizes.
It is indispensable that the workplace should be suited to the organic structure size and mobility of the operator/employee, since neutral/natural positions and motions are a necessary portion of efficient work.
Neck and caput position: caput and cervix should non be dead set frontward by more than 30 grades when the bole is vertical, else weariness and problems may happen.
Having seen that ergonomically, the work station is tolerable, and staffs have been informed on how to place themselves whilst working, there is need to reexamine work pattern every three months to guarantee and implement that the manner of working is still in topographic point to avoid hurts that may hold built up with clip.
After mensurating the work station and comparing with the British criterion measuring, it is recommended that the chair ( adjustable ) should be adjusted to suit the user so as to acquire the comfortability needed in order non to emphasize and strive musculuss in the dorsum and pess. The mouse and Visual display unit should be ergonomically put in topographic point to the comfort of the operator, to cut down tenseness and strain to the eyes, custodies and carpus
Biotechnology POLICY AND CONCLUSION
5.1 ERGONOMICS Policy:
The intent of this policy is to endeavor staffs to adhere to guidelines in the work topographic point with the purpose of guaranting a safe working environment every bit good as to convey wellness jeopardy to a lower limit. It is the direction 's duty to transport out responsibilities under the Health and Safety at work Act 1974 and other statute law including amendments to guarantee safe working patterns and work environment. For this ground, the aid desk shall stay to the undermentioned guidelines ;
Biotechnologies attempts shall be embedded, maintained and preserved on the aid desk in Learning Resource Centre ( LRC ) to guarantee a safe and healthy work topographic point environment for employees.
Cooperation of work force in doing certain that ergonomic betterment is realised. ( Joint attempt of directors, supervisors, employees and other back uping staffs )
Appellation of station to a responsible employee to look into that workers are good positioned, to forestall Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in the work station.
Training of staffs to be more cognizant of ergonomic hazard factors related to Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders.
Informing staffs about biotechnologies and its hazard factors can assist to cut down cost of intervention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, as the budgeted cost can be used as employees ' benefits.
This policy would be implemented and reviewed three times a twelvemonth to guarantee that the wellness conditions of the employees are in order, to cut down money spent on handling employees for work related musculoskeletal upsets. This policy would be handed to each staff through information and preparations and in written signifier.
After a thorough ergonomic scrutiny of the aid desk in the LRC, and measuring the working environment, proper biotechnologies rating was done and command steps put in Topographic point every bit good as a policy for the safety and wellness of the employees so as to cut down opportunities of the hazard of holding a staff complain about a work related musculoskeletal upset. Control measures used after ergonomic appraisal and hazard proof was carried
out is to assist in cut downing the opportunities of acquiring a work related musculoskeletal upset and cost of intervention from hurts sustained ( if any at all, sing the tolerable sum derived from the rating and opportunities of any hurt sustained, this is as a consequence of proper preparation of the staffs ) .
Remember. This is just a sample.
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